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Z3 \ A. 



JL. 



THIS BOOK MAY NOT BE PHOTOCOPIED 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE 



OF 



SCIENCE AND CORRESPONDENCE 



A 
ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON. 




PART I. 
1830—1831. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 

BY RICHARD TAYLOR, 

RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



// — 2 b 



LIST 



OF 



CONTRIBUTORS. 

With References to the several Articles communicated by each. 



Arnold, Mr. J. B. page 

Letters on the Naturalization of Sea-Fishes in a Lake 
chiefly supplied with fresh water 126 

Bancroft, E. N., M.D. 

On several Fishes of Jamaica 134 

Belcher, Capt. R.N. 

Account of a Collection of Fishes from the Atlantic Coast 
of Northern Africa, presented by 145 

Bell, T. Esq. 

Account of a pair of living Acouchies (Dasyprocta Acuschy, 
111.) 6 

Bennett, E. T. Esq. 

Characters of a New Species of Polyborus? (since ascertained 

to be the young of Vultur Angolensis, Penn.) 13 

On the History and Synonymy of the Cereopsis Novcb Hol- 

landice, Lath 26 

Characters of a New Species of Deer (Cervus, L.) 27 

Description of a young Nyl-ghau {Antilope picta 9 Pall.) . . 37 
Characters of a New Species of Spider- Monkey (Ateles, 

Geoffr.) 38 

Observations on a Collection of Fishes from the Mauritius, 

presented by Mr. Telfair, with Characters of New Genera and 

Species 59,61, 126, 165 

On the Vultur auricularis, Daud 66 

Characters of two Species of Mammalia (one constituting a 

new genus) from Sierra Leone 109 

Observations on a Collection of Fishes, formed during the 

voyage of H.M.S. Chanticleer, with Characters of two New 

Species ' 112 

Characters of a New Species of Pterois 128 

Characters of New Genera and Species of Fishes from the 

Atlantic Coast of Northern Africa, presented by Captain 

Belcher, R.N ,. . . 146 



IV 

Boyle, J. Esq. page 

On two Species of Mammalia, from Sierra Leone, presented 
by 109 

Carlisle, Sir A. 

On a Specimen of Labrus maculatus, Bl. taken on the Bri- 
tish coast, presented by 17 

Coleman, E. Esq. 

On the propensity of Domesticated Quadrupeds to destroy 

their young when suffering under a deficiency of milk 57 

Collie, A. Esq. 

On the Pouch of the Frigate-bird (Tachypetes Aquilus, 
Vieill.) 62 

Cook, Captain. 

On a Collection of Birds from the South of Europe, pre- 
sented by 96 

Cox, J. C Esq. 

Observations on the Treatment of the Sylviada? in captivity 13 
On the Preservation of a Proper Temperature for Exotic 

Animals 18 

On Prolapsus Uteri in Sheep 37 

Cuvier, M. F. 

Letter on several subjects of Zoological interest 57 

Desjardins, M. J. 

Abstract of the Proceedings of the "Soci£te* de l'Histoire 
Naturelle de l'Isle Maurice," to the 24th of August 1830 .. . 45 

Dillwyn, L. W. Esq. 

On the Capture of a Specimen of Labrus maculatus, Bl. in 
Swansea Bay 35 

Ellis, H. Esq. 

On a Collection of Birds from Africa, presented by 92 

Fayrer, Captain, R.N. 

On the Migration of Birds between the Coasts of Scotland 
and Ireland 145 

FlENNES, Hon. TWISELTON. 

On a Hybrid between a Male Pintail and a Common Duck 158 

Franklin, Major James. 

Catalogue of Birds, collected on the Ganges between Cal- 
cutta and Benares, and in the Vindhyian Hills between the 
latter place and Gurrah Mundeia on the Nerbudda, with Cha- 
racters of the New Species 114 

Friend, Lieutenant M. C. 

On two New Species of Mammalia from New Holland, 
presented by 149 

Gray, J. E. Esq. 

On the Identity of the Ctenodactylus Massonii, Gray, with 
the Mus GundL Rothm 50 



V 

page 
On the frequency of the Natter-jack of Pennant (Rana 
Rubeta, L.) on the Commons in the neighbourhood of Lon- 
don 61 

On two Species of the Genus Rhynchcea, Cuv 62 

On the Vultur Angolensis, Lath 67 

Characters of three New Genera, including two New Spe- 
cies of Mammalia from China 94 

Characters of a New Genus of Freshwater Tortoise from 

China 106 ( 

Observations on the Animal (Ocythoe) found in the shells 
of the Genus Argonauta 107 

Hay, E. W. A. Drummond, Esq. 

Letter accompanying a present of several Living Animals 
from the Empire of Marocco , 145 

Heath, J. M. Esq. 

On two Species of Bats, accompanying a large Collection 
of Birds from Madras, presented by 113 

HODGKINSON, E. Esq. 

Account of a Specimen of Gulo Barbarus, L., presented 
by * 74 

Hodgson, B. H. Esq. 

Description and Characters of the Chiru Antelope {Antilope 
Hodgsonii, Abel) , 52 

Holdsworth, Rev. R. 

On a Specimen of the Umbrina (Sticena Aquila, Cuv.), 
taken on the South Coast of Devon 112 

Horsfield, T., M.D. 

Observations on two Species of Bats, from Madras, one of 
t|jem new, presented by Mr. Heath 113 

Hoy, Barlow, Esq. 

On the Hylurgus piniperda, Latr 126 

Jenkins, F. Esq. Secretary to the Physical Committee of the Asiatic 
Society. 

Letter accompanying a Collection of Indian Birds 6 

King, Captain P. P., R.N. 

Characters of New Genera and Species of Birds from the 
Straits of Magellan 14, 29 

Leach, W. E., M.D. 

On a Collection of Italian Insects, presented by 24 

Lindsay, H. H. Esq. 

On a Collection of Birds from Manilla, presented by ... . 96 
Loddiges, Mr. G. - 

Notice of a New Genus of Trochilidce 12 

Lord, Mr. W. 

On a Collection of Birds made in Shetland, and presented 
by 150 



VI 

Martin, Mr. William. page 

Report on the Diseased Appearances of a Beaver (Castor 

Fiber, L.) 12 

On the Morbid Appearances of a Lion (Felis Leo, L.) .... 28 

On the Anatomy of the Testudo Indica, L 46 

On the Anatomy of the Ruffed Lemur (Lemur Macaco, L.) 58 

On the Anatomy of the Testudo Grceca, L 63 

On the existence of a Rudimentary Ccecum in certain Tor- 
toises 74 

On the Anatomy of the Alligator Tortoise (Chelydra ser- 

pentina, Schvveig.) 129 

On the Anatomy of a Monitor 137 

Miller, Mr. 

Report on the Circumstances attending the Birth of two 
Armadillos (Dasypus sexcinctus, L.) 48 

Ogilby, W. Esq. 

On the Identity of the Ctenodactylus Massonii, Gray, with 

the Gundi Marmot (Mus Gundi, Rothm.) 50 

On two New Species of Phalangista, Cuv 135 

On a New Species of Indian Deer (Cervus, L.) 136 

On two New Species of Mammalia from New Holland . . 149 

Owen, R. Esq. 

On the Anatomy of the Orang Utan (Simia Satyrus, L.) 

4, 9, 28, 67 

On the Anatomy of the Beaver (Castor Fiber, L.) 19 

On the Anatomy of a Female Suricate (Ryzama tetradactyla, 

111.) 39 

On the Anatomy of a Male Suricate 51 

On the Anatomy of the Acouchy (Dasyprocta Acuschy, 111.) 75 
On the Anatomy of the Thibet Bear (Ursus Thibetanus, F. 

Cuv.) 76 

On the Anatomy of the Gannet (Sula Bassana.) 90 

On the Anatomy of the Sharp-nosed Crocodile (Crocodilus 

acutus, Cuv.) 1 39, 1 69 

On the Anatomy of the 9 -banded Armadillo (Dasypus Peba, 

Desm.) . 141 

On the Anatomy of the Seal (Phoca vitulina, Linn.) 151 

On the Anatomy of the Weasel-headed Armadillo (Dasypus 

sexcinctus, Linn.) 154 

On the Organs of Generation of the Female Kangaroo 

(Macropus major, Shaw.) 159 

On the Anatomy of the American Tapir (Tapir Americanus, 

Gmel.) 161 

Porter, Sir R. K. 

On the Tapir (Tapir Americanus, Gmel.) 94 

On the Ant-Bear (Myrmecophaga jubata, Linn.) 149 

Reeves, John, Esq. 

Notice of a living Specimen of the Phasianus Reevesii, Hardw. 
& Gray (Phasianus veneratus, Temm.) presented by 77 



Vll 

Richardson, J., M.D. page 

Birds and Mammalia collected during the last Arctic Land 
Expedition under Sir John Franklin 132 

Sharpe, D. Esq. 

On the Luminous Appearance of the Ocean 24 

Smith, Andrew, M.D. 

Letter accompanying a Collection of Fishes from South 
Africa 11 

Spooner, Mr. 

On the accumulation of Fat in Animals 164 

Swinton, G. Esq. 

Letter accompanying a Dugong (Halicore Dugong, 111.), 
presented by 113 

Sykes, Lieut.-Col. W. H. 

Catalogue of the Mammalia of Dukhun (Deccan) ; with 
Observations on their Habits, &c, and Characters of New 
Species 99 

Characters of a New Species of Monkey (Semnopithecus?) 105 

Telfair, C. Esq. 

Account of a Collection of Birds from the Mauritius, pre- 
sented by 41 

Account of a Collection of Fishes from the Mauritius, pre- 
sented by 59, 61, 126, 165 

Letter on several Subjects relative to the Zoology of the 
Mauritius and Madagascar 89 

Thompson, J. V. Esq. 

On the Metamorphosis of Crustacea 17 

Thursfield, R. Esq. 

Account of a Hybrid between the Hare and the Rabbit ... 66 

Vigors, N. A. Esq. 

Observations on the Genus Ortyx, with Characters of two 

New Species 2 

Observations on a Collection of Birds from the Himalayan 

Mountains, with Characters of New Genera and Species 

7,22,35,41,54, 170 

Characters of a New Species of Humming-Bird 12 

Characters of a New Species of Ground-Par rakeet (Platy- 

cercus, Vig.) 23 

Characters of the Phasianus lineatus 3 Lath. MSS 24 

On the absence of the os furcatorium in some of the groups 

of the Psittacida 36 

On a Collection of Birds from the Mauritius, presented by 

Mr. Telfair, with Characters of a New Species of Spoonbill 

(Platalea, L.) s . 41 

On a New Species of Owl (Strix, L.) from New Holland. . 60 
On a New Species of Cockatoo (Plyctolophus, Vieill.) .... 61 
On the Habits and Economy of the Frigate- Bird (Tachy- 

petes Aquilus, Vieill.) , , 62 



Vlll 

page 
On a Collection of Birds from Africa, presented by H. Ellis, 

Esq., with Characters of New Species 92 

On a Collection of Birds from the South of Europe, pre- 
sented by Captain Cook 96 

On a Collection of Birds from Manilla, presented by H. H. 
Lindsay, Esq. with Characters of New Species 96 

Yarrell, W. Esq. 

On the Preservation of Whitebait (Clupea alba, Yarr.) alive. 13 
On the Morbid Appearances of a Rein- deer (Cervus Tarandus 

Linn.) 14 

On the Occurrence of the Sylvia Tithys, Scop., in England. 18 
On the Assumption of the male plumage by the female of 

the Common Game Fowl 22 

On the Anatomy of the Cereopsis Novae Hollandice, Lath, j 

and on the Relations between the Natatores and Grallatores . 25 

On the Sexual Organs of a hybrid Pheasant 27 

On the specific Identity of the Gardenian and Night Herons 

(Ardea Gardeni and Nycticorax) 27 

On the Anatomy of the Chinchilla {Chinchilla lanigera) . . 31 
On the Trachea of the Red-knobbed Curassow (Crax Yarrellii, 

Benn.) 33 

Characters of a New Species of Herring (Clupea, L.) . . . . 34 
On the Occurrence of several North American Birds in En- 
gland 35 

On the Anatomy of the Lesser American Flying Squirrel 

(Pteromys volucella, Cuv.) 38 

On the Anatomy, &c. of the Ctenodactylus Massonii, Gray 

(Mus Gund'h Rothm.) 48 

On the sterno-tracheal Muscles in the Razor-billed Curassow 

(Ourax Mitu, Cuv.) 59 

On the distinctive Characters of the Tetrao medius, Temm. 

(T. hybridus, Lath.) 73 

On two Species of Entozoa found in the Eel 132 

On the Generation of Eels and Lampreys. 132 

On the Brown-headed Gull (Larus capistratus, Temm.) . . 151 
On the Anatomy of the Conger Eel (Conger vulgaris, Cuv.), 

and on the Differences between the Conger and Fresh-water 

Eels 159 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE of SCIENCE and CORRESPONDENCE 

OF THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



November 9, 1830. 
R. W. Hay, Esq. in the Chair. 

The Chairman opened the business of the Meeting, by stating the 
objects contemplated by the Council in the formation of the Com- 
mittee. He explained these objects in conformity with the sub- 
joined Extracts from the Minutes and Report of the Council. 

Extract from the Minutes of Council, July 21. 

** On a consideration of the advantages likely to accrue to the 
Society, by cultivating an extensive correspondence on subjects of 
Natural History ; it was Resolved, that a Committee be appointed, 
to be entitled ' The Committee of Science and Correspondence,' 
for the purpose of suggesting and discussing questions and experi- 
ments in animal physiology, of exchanging communications with 
the Corresponding Members of the Society, of promoting the im- 
portation of rare and useful Animals, and of receiving and preparing 
reports upon matters connected with Zoology. 

" That the Committee be requested, in the first instance, to pre- 
pare a Report upon the Animals, for the importation of which it is 
most desirable that the Council should take measures, whether for 
purposes of utility or exhibition, under the heads of the seve- 
ral countries in which they are produced ; and pointing out the 
means which should be taken for their preservation, either on the 
passage or after their arrival ; and secondly, to obtain all informa- 
tion possible, upon the subject of the importation and breeding of 
Fish." 

Oct. 6. 

" It was ordered, that the Committee of Science, nominated 
at the Council of the- 21st of July, should be requested to meet 
at the Society's rooms, at eight o'clock on Tuesday the 9th of 
November, and on every subsequent second and fourth Tuesday of 
the month. It was also Resolved, that the Committee should have 
power to add to their numbers ; and that the members of the Coun- 
cil should be ex officio members of the Committee." 

[No. I.] A 



fc>/ 



Extract from the Report of the Council, Nov. 4, 1830. 

" It has been objected to the" Council, that but little of their 
attention has been directed to the advancement of Zoological 
Science ; and the apology which they have to offer is, that their time 
has been necessarily devoted to the very complicated and extensive 
arrangements under which the formation of their present establish- 
ments has been begun and accomplished. They have latterly been 
particularly anxious to place the responsibility of detail upon their 
salaried officers, so that their own time may be principally applied 
to more general superintendence, and particularly to the encou- 
ragement of scientific researches : they have, therefore, endeavoured 
to establish meetings of such members of the Society as have prin- 
cipally applied themselves to science ; at which, communications 
upon Zoological subjects may be received and discussed, and occa- 
sional selections made for the purpose of publication. They propose 
from time to time to publish in the cheapest form an abstract from 
the most interesting of these communications ; and they trust that 
the first of these papers will be ready for delivery on the first of 
January, 1831. They further propose, that these meetings shall 
take place on the second and fourth Tuesdays in every month ; and 
they have invited, for the 9th of November next, such members 
of the Society as appeared likely, from their scientific pursuits, to 
take an interest in their views. 

" The Council have moreover suggested that letters be sent to 
the superintendents of the principal Menageries in Europe, viz. at 
Paris, Leyden, Munich, Vienna, Madrid, &c. proposing mutual 
communication of all observations upon these matters, and an 
occasional interchange of such animals as may be most easily pro- 
duced or imported in each country. They have also proposed, that 
circulars be addressed to the Corresponding Members of the So- 
ciety, requesting particular information upon such facts of Na- 
tural History as it may be desirable to investigate at each place; 
and they further propose that a prize be offered for the Essay which 
shall contain the best and most extensive practical knowledge upon 
the importation and domestication of foreign animals in this and 
other countries." 

The Chairman concluded his Address by calling on the Members, 
collectively and individually, to forward the views of the Council, 
by communicating such facts as might tend to the advancement of 
Zoological Science. 

Mr. Vigors called the attention of the Committee to a Galli- 
naceous group of America, which supplied in that continent the 
place of the Quails of the Old World. Of this group, or the 
genus Ortyx of modern authors, which a few years back was 
known to ornithologists by two well-ascertained species only, he 
exhibited specimens of six species ; namely, of Ort. virginianus and 
calif ornicus, which had been the earliest described, the former by 
Linnaeus, the latter by Dr. Latham ; of Ort. capistratus, a species 
lately named and figured in Sir W. Jardine's and Mr. Selby's " II- 



lustrations of Ornithology": and of Ort. Douglasii, Montezuma, and 
squamatus, which had been characterized by himself in the " Zoolo- 
gical Journal." In addition to these species he exhibited plates of 
three others of which he regretted that he could obtain no spe- 
cimens in London ; namely, of Ort. macrourus, figured by Sir W. 
Jardine and Mr. Selby ; of Ort. Sonninii, figured by M. Temminck 
in the " Planches Colorizes" [No. 75.] ; and of the Ort. cristatus, 
figured in the " Planches Enluminees " [No. 126.] of M. Buffon. 
To these nine described species, he added two others apparently 
new to science, and which he characterized under the names of Ort. 
neoxenus and affinis ; stating at the same time his doubts whether 
both might not be the females or young males of the imperfectly 
known species Ort. Sonninii or cristatus. — The following are the 
specific characters of these birds. 

Ortyx neoxenus. Ort. brunneus, supra fusco rufoque undulatim 
variegatus, subtus pallido-rufo maculatus ; genis lateribusque 
colli rufescentibus ; caudd brunneo -fusco rufoque undulatim 
fasciatd ; cristd brevi brunned. 

Statuia, minor quam Ort. calif ornicus. 

Ortyx affinis. Ort. pallide brunneus ; dorso alisque fusco palli- 
doque rufo variegatis ; caudd pallescenti-brunned, fusco alboque 
undulatim fasciatd ; capite, collo, pectore, abdomineque rufescen- 
tibus, hoc albo gultato, illis albo nigroque variegatis; fronte 
apiceque cristce elongates rufo-brunnece albescent ibus. 

Statura minor quam species prsecedens. 

Mr. Vigors proceeded to state, that individuals of four of the 
above-mentioned species, namely, Ort. virginianus, calif ornicus , 
neoxenus and Montezumce, had been exhibited in a living state in the 
Gardens of the Society. Specimens of the former three, he added, 
were still alive there, having braved the severity of the last winter 
without any artificial warmth. They were all natives of the northern 
parts of America. The Ort. virginianus, he also mentioned, had 
bred in this country, and had even become naturalized in Suffolk. 

He stated in addition, that Capt. P. P. King, It. N., had pointed 
out to him, amongst his collection lately brought home from the 
Straits of Magellan, specimens of a bird which he made no doubt 
was the same as the Caille des Isles Malouines of M. Buffon, figured 
in the " Planches Enluminees" [No. 222.], and which was subse- 
quently named Perdix Falklandica by Dr. Latham. This bird has 
been added to the genus Ortyx by modern authors, but erroneously ; 
as the structure of the wing, in which consists the chief difference 
between the Ortyx of America and the genus Coturnix or the Quails 
of the Old World, associates the Magellanic bird more closely with 
the latter group than with the birds of its own continent. Mr. 
Vigors mentioned, that the form which characterizes the true Quails 
extends to Australia, where several species are found. And referring 
to the deviation in form, which partially separates the South 
American bird from the allied groups of the same continent, and 
brings it in contact with those of Australia, and through them 
with those of the old continent, he dwelt upon the beautiful series 
of geographical affinity, which in this instance united the zoology 

A 2 



of the southern extreme of the New World with that of the nearest 
portions of the southern hemisphere, in like manner as the zoology 
of the northern extreme is united with that of the neighbouring 
continents of Europe and Asia. He pointed out some additional 
instances, in which the same union might be traced. 

Mr. Owen commenced the reading of a paper On the Anatomy 
of the Orang Utan (Simia Satyrvs, L.). 

The subject principally referred to was a young male, probably 
about four years of age, which had recently been presented to the 
Society by Mr. Swinton of Calcutta; it reached England in a very 
debilitated state, and died on the third day after its arrival in Bruton- 
street. 

The morbid appearances met with in its examination were very 
slight, and of themselves not sufficient to account for the death of 
the animal. The brain was firm, and its membranes bore no traces 
of inflammation. The stomach and intestines were also equally free 
from morbid appearances. The liver was perfectly healthy, which 
was the more remarkable, as on the third day before death the 
faeces were clay-coloured from a deficiency of bile. The heart was 
healthy, except that it had two or three patches of organized lymph 
upon its surface, indicating old inflammation : the pericardium con- 
tained more than half an ounce of fluid : about four ounces of fluid 
were also effused in the cavity of the chest, and the cellular tissue of 
the lungs was gorged with serum, a circumstance which must have 
occasioned a great obstruction of the circulation. There existed be- 
fore death evidence of this effusion, in the slow and laboured breath- 
ing of the animal, as noticed by Mr. Martin, who also states that 
the pulse was 100 and very fe3ble, but, as far as he observed, without 
intermission. No other organ exhibited any lesion of structure ; 
the lungs and liver were free from tubercles, the development of 
which appears to be the most frequent cause of death in animals 
which, coming from warm countries, have sojourned in our damp 
climate. The effusion observed may probably be considered as one 
of the consequences of that debility and exhaustion of the system, 
produced by a long voyage, improper food, and diarrhoea, which 
terminated in premature death. 

The general appearance and position of the abdominal viscera in 
the Orang bear much resemblance to those of the human subject. 
The stomach is thicker and narrower at its pyloric end, and the vil- 
lous coat is of less extent. The small intestines are lined by a smooth 
and uniform membrane, and are without valvules conniventes . The 
position of the ccecum is the same as in man : to its extremity is at- 
tached the vermiform appendage, which is wider at its commence- 
ment ; thus exhibiting as a permanent structure in the Orang, that 
which in man is a foetal peculiarity. The colon is sacculated, and ap- 
pears, from the existence of glandulce, solitaria and from the presence 
of lacteal glands in the meso-colon, to take a great share in the 
functions of digestion. The liver generally resembles the human ; 
the gall bladder is long and tortuous; the pancreas is relatively larger, 
and the spleen more pointed at its extremities than in man; the 



hepatic and pancreatic secretions enter the duodenum separately, but 
close together. In the structure of the abdominal ring, the Orang 
recedes further than the Chimpanzee (Simia Troglodytes, L.) from 
the human type ; the kidneys also differ, and present, like those of 
the Monkeys generally, only a single papilla. The palate, unlike 
that of man and of the Chimpanzee, has no pendulous uvula. 

In external form, the brain resembles the human and that of the 
Chimpanzee : it differs from the brains of other animals in the num- 
ber and disposition of the lamina of the cerebellum ; in the posterior 
fissure of that part ; and in wanting the transverse band of fibres 
posterior to the pons Varolii. As compared with that of the Chim- 
panzee, the medulla oblongata is shorter in proportion, as are also 
the anterior lobes ; and the cerebellum projects further behind the 
cerebrum. The internal structure of the brain has not yet been 
examined ; some previous preparation of that part having been 
deemed necessary, in order to render it sufficiently firm for dis- 
section. 

The structure of the larynx is minutely described, and contrasted 
with the anatomy of the same part in the Chimpanzee, in which 
the laryngeal sacs are not developed as in the Orang. The left 
laryngeal sac in the present instance was the largest, and extended 
over the top of the sternum. In the Chimpanzee the laryngeal sac 
is produced into a cavity in the body of the os hyo'ides, presenting 
the first indication of the excavation which is carried to so great an 
extent in the Monkeys of the genus Mycetes. The thyroid gland is 
small in the Orang. The lungs are entire en each side, and not 
divided into lobes. The aorta gives off by a common trunk the 
right subclavian and the right and the left carotid arteries, the 
latter of which is given off in the Chimpanzee, as in man, from the 
arch of the aorta. 

In the course of his illustrations of the anatomical differences 
which exist between the Orang and the Chimpanzee, Mr. Owen 
frequently referred to Tyson's " Anatomy of a Pigmy," and con- 
firmed many of the descriptions given in that work. 



November 23, 1830. 
Dr. Waring in the Chair. 

The following letter from F. Jenkins, Esq., Secretary to the 
Physical Committee of the Asiatic Society, was read : 

" Calcutta, 24th March 1830. 

" Sir, — I am directed by the President of the Physical Committee 
of the Asiatic Society to present, in their name, to the Zoological 
Society, a small collection of Indian Birds, made (for our Society) 
by Capt. Franklin (one of its most zealous members) during a late 
geological tour. 

" I am instructed at the same time to state, that it will afford 
pleasure to the Physical Committee of the Asiatic Society to pro- 
mote as far as may be in their power, the views of the Zoological 
Society in this country ; and they will be happy to receive commu- 
nications of their wishes on the subject. 

" The collection is in charge of Captain Franklin, who is pro- 
ceeding in the ship Lady Nugent, to England. I am, &c. &c. 

'• iV. A. Vigors, Esq. Sec. Z. S. " F. Jenkins. " 

The collection alluded to in the preceding letter was laid on the 
table. It was formed by Major Franklin, F.R.S. &c, on the 
banks of the Ganges, and in the mountain chain of Upper Hindoo- 
stan. It contained one hundred and seventy-one species, and was 
accompanied by drawings of each of the birds, made while they were 
recent. Mr. Vigors briefly remarked on several of them, as afford- 
ing interesting illustrations of the extent of the geographical dis- 
tribution of certain species. He declined to enter at any length 
into the subject, which he expected would be fully treated of by 
Major Franklin in a paper which that gentleman was preparing, 
and which would be communicated to the Committee at an early 
meeting. 

Mr. T. Bell exhibited a pair of living Acouchies, (Olive Cavy, 
Penn., Dasyprocta Acuschy, Illig.) recently obtained by him from 
Guiana. Although they are abundant in their native country, he 
had never, before the arrival of these individuals, seen a specimen of 
the species, nor was he aware of the existence of even a preserved 
skin in any English collection. The Acouchy is readily distinguish- 
able from the well-known Agouti by its smaller size, its lighter 
and more elegant proportions, its deeper colours, and other cha- 
racters, which have been well pointed out by Barrere, Buffon, and 
other naturalists. The most marked difference is found in the tails 
of the two animals, that of the Agouti being little more than a 
tubercle, while the tail of the Acouchy is upwards of two inches in 
length ; it is slender, and of equal diameter throughout its extent, 



and resembles a quill, or a portion of a tobacco-pipe. The animal 
frequently agitates this organ with a quick tremulous motion. Both 
the individuals are mild and gentle in their dispositions, but some- 
what timid ; they are, however, familiar with their master, and run 
to him whenever he enters the room in which they are kept, and 
about which they are allowed to range during the day. Their food 
is entirely vegetable; they are especially partial to nuts and almonds ; 
they drink but little. They are extremely cleanly, and take great 
pains to keep their fur in order, in cleansing which they mutually 
assist each other. They leap occasionally in play to a considerable 
height, and frequently on springing from the ground to an elevation 
of two feet, descend on the spot from which they rose. Their 
voice is a short, rather sharp, plaintive pur. The individuals, male 
and female, show great attachment to each other. 

Mr. Vigors exhibited specimens of several species of birds, ap- 
parently undescribed, from the Himalayan mountains. These 
formed part of a collection which Mr. John Gould, A.L.S., had 
lately received from India, and of which he intended to publish 
coloured illustrations, to the number of one hundred figures. Se- 
veral of the plates, representing some of the most interesting of the 
species, were laid upon the table. 

Mr. Vigors having called the attention of the Committee to the 
expedition with which these birds were made known to science — 
the specimens themselves not having been more than two months 
in England, while representations of many of them were already 
within that short space of time brought before the public, — pro- 
ceeded to make some remarks upon the geographical distribution 
of the species. He particularly pointed out the identity of a large 
proportion of their forms with those of Northern Europe; observing 
that the elevation of their native mountains placed them on an equa- 
lity in point of climate with the birds of more northern latitudes. 
At the same time he added that many of the forms peculiar to 
Southern Asia and the Indian Archipelago were found intermingled 
with those of the northern regions. Among the forms similar to 
the European, he particularized three species of Jays, the two first 
of which exhibited a striking affinity in their markings to our well- 
known British bird. They were named and characterized as follows : 
Garrulus lanceolatus. Garr. vinaceo-badius ; capite sub- 
cristato, guld, jugulo, alisque atris ; collo anteriori albo lanceo- 
lato ; pteromatibus remigibusque cceruleo fasciatis, Mis albo ter- 
minatis ; caudd cceruled, nigro fasciatd, fascid latd apicali albo 
terminatd notatd. % 

Garrulus bispecularis. Garr. pallide badius, uropygio cris- 
soque albis ; maculd latd postrictali, caudd, pteromatibus, remi- 
gibusque atris ; his duabus cceruleo fasciatis. 
Garrulus striatus. Garr. pallide brunneus, subtus pallidior ; 
coi'poris supra subtusque plumis in medio albo longitudinaliter 
striatis ; crista verticali, remigibus, rectricibusque unicoloribus. 
This latter species was observed to deviate in general colour and 
markings from the European species, although according in form ; 



8 

and in the former characters to exhibit a manifest approach to the 
Nutcrackers, or the genus Nucifraga of Brisson. 

A new species of this latter European form was also observed in 
the collection ; a second species being thus added to a group which 
had hitherto been supposed to have been limited to one. In the 
shape of the bill, which was somewhat shorter and stouter at the 
base than in the European species, it indicated an approach to the 
Jays. Its characters were as follow : 

Nucifraga hemispila. Nuc. castaneo-brunnea ; capite subtus, 

collo anteriori, dorso, pectoreque albo maculatis ; capite summo, 

alls, rectricibusque intense brunneis ; his, duabus mediis exceptis, 

ad apicem late albis. 

The two following species of Woodpecker, which approached in 

size and colouring most closely to the European green Woodpecker, 

were also described. 

Picus occipitalis. Mas. Pic. viridis, uropygio lutescenti ; fronte 
coccineo ; vertice, strigd latd occipitali ad nucham extendente, al- 
terdque utrinque sub oculos postrictali, atris ; remigibus rec- 
tricibusque fusco atris, harum duabus mediis pallido-fusco striatis, 
illis externe albo maculatis ; guld genisque canis. 
Fcem. Fronte atrd albo lineatd. 

Picus squamatus. Pic. supra viridis, uropygio sublutescenti ; 
guld juguloque viridi- canis ; capite coccineo; strigd superocu- 
lari, alterd suboculari, abdomineque viridi-albis, hoc atro squa- 
mato ; strigd superciliari alterdque utrinque mentali atris ; remi- 
gibus rectricibusque fusco -atris, illis externe, his utrinque albo 
maculatis. 
A species of Hawfinch, according accurately with the characters 
of that northern form, was also described. 

Coccothraustes icTERioiDES. Mas. Cocc. capite, jugulo, dorso 
medio, alis, femorum tectricibus, cauddque atris ; nuchd, uropy- 
gio, corporeque subtus luteis. 
Fcem. Olivaceo-cana, uropygio abdomineque lutescentibus ; remigibus 

rectricibusque atris. 
As also a small Owl, very nearly allied to the NoctucE passe- 
rina and Tengmalmi of Europe. 

Noctua cuculo'ides. Noct. brunneo-fusca ; capite, dorso, tectri- 
cibus alarum, corporeque subtus albo graciliter fasciatis ; remi- 
gibus externe albo maculatis ; rectricibus utrinque fasciis albis 
quinque notatis ; guld alba. 
Among the forms peculiar to India was observed a second spe- 
cies of the singular group which contains the Horned Pheasant, or 
the Meleagris Satyra of Linnaeus, and which has been lately sepa- 
rated by M. Cuvier under the name of Tragopan. Its specific cha- 
racters are : 

Tragopan Hastingsh. Trag. dorso brunneo-fusco undulato, 
abdomine intense rubro, amborum plumis ad apicem nigris in 
medio albo guttatis ; cristd crissoque atris, ilia ad apicem coccined, 
hoc albo maculato ; collo posteriori coccineo ; thorace aurantio ; 
regione circumoculari nudd, carunculisque pendentibus luteis ; 
caudd atrd, lutescenti-albo undulatd. 



9 

A species of true Pheasant, which seems to have been indicated 
by former writers from incomplete descriptions or drawings, but 
never to have been accurately characterized, was also exhibited 
and named. 

Phasianus albo-cristatus. Mas. Phas. supra ater, viridi 
nitore splendens ; dorso imo albo fasciato ; crista plumis albis, 
elongatis, deorsim recumbentibus, basi subfuscis ; remigibus cor- 
poreque inferiori fuscis ; pectoris plumis lanceolatis albescentibus . 
Fcem. Corpore supra cristdque breviori fuscescenti-brunneis ; ab- 
domine pallidiore ; guld, plumarumque corporis apicibus et rha- 
chibus albescentibus ; rectricibus lateralibus atris, mediis brunneis 
albescenti undulatis. 
A third species was likewise added from the collection to the 
group of Enicurus of M. Temminck, which has hitherto been con- 
sidered as limited in range to the Indian Archipelago. The fol- 
lowing are its characters : — 

Enicusus maculatus. En. capite, collo, dorso superiori, pec- 
tore, ptilis, remigibus secundariis, cauddque intense atris ; frontis 
notd latd, maculis confertis nucha et sparsis dorsi, pteromatibus , 
dorso imo, abdomine, rectricibus lateralibus, mediarumque apici- 
bus albis ; remigibus primariis fuscis ; rostro nigro ; pedibus al- 
bescentibus. 
Statura En. specioso sequalis. 

Mr. Owen resumed the reading of his paper On the Anatomy 
of the Orang Utan (Simia Satyrus, L.). This part of the com- 
munication is devoted to the osteology of the animal, which is 
minutely described and contrasted with that of the Chimpanzee. 
With the skeleton of the Pongo {Pongo Wurmbii, Desm.) the re- 
semblance is in many particulars almost complete ; and the exten- 
sive examination which Mr. Owen has made of entire skeletons of 
both the Pongo and the Orang, and of numerous crania of the 
latter at various ages, has led him to adopt the opinion of those 
who maintain that these constitute really but one species, of which 
the Orang is the young, and the Pongo the adult. The remarkable 
differences in the crest of the cranium, and in the facial angle, 
appear to be the result of the action of the powerful muscles of 
manducation, and of the development of the extremely large 
laniarii. 

A marked peculiarity of the cranium of the Orang exists in 
the junction of the sphenoid with the parietal bones ; a junction 
w T hich is not found in the Chimpanzee, and has been asserted to 
exist in man alone. Other peculiarities are met with, in the absence 
of a crista galli on the ethmoid bone, and in the non-existence of 
either mastoid or styloid processes : there is a process from the par- 
ticular surface of the temporal bone, which is necessary to prevent 
dislocation backwards of the lower jaw, the auditory process not 
being adapted to prevent such an accident. The intermaxillary 
bones are distinct. There are large foramina behind the deciduous 
teeth, which lead to cavities containing the permanent ones ; the 
crowns of the latter are as large as those of the Pongo. The os 



10 

nasi is single and triangular ; it has a strong spine at the back part. 
There are three infra-orbital foramina ; and large foramina in the 
malar bone. The anterior condyloid foramina are two on each side. 

The true vertebra are 23 : 7 cervical, with long simple spines ; 
12 dorsal ; and 4 lumbar. There are 8 false vertebra, viz. 5 sacral, 
and 3 coccygeal. The ribs are 12; 7 true, and 5 false. The 
sternum is composed, below the first portion, of a double series of 
bones alternating with each other : the same structure obtains in 
the Pongo. 

The spine of the scapula is strongly incurvated upwards. The 
bones of the arm and hand are much elongated. The thumb is 
short; the proximal phalanges of the fingers bent. 

The ilia are narrow, flattened, and elongated. The femur is short 
and straight ; it has no ligamentum teres, a deficiency which occurs 
also in the Elephant, the Sloths, in Seals, the Walrus, Qrnithorhyn- 
chus, &c, and by which a greater extent of motion is allowed to 
the thigh. The tibia and fibula are shorter than the femur : these, 
like the bones of the fore- arm, have a greater interosseous space 
than is found in man. The patella is very tmail. The os calcis pro- 
jects far behind. The bones of the metatarsus and the phalanges 
are elongated, the first series of the latter being bent. The hinder 
thumb is very short : in the individual examined it had a metatar- 
sal bone, and two phalanges, A nail existed on the thumb of each 
hinder hand. 



11 



December 14, 1830. 
G. B. Greenough, Esq. in the Chair. 

A letter was read from Dr. Andrew Smith, addressed to N. A. 
Vigors, Esq. The following are extracts : 

" Cape Town, 8th Sept. 1830. 

" I am sure you will be pleased to learn that I have disco- 
vered another species of Mucroscelides, as well as a new one 
of Erinaceus ; and three species of the genus Otis, together with 
one of Brachypteryx. The descriptions of these I hope to be 
able to forward to you in the course of three weeks or a month. 
The first is designated in our Museum, Macroscelides rvpestris ; 
the second, Erinaceus Capensis ; the third, fourth, and fifth, 
Otis Vigorsii, Ot. ferox, and Ot. Afrao'ides ; the sixth, Bra- 
chypteryx Horsfieldii. The first was found by myself on the 
mountains near to the mouth of the Orange river, and the circum- 
stance of its always residing among rocks, together with the differ- 
ence in its colouring, readily pointed it out as being of a distinct 
species. As to the colour, the most marked distinction consists in 
the Cape species having a large tawny rufous or chestnut blotch 
on the nape and back of the neck. The second, Erinaceus Ca- 
pensis, exhibits considerable affinity to the European species, yet 
betrays such marked peculiarities as to warrant its being considered 
as really different from it. The third, Otis Vigorsii, inhabits the 
most dry and barren situations in the south of Africa, and is known 
among the colonists by the name of Karor Koran. The prevailing 
colour above is a light tawny or reddish yellow, and below tawny 
gray, passing into dirty white on the belly. The back is variegated 
by numerous violet blotches or reflections, as well as by whitish 
spots, and the under parts by transverse narrow zigzag black lines. 
The fourth is above principally tawny yellow, and below dull blueish 
gray : it is found in the country toward Latakoo. The fifth is met 
with on the flats near the Orange river, and is called the Bushman 
Koran. With the exception of a great portion of the quill feathers 
being white, it resembles much the common Koran of the colony, 
the Otis Afra. The sixth is met with in high rocky situations, and 
agrees in most respects with the generic character of Brachypteryx, 
as described by Dr. Horsfield." 

With the above letter Dr. Smith transmitted to the Society a 
present of sixteen specimens of fishes, obtained in the neighbour- 
hood of the Cape of Good Hope, " the details relative to which," 
he states, * will be forwarded as soon as possible." The specimens 
were exhibited, and Mr. Bennett laid on the table a list in which 
they were enumerated as the Sebastes Capensis, Agriopus torvus, 



12 

Scicena hololepidota, Otolithus cequidens, Chrysophris globiceps, 
Chr. gibbiceps, and Pagrus laniarius, of MM. Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes ; an undetermined species of Dentex ; a fish allied to 
Oblada, Cuv., and apparently the type of a new genus ; a new 
species of Scomber, Cuv.; a Lichia? ; two species of Clinus, Cuv., 
one of which is probably the Clinus Capensis ; an undeseribed 
species of Bagrus, Cuv., of the section distinguished in the " llegne 
Animal " by having six cirri and a rounded and smooth head ; a 
species of Scy Ilium, Cuv., probably new to science ; and a second 
species of the genus Rhina, Schn., which deviates from the type 
by a slight production of the front of the head, and thus makes an 
approach to Rhinobates, Schn. 

Mr. Vigors exhibited several species of Humming-birds from 
the collection of Mr. John Gould, one of which, previously unde- 
scribed, had been dedicated to Mr. George Loddiges, F.L.S., &c. 
It approaches most nearly to the Trochilus Lalandei, Vieill., but may 
be distinguished from that bird (in which the crest is brilliantly 
green and the throat and breast rich blue,) by the following cha- 
racters : 

Trochilus Loddigesii, Gould. Troch. cristd elongatd, purpu- 
reo-lilacind ; guld crissoque saturate cinereis ; pectore abdomine- 
que fiigris. 

This species is from Rio Grande. 

Mr. Loddiges stated that both species belonged to a genus which 
he had distinguished among the Trochilidce by the name of Cephal- 
lepis ; and promised to bring before the Committee, at an early 
meeting, the results of his researches on the Trochilidce generally. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Martin reported the diseased 
appearances noticed on the examination of the Beaver which re- 
cently died in the Society's Menagerie. They were stated to be 
such as result from great and universal inflammation. On exami- 
ning the stomach, its lining membrane was found covered with a 
blush of inflammation, prevailing more especially about its cardiac 
portion, where a number of dark-coloured spots and patches indi- 
cated the existence of gangrene. Both the stomach and the colon 
contained undissolved fibres of bark in considerable quantity, the 
function of digestion having been for some time past necessarily de- 
ranged. Along the course of the small intestines, traces of high 
arterial action were still presented ; in the large intestines the traces 
of inflammation were more obscure. The pericardium was highly 
inflamed, its inner surface presenting a granulated appearance. The 
heart also, as well as the lungs, gave evidence of having partaken 
in the general disease. Much disease existed about the lower jaw, 
which may probably have been the primary cause of all the 
mischief, as it must have existed for several months, and necessarily 
have produced a continued state of irritation in the system. The 
alveolar processes of the lower jaw, embracing the incisor teeth, 
were destroyed by caries, and the teeth themselves had fallen out. 



13 

In the adjacent soft parts there were extensive abscesses, and a 
wide spread of discoloration, evidencing the progress of the dis- 
organization. 

Mr. Cox exhibited a Nightingale in fine plumage and full song, 
which had been for four years in confinement. He stated that the 
error generally committed by persons attempting to keep these birds 
and the other species cf Sylviadce, was the over care bestowed upon 
them. A treatment not more tender than that afforded to granivo- 
rous species, agreed well with the Nightingale, for which it was by 
no means necessary to provide insects as food ; meat scraped fine and 
mixed with egg forming a sufficient substitute, and furnishing a 
nourishment at once grateful to the bird and fully adequate to supply 
its wants. 

Mr. Bennett called the attention of the Committee to two birds 
which had been for some time living in the Society's Garden. In 
many respects, especially as regards the nakedness of their cheeks, 
and the nakedness, length, and reticulation of their tarsi, they agree 
with the Caracaras (Polyborus, Vieill.) ; but differ from the type of 
that genus in the greater compression of their beaks ; their trans- 
verse oval nostrils ; their comparatively slender make ; and their 
more vulturine appearance, which is much increased by the soft 
downy nature of the plumage of their head and neck. From the 
genus Morphnus of M. Cuvier, which they resemble in many parti- 
culars, they are at once distinguished by the length of their wings, 
which reach, when closed, to the extremity of the tail. He stated 
his opinion that they would be found, on a close examination, (which 
could only be made after death,) to constitute a new genus. Until 
the opportunity of determining this question should occur, he asso- 
ciated them provisionally with the Caracaras ; and having met with 
no trace of a description of them in any ornithological writer, he 
proposed for them the following specific character : 

Polyborus ? hypoleucus. Pol. P capite, collo, pectore, abdomine- 
quealbis; scapularibus fusco-griseis ; dor so tegminibusque fuscis ; 
remigibus nigricantibus ; caudd basi nigrd, apice fascid latd al- 
bidd. 

Jun. Fuscus, capite, collo, corporeque subtus dilutioribus, remigibus 
fusco-nigricantibus. 

The following observations, by Mr. Yarrell, on the subject of his 
attempts to preserve Whitebait alive, were read. 

" Several dozens of strong lively fish, four inches in length, were 
transferred with great care from the nets into large vessels, (some 
of the vessels, to vary the experiments, being of earthenware, and 
others of wood and metal,) filled with water taken from the Thames 
at the time of catching the fish. At the expiration of twenty mi- 
nutes nearly the whole of them were dead, none survived longer 
than half an hour ; and all fell to the bottom of the water. On 
examination, the air-bladders were found to be empty and collapsed. 



14 

There was no cause of death apparent. About four dozen speci- 
mens we r e then placed in a coffin-shaped box pierced with holes, 
which was towed slowly up the river after the fishing- boat. This 
attempt also failed : all the fish were dead when the vessel had 
reached Greenwich. 

" I was told by two Whitebait fishermen that they had several 
times placed these fishes in the wells of their boats, but they inva- 
riably died when brought high up the river. The fishermen believe 
a portion of sea water to be absolutely necessary to the existence of 
this species, and all the circumstances attending this particular fishery 
appear to prove their opinion to be correct." 

A report by Mr. Yarrell on the morbid appearances observed in 
the examination of the Society's Reindeer, was read. It is as 
follows : 

" On opening the body and removing the viscera, the lungs ap- 
peared highly inflamed, of a dark purple colour; and on cutting into 
their substance, the cells contained matter. The small intestines 
also bore marks of inflammation, but in a much less degree : the 
mesenteric glands were diseased, but not to the extent that might 
have been expected in an animal that had been many years in an 
artificial state. The external surface of the neck and head exhi- 
bited a high degree of vascularity, and the animal appeared to have 
been under the influence of that periodical determination of blood 
to the head, which is known to occur in all deer at the annual pro- 
duction of new horns. As far as the brain could be examined by 
the occipital foramen, both the substance and its investing mem- 
branes were also inflamed ; but I have no doubt the primary cause 
of death was the inflammation of the lungs." 

Several new species of birds belonging to the collection brought 
home from the Straits of Magellan by Captain King were exhibited. 
In the absence of that gentleman, the following species were pointed 
out by Mr. Vigors, which are thus characterized in Captain King's 
MSS. 

Turdus Magellanicus. Turd, corpore supra grisescenti-olivaceo, 
subtus pallide rufescenti ; capite supra, remigibus, cauddque fusco- 
atris ; guld albd, fusco-atro lineatd. 
Habitat in Fretu Magellanico. 

Psittacara leptorh yncha. Psitt. viridis ; fronte, strigd per 
oculos, cauddque rufis ; capite nigro, abdomine imo rufo, varie- 
gatis ; mandibuld superior! elongatd, gracillimd. 
Statura Psitt. Lichtensteinii aequalis. 
Habitat in insula Chiloe. 

Picus melanocephalus. Pic. capite corporcque supra nigris, 
hoc albo maculato ; pectore abdomineque albis, Mo albo lineato, 
hoc albo fasciato. 
Longitudo 6 vel 7 uncias circiter. 
Habitat in Fretu Magellanico et insula Chiloe. 



15 

Hylactes. Novum genus, Megapodio affine. 

Characteres Generici. 

Rostrum subelongatum, subtenue, apice subemarginato : naribus 
basalibus, longitudinalibus, membrana subtumescenti pilisque per 
mediam longitudinem tecta. 

Alee brevissima?, rotundatse ; remige 5ta longissima. 

Cauda subelongata, gradata. 

Pedes fortes ; tarsis subelongatis, in fronte scutellatis ; digitis 
unguibusque elongatis, his fortioribus subcompressis ; halluce fortis- 
simo, incumbente. 

Hylactes Tarnii. Hyl. saturate fusco-brunneus ; fronte, dorso, 
abdomineque rufis, hoc fusco fasciato. 

Habitat in insula Chiloe et Portu Otway Sinu Penas. 

Columba Fitzroyii. Col.vinacea ; alis, dorso imo, cauddque plum- 
beis ; hujus fascid, remigibusque atris ; nucha plumis viridi- 
splendentibus ; fascid occipitali alba. 

Habitat in nemoribus insula? Chiloe. 

Cygnus anatoides. Cygn. albus, remigibus primariis ad apicem 
nigris ; roslro pedibusque rubris, illo lata, subdepresso, tuber culo 
nullo. 

Habitat in sinu bus interioribus apud extremitatem meridionalem 
America?. 

Anser inornatus. Mas. Ans. albus: dorso inferiori, caudd, 
fasciis nucha dorsique superioris femorumque tectricum, ptero- 
matibus, remigibusque atris ; rostro nigro, pedibus jlavescentibus. 

Foem. Capite colloque canis ; dorso superiori corporeque inferiori 
albis, nigro confertim fasciatis ; dorso imo, remigibus, rectrici- 
busque nigris ; ptilis speculoque albis ; tarsis subelongatis. 

Habitat in Fretu Magellanico. 

Micropterus Patachonicus. Micropt. supra plumbeo-grises- 
cens ; guld scapularibusque rufescentibus ; abdomine speculoque 
alarum albis ; rostro virescenti-nigro, ungue nigro. 

Habitat in parte occidentali Fretus Magellanici. 

Statura minor Micropt. brachyptero. 

Anas chiloensis. An. fronte, genis, abdomine, uropygio, ptero- 
matibusque albis ; capite posteriori, collo, dorso inferiori, ptilis y 
remigibus primariis, cauddque fuscis ; dorso superiori pectoreque 
fusco et albo fasciatis ; remigibus secundariis et tertiis scapulari- 
busque nitide atris, his albo lineatis ; abdominis lateribus crisso- 
que rufescentibus ; strigd post oculos latd splendide purpurascenti- 
viridi. 

Longitudo circa sexdecim uncias. 

Habitat in insula Chiloe. 

Anas fretensis. An. guld, genis, collo, pectore, dorsoque ante- 
riori pallide badiis ; collo graciliter undulato ; pectore dorsoque 
anteriori atro maculato ; dorso abdomineque imis, crisso, cauddque 
albis nigro fasciatis ; dorsi fasciis latis, abdominis gracillimis, 
cauda sublatioribus, crissi sparsim undulatis ; capite supra, remi- 
gibus, scapularibusque virescenti-atris ; his albo in medio linea- 



16 

lis; tectricibus plumbeo-canis, fascid apicali albd : speculo supra 
viridi, dcinde purpureo, fascid atrd apice albo terminatd. 
Statu ra Anatis creccoidis, Nob. 
Habitat in Fretu Magellanico. 

It was announced that the whole collection of Capt. King's birds, 
with the descriptions of the remaining new species, would be brought 
forward at an early meeting. 



17 



December 28, 1830. 

W. Yarrell, Esq. in the Chair. 

The form of a circular letter, to be addressed to the heads of 
Menageries and Museums in foreign countries, was submitted to 
the Committee, and approved of. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary of the Society by 
J. V. Thompson, Esq., dated " Cork, Dec. 16, 1830." In it Mr. 
Thompson urges, in support of the universality of a metamorphosis 
among the Crustacea, that he has ascertained the newly hatched 
animal to be a Zoea in eight genera of the Brachyura, viz. Cancer, 
Carcinus, Por tunas, Eriphia, Gecarcinus, ThelphusaP, Pinnotheres, 
and Inachus ; and in seven Macrourous genera, viz. Pagurus, Por- 
cellana, Galathea, Crangon, Palcemon, Homarus, and Astacus. 
" These embrace all our most familiar native genera of the Deca- 
poda." The Lobster, or Astacus marinus, Mr. Thompson states, 
" does actually undergo a metamorphosis, but less in degree than in 
any other of the above-enumerated genera, and consisting in a 
change from a cheliferous Schizopode to a Decapode ; in its first stage 
being what I would call a modified Zoea with a frontal spine, spatu- 
late tail, and wanting the subabdominal fins ; in short, such an ani- 
mal as would never be considered what it really is, was it not 
obtained by hatching the spawn of the Lobster." In the other 
indigenous species of Astacus, Ast. fluviatilis, the River Crawfish, it 
would appear from the excellent treatise of M. Rathke on the 
development of its eggs, that the young are hatched in a form 
according with that of the fully grown animal. Mr. Thompson, 
however, suspects that some source of error may exist in these 
observations. " If it should be found otherwise, it can only be 
regarded as one solitary exception to the generality of metamor- 
phoses, and will render it necessary to consider these two ani- 
mals for the future as the types of two distinct genera." In il- 
lustration of the change of form observed by him in the limbs of 
the Lobster, Mr. Thompson inclosed a sketch of the " cheliferous 
member of its larva," which is presented as divided to its base, and 
consisting of, 1 . a cheliferous portion ; 2. a portion of equal length 
with the preceding and terminated by natatory cilia (described as 
the outer division of the limb, or future flagrum) ; and 3. a short 
rudiment of one of the future branchice. 

A specimen of the Labrus maculatus, Bloch, presented to the So- 
ciety by Sir A. Carlisle, was exhibited. When quite recent, its rich 
[No. II.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of Comm. of Science, &c. 



)j> vm 



18 

deep blue colouring was stated to have been extremely beautiful ; 
but this had already disappeared considerably, although the specimen 
had been but twelve days in spirit. Still enough remained to show 
how defective in this particular is the figure in Bloch's Ichthyology 
[No. 294.], which appears to have been taken from a dried speci- 
men, and exhibits scarcely a trace of the rich colouring of the 
recent fish. 

The Chairman brought to the recollection of the Committee the 
recent addition to the British Fauna of a species of Warbler (the 
Sylvia Tithys, Scop.) nearly allied to the Redstart, Sylvia phcenicu- 
rus, L., but distinguished from that bird by its dark slate- coloured 
breast, and by the dusky-black colour of its two middle tail-fea- 
thers. The first occurrence of this bird in England was recorded 
in the 5th volume of the " Zoological Journal," page 102, by Mr. 
John Gould, who has since ascertained that two other individuals 
have been met with; one in the neighbourhood of Bristol, the 
other at Brighton. Both these specimens were obtained during the 
last summer. The Chairman added, as a peculiarity of this bird, 
that its egg, as described and figured by continental writers, is 
white ; while the eggs of all the nearly allied species are pale blue. 

A communication by J. C. Cox, Esq., F.L.S., &c, was read, on 
the subject of preserving a proper temperature for exotic animals. 
Mr. Cox commences by remarking on the capability of animals for 
enduring great extremes of temperature, and instances the experi- 
ments of Sir Joseph Banks and Sir C. Blagdon, in which a heat of 
at least 230° was borne without great inconvenience ; while, on the 
other hand, Captain Parry and his men were exposed to a tempera* 
ture of —40° and even lower : thus showing that the human frame 
is susceptible of a range of temperature of probably 300°, without 
injury to life. Such extremes can, however, be submitted to but 
for a short period. To keep animals, natives of tropical climates, 
in good health, they should be preserved from too great extremes ; 
and as it is important to imitate as much as possible the character 
of the climate from which they are brought, the hygrometric state 
of the atmosphere should be attended to almost equally with the 
temperature. The hot winds of the Desert (Mr. Cox remarks), to- 
gether with the absorbent nature of the sandy soil, render the 
general state of the atmosphere in the central parts of Africa 
that of extreme dryness; but this is an exception to intertropical 
regions in general. In Guiana and La Plata, for instance, and in 
Ceylon, the thick woods exhale a considerable degree of moisture, 
far exceeding that of our own country ; the mean dew point of the 
atmosphere of London being 44°"5, while that of intertropical regions 
is from 70° to 75°. Animals from such climates, it is suggested, 
require a moist atmosphere, and this may readily be produced by 
watering the flues used for heating the houses in which they are 
kept. Analogous to this is the advantage obtained in the cultiva- 
tion of stove plants by keeping the houses well-watered. The 



19 

neglect of supplying to the air a sufficient quantity of simple and 
innoxious moisture is attended with two evils. Not only are the 
animals kept in an atmosphere too dry for their healthy preserva- 
tion ; but the dry air, greedily absorbing moisture, becomes impreg- 
nated with the excreted fluids of the animals in confinement ; and 
thus the secreting surfaces of the lungs are at once exposed to a 
constant stimulus from increased and rapid exhalation, and to the 
additional stimulus inflicted by the continual breathing of air loaded 
with saline and irritating particles. In well- constructed houses it 
is of the first importance that the fluids of the animals should be 
conducted from the buildings. Ventilation should also be perfect 
not only through the body of the building, but through each indivi- 
dual cage or den. This is doubly necessary where the air is viti- 
ated, not only by the animals themselves, but by numerous visitors. 
For the general regulation of the admission of cold air a convenient 
plan is to have a leaden or iron weight balanced in a vessel of mer- 
cury, attached to a sliding sash, which will thus rise or fall in 
proportion to the height of the mercury. Mr. Cox regards it as of 
no importance, as to the effect produced on the atmosphere, by 
what means an increased temperature is preserved, whether by flues 
or steam or hot water, if the degree obtained be the same : the 
only reason for preferring one to another is the greater facility it 
may afford of keeping up an equable temperature. 

Mr. Owen read a portion of his notes made at the dissection of 
the Beaver which died lately at the Society's Gardens. He limited 
himself on this occasion to the description of the organs connected 
with digestion. The salivary organs and those of deglutition were 
treated of in detail : the former parts, which are remarkably deve- 
loped in all the Glires, were especially examined on account of the 
peculiar nature of the animal's food ; while the latter claimed par- 
ticular attention from the recent interesting discovery by Mr. Mor- 
gan of a peculiar construction of the fauces in the Capybara, and 
some others of the Rodent order. 

Of the salivary glands the parotid are the largest. They are 
united, like the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland in man, by an 
anterior transverse portion ; and form together a conglomerate 
mass which extends across the front of the neck to within a short 
distance of the upper part of the sternum, covering the larynx and 
its muscles, and passing backwards on each side as far as the mas- 
toid process. There are, however, two ducts, one on each side, 
which terminate in front of the molar teeth. The submaxillary glands 
are quite distinct from the parotid, and are each about the size of a 
walnut : their ducts pass under the jaw and terminate at the side of 
the franum iinguce. The sublingual glands are very small. 

Between the membrane of the palate and the bone, in the narrow 
space between the rows of molar teeth, a layer of mucous glands is 
situated : and a thick stratum of the same kind of glands exists also 
immediately exterior to the membrane of the fauces. 

The soft palate extends backwards from the posterior edge of the 



20 

bony palate as far as the circular aperture of the posterior nares. 
The sides of the soft palate are continuous with the tongue, and, 
becoming gradually contracted, form fauces of a funnel shape, the 
posterior aperture of which just admits a black-lead pencil of the 
usual size for drawing. The membrane covering the posterior part 
of the dorsum of the tongue is continued smoothly and uninter- 
ruptedly to the epiglottis, without the production of any fold of 
membrane in front of this part, nor was there any corresponding 
duplicature above, or at the sides of, the fauces : so that here no 
structure existed that would allow any part of the fauces to be pro- 
truded in a conical form into the pharynx, beyond the opening of 
the glottis, as in the Capybara and Guinea-pig. 

The fauces of the Rat are formed after the same type as those of 
the Beaver : a type which is peculiar, inasmuch as there is properly 
speaking no velum pendulum palati, the membrane forming the roof 
of the fauces being continued straight, without duplicature or re- 
flection, to the posterior aperture of the nares : this aperture is of a 
circular form, on a horizontal plane, and situated immediately above 
the glottis. 

The muscular apparatus of the fauces consists of a pair of muscles 
which arise, one from each side of the tongue, and ascend, the 
fibres diverging a little ; their action is to contract the commence- 
ment of the fauces, being analogous to the palato-glossi : besides 
these there are, at the narrower part of the fauces, circular fibres, 
apparently continued from the superior constrictor of the pharynx, 
and analogous to the potato -pharyngei. 

There are no palatal arches, neither were any tonsils detected. 

The peculiar cardiac gland much resembles tonsils in structure, 
being composed of numerous small glands or follicles, forming an 
aggregate of about 14 lines in length and half an inch in thickness, 
which pour a viscid secretion, by numerous apertures, into the inte- 
rior of the stomach. 

The pancreas is of considerable extent, measuring in length nearly 
two feet, and following the course of the duodenum down to the 
iliac region and up again as far as the umbilical, being attached to 
the intestine by a process of mesentery : it is thin and narrow, and 
has one small branch or process lying parallel with its body where 
it passes behind the liver, and a few others at the curvature of the 
duodenum. Its duct, somewhat larger than a crow-quill, enters the 
small intestine at the extremity of the gland, one foot and nine 
inches from the pylorus, and one foot and six inches from the ter- 
mination of the ductus choledochus. 

At the commencement of the colon there are two pouches of an 
oval form, from the union of which the rest of the intestine proceeds 
with very distinct sacculi. An analogous structure exists in tjie 
cacum of the Guinea-pig, where however the two sacculi appear 
rather to belong to the ccecum, being partially separated from the 
colon by a circular production of the lining membrane in a valvular 
form. 



21 



January 11, 1831. 
Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., in the Chair. 

An Address by Mr. J. V. Thompson " To the Members of the 
Zoological Society, and the Zoologists of the United Kingdom in 
general," was read, soliciting such support, by subscription, as may 
enable him to continue, without further loss, his " Zoological Re- 
searches and Illustrations." This Address is printed, together with 
a list of the subjects of some of the succeeding Memoirs, on the 
cover of the Fourth Number of the Researches, which was at the 
same time laid on the table. 

An Extract was read from a Letter addressed by Daniel Sharpe, 
Esq., to Mr. Bennett, in which the writer describes the luminous 
appearance of the ocean as observed by him on several nights du- 
ring his passage to Lisbon. A considerable sparkling was visible in 
the water close under the vessel's side, particularly in the spray 
just thrown off from the bow, and also occasionally when a wave 
broke : it gradually vanished as the water became quieter. The 
appearance was that of a number of small sparks not brighter than 
the smallest stars. When a bucket full of the water was taken up, 
nothing was visible until it was stirred or shaken, when it was in- 
stantly filled with spangles, which disappeared as the water settled : 
the most elegant effect was when the waves or spray broke over the 
deck, which then became covered with stars for a few minutes. Mr. 
Sharpe states that he collected a great quantity in a glass, and exa- 
mined them carefully with a microscope the next morning, in the 
expectation of observing minute Crustacea, &c, to which the ap- 
pearance he describes has frequently been attributed. He could, 
however, detect nothing but an abundance of small fibres and shreds 
of, apparently, animal matter, and did not find even one entire animal. 
Hence he is disposed to infer that, in some instances at least, the 
phosphorescence of the sea arises from the quantity of particles of 
dead fishes, &c, always floating on its surface ; although he con- 
fesses himself unable to explain the reason why these shine only 
when the water is disturbed. 

It was remarked that Commerson and others have attributed the 
phenomenon described to the putrefaction of animal matters : and 
M. Bory de St. Vincent has declared that marine animalcula take no 
share in it. Sir Joseph Banks, Dr. Macartney, and others, on the 
contrary, have referred it to the presence of marine animals, prin- 
cipally Crustacea ; and the existence of such, as the cause of this 
appearance, has been recently insisted on by Mr. J. V. Thompson. 



22 

Dr. MacCulloch has also attributed it to the latter cause ; and 
Btates that every marine animal that he has examined is luminous. 
Assuming the observations of M. Bory de St. Vincent and those of 
Dr. MacCulloch to be equally correct in the instances which fell 
under their notice, it is worthy of inquiry whether any, and what, 
differences exist in the luminosity of the ocean, when it is occasioned 
by marine animals, or when it is owing to other causes. 

Mr. Yarrell exhibited a female of the common game Fowl which 
had assumed the plumage of a male. The dull brown colour of 
the breast was varied by an intermixture of the jet black plumage 
peculiar to the male ; the feathers of the neck and those on the sides 
of the tail were long, slender, hackled and bright in colour; all the 
tail feathers were more or less curved ; and the spurs were half an 
inch in length. This bird very closely resembled the representation 
attached to Dr. Butter's paper on this subject in the third volume 
of the " Memoirs of the Wernerian Society." A portion of the 
body of the bird was also shown, the disease of the sexual organ 
pointed out, and its appearance contrasted with preparations of the 
same parts from healthy birds. The cause of this change in the 
external character is fully detailed in John Hunter's " Animal Eco- 
nomy," in the Wernerian Memoirs before mentioned, and in a paper 
by Mr. Yarrell, published in the " Philosophical Transactions " for 
1827. 

Mr. Vigors resumed the exhibition of the birds from the Hima- 
layan Mountains, which he had commenced at the Meeting of the 
23rd Nov. ; and named and characterized the following apparently 
new species : 

Alcedo guttatus. Ale. crisiatus, supra ater, maculis rotundis 
albis guttatim notatus ; subtus albus ; colli lateribus pectoreque 
atro maculatis. 

Statura Ale. maximi. 

Muscipeta princeps. Muse, capite, collo, dorso summo, alls, 
rectricibusque duabus mediis nigris ; corpore inferiori, dorso imo t 
fascia lata alarum, maculis paucis remigum secundariarum, rec- 
tricibusque lateralibus aurantio-coccineis ; rostro fortiori. 

Longitudo circiter 9 uncias. 

Lanius erythropterus. Mas. Lan. nucha dorsoque griseis ; 
capite supra, alis, cauddque atris ; corpore subtus, strigd superci- 
liari, remigumque apicibus albis ; alis macula latd rubrd notatis. 

Fcem. Capite griseo ; dorso, alis, rectricibusque virescenti-olivaceo 
notatis ; harum apicibus flavis. 

Statura Lan. Collurionis. 

Parus monticolus. Par. capite, collo, pectore, abdomine medio, 
alis, rectricibusque atris ; genarum macula latd nuchalique parvd, 
tegminum remigum secundariarum rectricumque apicibus, et remi- 
gum primariarum rectricumque later alium pogoniis externis albis ; 
abdominis lateribus flavis. 

Statura paulo minor Par. majori. 



23 

Parus xanthogenys, Par. capite cristato, guld, pectore, abdo- 
mine medio, strigd utrinque colli, scapularium maculis, alis, cau- 
ddque atris, his albo notatis ; dorso scapularibusque virescenti- 
griseis ; genis, strigd superciliari, maculd nuchali, abdominisque 
lateribus favis. 

Statura prsecedentis. 

Parus melanolophus. Par. griseus ; capite cristato pectore- 
que atris ; genarum, nucha, tegminumque alarum maculis albis ; 
remigibus rectricibusque fuscis, ; maculd sub alis rufd. 

Statura Par. atro paulo minor. 

Parus erythrocephalus. Par. supra pallide brunnescenti-ca- 
nus, subtus rufescenti-albus ; guld, strigd superciliari, rectricum- 
que lateralium pogoniis externis albis ; capite supra rufo ; strigd 
lata per oculos ad nucham extendente, thoraceque atris. 

Statura Par. pendulini, Linn. 

Fringilla rodopepla. Fring. supra brunnea ; capite, nuchd, 
dorsoque lineis fuscis rosaceoque nitore notatis ; strigd utrinque 
superciliari, guld, thorace, maculis alarum, uropygio, corporeque 
subtus rosaceis. 

Longitudo circiter 7 uncias. 

Fringilla rodochroa. Fring. supra brunnea; capite, nuchd, 
dorsoque lineis fuscis, illo rosaceo tinctis ; f route, strigd utrin- 
que superciliari, guld, pectore, corpore subtus, uropygioque rosa- 
ceis ; alis immaculatis. 

Longitudo circiter 5^ uncias. 

Carduelis caniceps. Card, brunnescenti-canus ; alis cauddque 
nigris ; circulo angusto frontem rictum gulamque circumcingente 
coccineo ; fascia alarum aured ; thorace, maculis paucis alarum, 
uropygio, abdomine imo, crisso, rectricum externarum pogoniis 
internis, mediarumque apicibus albis. 

Statura Card, communis. 

Picus hyperythrus. Mas. Pic. corpore supra nigro, albo-ma- 
culato, subtus rufescenti-badio ; capite crissoque coccineis ; strigd 
utrinque per oculos extendente albd ; mandibuld superiori nigrd, 
inferiori albd. 

Fcsm. Capite nigro albo-lineato . 

Statura Pic. medii, Linn. 

Columba leuconota. Col. capite canescenti-atro ; crisso cau- 
ddque nigris ; nuchd, corpore subtus, dorso medio, caudceque fas- 
cid lata media, albis; tegminibus alarum vinaceo-canis ; dorso 
superiori scapularibusque brunnescenti-canis ; remigibus, fasciis- 
que alarum brunnescenti-fuscis. 

Statura Col. Palumbi, Linn. 

Otis himalayanus. Ot. niger ; alis albis ; dorso medio sca- 
pularibusque pallido-rufo brunneoque variegatis ; dorso imo pal- 
lido-rufo undulatim sparso ; crista? collique plumis anterioribus et 
posterioribus confertis, elongatis. 

Mr. Vigors exhibited a living specimen of a new species of Ground 
Parrakeet, which had lately been added to the Society's Menagerie. 
Its native place was not ascertained : but from the more graduated 



24 

form of the tail and the plumbeous colour of the bill, it was conjec- 
tured to have belonged to some of the Australian islands ; the Par- 
rakeets of which are distinguished by these characters from the 
allied groups of the same genus Platycercus of the Australian con- 
tinent. The lively and active gait of this bird, as distinguished from 
the slow and climbing motions of the Parrots in general, was 
particularly noticed. Its colour was a uniform green without any 
markings. It was named and characterized as 

Platycercus unicolor. Plat, corpore viridi concolore ; rostro 
basi plumbeo, apice nigro. 

Mr. Vigors also exhibited a specimen of the lineated Pheasant 
of Dr. Latham [Gen. Hist. vol. viii. p. 201. sp. 14.] which had 
lately been received from the Straits of Malacca. The bird ac- 
corded accurately with Dr. Latham's description, as communicated 
to him by Dr. Buchanan from a living specimen in an aviary in 
India, and afforded evident proof of being a distinct and strongly 
marked species. It may be characterized as follows : 

Phasianus lineatus, Lath. MSS. Phas. supra cano-griseus ; 
fasciis graeilibus nigris undulatus ; capite, crista elongatd, guld, 
collo anteriori, corporeque infra nigris ; abdominis laterum plu- 
mis in medio lineis graeilibus albis notatis ; caudd albo nigroaue 
undulatim sparsd. 

A large collection of Insects, of various orders, presented to the 
Society by Dr. Leach, was exhibited. It was chiefly formed in 
the neighbourhood of Rome and Florence ; and notes were ap- 
pended to the greater number of the species, indicating the precise 
locality of each, the time of its appearance, its food, comparative 
rarity, &c. 

The attention of the Committee having been directed to that 
part of the Minutes of the Council which referred to the prepara- 
tion of a Report on the animals which it was desirable for the So- 
ciety to import : 

It was resolved, 

That Sir Thomas Phillipps, Mr. Vigors, Mr. Owen, Mr. Cox, and 
Mr. Bennett, be requested to prepare, for the consideration of the 
Committee at its next Meeting, a Report on the animals for the 
importation of which the Council should be recommended to take 
measures. 

The following Resolution was also submitted to the Committee, 
and adopted : 

Resolved, 

That Mr. Morgan, Mr. Yarrell, and Mr. Vigors, be requested to 
prepare a series of questions on points relating to the generation, 
gestation, parturition, and suckling of the Kangaroo, in order that 
the same may be submitted to the Council, with a request that 
directions may be given to the Superintendents of the Society's 
establishments to obtain information thereon. . 



25 



January 25, 1831. 
Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart, in the Chair. 

A specimen of the Cereopsis Novae Hollandice, Lath., which had 
recently died at the Society's Menagerie in the Regent's Park, was 
exhibited. — Mr. Yarrell stated that having examined the body of 
the bird, he had remarked that its trunk was much shorter than that 
of the true Geese, and more triangular in its shape : the pectoral 
muscles were large and dark coloured. The trachea was of large, 
but nearly uniform, calibre, without convolution, and attached in 
its descent to the right side of the neck as in the Heron and Bit- 
tern ; in the form of its bone of divarication and bronchia it most 
resembled the same part in the Geese. The muscles of voice were 
two pairs; one pair attached to the shafts of the osjurcatorium, the 
other to the inner lateral surface of the sternum. The lobes of the 
liver were of large size, morbidly dark in colour ; their substance 
broke down under the finger on the slightest pressure. The sto- 
mach, a true gizzard, was of small size as compared with the bulk 
of the bird. The first duplicature of intestine was six inches in 
length, at the returning portion of which the biliary and pancreatic 
ducts entered ; from thence to the origin of the cceca four feet six 
inches ; the cceca nine inches each ; the colon and rectum together 
five inches : the whole length of the intestines was seven feet five 
inches. The stomach and intestinal viscera were loaded with fat ; 
the other parts exhibited nothing remarkable. 

Internally this bird,which was a male, resembled the true Geese; 
but externally, in the character of the bones, particularly in the 
rounded form of the edge, and great depth, of the keel of the ster- 
num, and the lateral situation of the trachea in reference to the cer- 
vical vertebra, it was decidedly similar to the Ardeidce. 

Mr. Yarrell availed himself of the occasion to remark that the 
Natatores of Mr. Vigors's systematic arrangement in Ornithology 
were placed between the Grallatores or Waders on the one side, and 
the Raptores or Birds of Prey on the other: and that the order con- 
tained five groups, two of which, the Alcadce and Colymbidce, were 
called normal, containing those birds which were considered to be 
the types of the true Swimmers, and three groups, Anatidce, Peleca- 
nidce, and Laridce, called aberrant, as deviating from the type, and 
exhibiting some characters which connected them either with the 
Grallatores or the Raptores. Some of the Laridce and Pelecanidce in 
the length of their wings, their consequent power of flight, and the 
mode of taking their food in the air, exhibited their obvious affinity 
to the Birds qf Prey on the one hand ; while some of the Anatidce, 
by their lengthened legs and neck, and their habit of passing much 

[No. III.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



26 

of their time on land or frequenting shallow pools of water, showed 
an equal affinity to some of the Waders. This was the case with 
the Cereopsis, and occurred also in the Semipalmated Goose and in 
another Goose now living in the Society's Gardens, the Anserju- 
batus, Spix. 

It was stated that in proportion as these birds departed from the 
characters of the true Geese in their external appearance and habits, 
and in both approached to the Ardeidce, they would also be found 
on examination to resemble them in their internal organization. In 
proof of this an extensive series of parts of the skeletons of birds 
from the true Divers to the Cranes was exhibited, and the peculia- 
rities pointed out. The keel of the breast-bone in the Ducks and 
true Geese was shown to be of considerable depth, with its inferior 
edge nearly straight ; those of the Semipalmated Goose and Cereopsis 
were shown to be much deeper in the keel, and the inferior edges 
much more convex ; and comparison with the same parts from the 
Spoonbill, Herons, Bitterns, and Storks, showed the approximation 
to the Ardeidce in form. The peculiarities of the whole series indi- 
cated, between the two extreme points, the developement of the 
powers of flight as contrasted with the maximum of the powers of 
diving, in a succession of characters as easily recognisable in the 
skeletons as in the external appearances of the birds themselves, and 
supplied a valuable auxiliary chain of affinities to assist the natura- 
list in his views of arrangement. 

On the subject of the Cereopsis Mr.Bennett observed, that having 
lately had occasion to investigate the history of that bird, he had met 
with some facts respecting it which might not be without interest. 
After noticing the mistakes in Dr. Latham's original description 
and figure, which have been already corrected by MM. Temminck 
and Vieillot, he pointed out certain errors in those given by the 
two last-named writers, as compared with the bird on the table, 
and with seven living specimens in the Society's Collection, all of 
which, he believed, had been hatched in this country. Thus in 
the description of the latter author it is said, "la tete est couverte 
d'une peau nue, ridee et jaune, depuis la base du bee jusqu'audela 
des yeux"; and in that of the former, " une peau ridee et jaunatre 
couvre le front" ; but this supposed naked skin does not exist in 
nature, and although represented in M. Vieillot's figure, is very 
properly omitted in that of M. Temminck. The latter indeed is, 
with the exception of the legs being coloured of a dingy yellow 
instead of a deep orange, a very characteristic representation. No 
synonyms had hitherto been added to the original name ; but Mr. 
Bennett stated that he had little doubt, both from the description 
and locality, that a bird mentioned by Labillardiere as seen at 
Esperance Bay, on the south coast of New Holland, and named by 
M. Vieillot, in the " Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle," 
Le Cygne cendre, was of the same species. To this bird it would ap- 
pear, from d'Entrecasteaux's Narrative, that the unfortunate Riche 
had applied in his MSS. the name ok' Anas Terrce Leewwin. On a 
specimen, in all probability not distinct, brought home by Labillar- 



27 

diere, M. Vieillot founded a new species of Goose, Anser griseus, 
described at length in the second edition of the " Nouv. Diet. 
d'Hist. Nat." If this assumption be correct, the same individual 
must have afterwards served as the type of his figure of the Cere- 
opsis ; for only a single specimen of that bird existed until very lately 
(or indeed probably still exists) in the gallery of the Paris Museum, 
in which Labillardiere's specimen was deposited. 

A specimen was exhibited of a small species of Deer from Chili, 
which had lived in the Society's Menagerie for upwards of twelve 
months, and which Mr. Bennett stated that he believed to be new. 
It is a female, and consequently does not offer the accessory cha- 
racters which zoologists have been in the habit of deriving from 
the horns. The other distinctive marks are as follows : 

Cervus humilis. Cerv. parvus, obesus, brevipes ; facie laid, brevi, 
obtusd ; Jissurd infra-orbitali mediocri ; caudd subnulld : cor- 
pore toto rufo, antice nigrescenti, postice fronte pedibusque infe- 
rioribus saturatioribus , infra dilution. 

Alt. ad humeros vix 1£ ped. : long, caudae vix unciam superans. 

Mr. Bennett added that he was informed by Captain P. P. King, 
R.N., that a second skin of the same species had been brought to 
England by him ; that the young was spotted with yellow, and had 
a yellow stripe on each side of the back ; and that the animal was 
plentiful at Conception, and found even as far south as the Archi- 
pelago of Chiloe, living, he believed, in small herds. 

A hybrid Pheasant belonging to the Society having lately died 
at the Garden, Mr. Yarrell observed that he had examined its body, 
a preparation of a part of which, together with the preserved skin, 
was then on the table. He remarked that in mules produced be- 
tween animals placed at different degrees of distance from each 
other in the scale of Nature, it was a point of some interest to as- 
certain the relative state of the sexual organs, which it might be 
expected would be found more or less perfect, depending on the 
extent of the distance interposed between the parent animals. The 
bird in question was a male, bred between the pheasant and the 
common fowl, but most allied in appearance to the former. The 
sexual organs appeared to be perfect and of large size for the pe- 
riod of the year. 

Three examples of the Ardea Nycticorax, Linn., were placed on 
the table. On these Mr.Yarrelj observed that the Menagerie of the 
Society had furnished an interesting link in this species, in a young 
bird which united in its plumage the brown spotted wing of the 
Gardenian Heron with the black head and ash-coloured back of 
the Night Heron : thus exhibiting the change from the young to 
the adult bird, and proving that the two supposed species are really 
but one. 

Two living specimens were exhibited of the Suricate, Ryzcena 



28 

tetradactyla, Mig., which had recently been added to the Society's 
Collection. Both individuals were extremely gentle, and suffered 
themselves to be handled and played with, without evincing any 
uneasiness. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Martin reported the morbid 
appearances observed in the Lion which recently died at the So- 
ciety's Gardens. Before removing the skin, the whole of the body 
presented a remarkably bloated appearance, which was found on exa- 
mination to be owing to general emphysema. This was suspected by 
Mr.Martin to be the result of morbid arterial secretion ; it could not 
have been caused by putrefaction, the animal having been dead but 
a few hours, and the body being still warm. The same appearance 
had been not unfrequently observed by Mr. Spooner, the Veteri- 
nary Surgeon of the establishment, in animals worn out by linger- 
ing chronic disease. On examining the lungs, their cellular struc- 
ture was found completely obliterated, except in one small portion, 
where alone any oxygenation of the blood could have taken place. 
They presented a dark appearance on the surface, with a hardness 
or density of structure which must have resulted from lon^-conti- 
nued inflammation. They were also partially studded with tubercles. 
On cutting into them, purulent matter oozed from the incision, and 
several abscesses, though not large, were discovered. The liver 
was dark, and so soft as to break down with the slightest touch. 
The spleen presented no decided trace of disease. The intestines 
adjacent to the liver were tinged with a dark and somewhat purplish 
hue ; but although distended with air presented nothing remark- 
able. The stomach contained only a little bile and mucus. 

The muscles generally were pale and flabby, as might have been 
anticipated, where a chronic disease had wasted the vital energies, 
and where the blood, impeded in its passage through the lungs, had 
long ceased to be sufficiently oxygenated. 

Mr. Owen commenced the reading of his account of the Myology 
of the Simla Satijrus, L. He confined himself to the notice of 
such muscles as are peculiar to that animal, and have not any ana- 
logues in the human frame ; of those which, if analogous, deviate 
remarkably in their proportions and attachments ; and lastly, of 
such as have been considered as of doubtful existence in the Orang. 

The occipito frontalis, which escaped the observation of Tyson 
and Dr. Traill (Wernerian Trans, iii.) in the Chimpanzee, and which 
some physiologists have asserted to be peculiar to man, is distinctly 
developed in the Orang Utan. Portions of this muscle were also 
found on the head of a Chimpanzee that had been flayed with great 
care, the rest having been removed with the scalp, to which the 
tendinous part closely adheres. 

The following muscles of the face were described, corrugator 
supercilii, levator labii superioris alceque nasi, levator anguli oris, 
zygomaticus major, depressor anguli oris, orbicularis palpebrarum 
and orbicularis oris. On reflecting the inner membrane of the lips, 



29 

the depressores labii superioris and levator es labii inferioris were 
found of considerable breadth and strongly developed : their action 
in protruding the lips in a conical form has been frequently noticed 
b}' those who have had opportunities of observing the living animal. 

The platysma myoides is of greater extent than in the human 
subject, and some of the fibres have a different direction, bearing a 
resemblance to the cervical portion of the panniculus carnosus in 
some quadrupeds, as the Beaver and Guinea-pig. 

The muscles of mastication, and the articulation of the lower jaw 
were described. 

The digastricus has not any connection with the os hyoides, the 
anterior fleshy portion being altogether wanting in the Orang Utan, 
It is inserted by a strong round tendon into the angle of the lower 
jaw. This circumstance is interesting in connection with the me- 
morable dispute between Dr. Monro (primus) and the French ana- 
tomists, concerning the actions of this muscle; and it is remarkable 
that Winslow, with his accustomed ingenuity, should have alluded 
to such a disposition, in illustrating his opinions of the actions of the 
digastricus on the lower jaw in the human subject. Some peculiarities 
in the mylo-hyoideus, genio-hyoideus, and omo-hyoideus were noticed. 

The peculiar muscle discovered by Tyson in the Chimpanzee, and 
called by him levator claviculce, arises in the Orang Utan from the 
occiput and transverse process of the atlas. In the Chimpanzee 
which Mr. Owen dissected, he also found it arising from the trans- 
verse process of the atlas, and not from the second or third cervical 
vertebra. It is inserted broadly into the humeral extremity of the 
clavicle. 

Neither in the Orang Utan nor in the Chimpanzee is there any true 
ligamentum nuchce. The part commonly so called in the human 
subject, consisting also in these animals only of the inelastic com- 
missural tendons of the trapezii, the rhomboidei and the serrati 
postici superiores. To give additional support, however, to the head 
of the Orang Utan, which preponderates so far anterior to the oc- 
cipital foramen, the origins of the rhomboidei are extended upwards 
to the occipital bone, to which they broadly adhere, beneath the 
trapezii. In the Chimpanzee this disposition does not occur, but 
in both animals the rhomboideus is a single muscle, without division 
into a greater and lesser portion. 

Three muscles supply the place of the pectoralis major in the 
Orang Utan. Their proportions and attachments were minutely 
described ; and while speaking of these with reference to each other, 
it was found convenient to apply to them the names of sterno- 
humeralisy costo-humeralis, and sterno-costo-humeralis. 

The reading of the remainder of this part of the anatomy of the 
Orang Utan was postponed to a future meeting of the Committee. 

Several species of Birds belonging to the collection recently 
made by Capt. Philip P. King, R.N., during his survey of the Straits 
of Magellan, were exhibited. Other birds from the same collection 
had been named and characterized at the Meeting on the 14th of 



30 

December : and on the present occasion Capt. King pointed out 
the distinctive characters of the following species which he believed 
to be new. 

Synallaxis antho'i'des. Syn. supra brunnea, plumis in medio 
Jusco late striatis, tectricibus alarum superioribus rufo tinctis ; 
subtus pallide cinerea ; rectricibus lateratibus ad marginem exter- 
num,fasciaque alarum, riifis. 

Statura Syn. Spinicaudce. 

Dendrocolaptes albo-gularis. Dend. corpore supra abdo~ 
minisque lateribus rufo-brunneis ; remigibus secundariis, dorso 
imo, caudaque rufis ; mandibuld inferiori ad basin, gula,jugulo, 
pectore, abdomineque medio albis, hujus plumis brunneo ad apt- 
cem marginatis ; rostro sursum recurvo. 

Longitudo circiter 7 V uncias. 

Trochilus Fernandensis. Troch. ferrugineo-rufus ; capitis 
vertice splendenti-coccineo ; remigibus fuscis. 

Longitudo 5 uncias. 

Habitat in insula Juan Fernandez. 

Trochilus Stokesii. Troch. corpore supra viridi-splendente, 
subtus albo viridi-guttato ; capite supra, guttisque confertis gulce 
lazulino-splendentibus ; remigibus fusco-atris ; remigum omnium, 
mediis exceptis, pogoniis internis albis. 

Longitudo 4-J- uncias. 

Habitat in insula Juan Fernandez. 

Phalacrocorax imperialis. Phal. capite cristato, collo pos- 
teriori, corporeque supra intense purpureis ; alis scapularibusque 
viridi- atris ; remigibus rectricibusque duodecim fusco-atris ; cor- 
pore subtus, fascia alarum, maculdque dorsi medii sericeo-albis ; 
rostro nigro ; pedibusjlavescentibus. 

Statura Phal. Carbonis., 

Habitat in sinubus interioribus orae occidentalis. 

Phalacrocorax Sarmientonus. Phal. capite, collo, dorsoque 
imo atro -purpureis ; pectore abdomineque albis ; dorso superiori, 
scapularibus, alisque viridi-atris ; remigibus rectricibusque duo- 
decim atris ; gula, genis, femorumque tectricibus superioribus 
albo-notatis ; rostro nigro ; pedibusjlavescentibus. 

Statura praecedentis. 

Habitat in Freto Magellanico. 

Phalacrocorax erythrops. Phal. capite, collo, corporeque 
supra purpureo-atris ; pectore abdomineque albis ; genis parce 
albo-notatis ; facie nudd rubra ; remigibus, rectricibus duoaecim, 
rostroque sub-brevi atris : pedibusjlavescentibus. 
Statura paulo minor praecedentibus duobus. 



31 



February 8, 1831. 

N. A. Vigors, Esq. in the Chair. 

It was announced that the Council had Resolved, " That the 
Meetings of the Committee are open to every Member of the So- 
ciety." In this resolution the Committee cordially concurred ; and 
also in the propriety of distributing cards of the Meetings to the 
Members of the Society residing in or near London. 

The skeleton and parts of the viscera of one of the Society's spe- 
cimens of the Chinchilla, (Chinchilla lanigera,) were exhibited, and 
the following notes by Mr. Yarrell were read. 

" On the death of one of the specimens of this interesting little 
animal in the collection of the Zoological Society, the Museum, 
previously containing a preserved skin, was enriched with a skeleton 
and preparations of parts of the viscera. Of these additions I have 
been permitted to furnish a description, which I was the more de- 
sirous to do, as no notice of the internal parts of this animal has 
appeared, that I am aware of, except as far as regards its dentition ; 
and on this part of the subject I was anxious to correct an error I 
had committed in a short notice published in the fourth volume of 
the ' Zoological Journal,' page 317, from the prescribed use of li- 
mited materials. 

" It may be necessary to state that at the time of examination all 
the viscera had been preserved some months in a weak solution of 
spirit. 

"The lungs are composed of three small lobes on each side. 
The heart is flattened in form from behind forwards, measuring T Vths 
of an inch across its base, and but -rVths in depth ; the want of apex 
gives it a rounded and muscular appearance. The liver exhibits 
two large and equally-sized lobes, and two smaller lobes. The sto- 
mach, a single cavity, measures from the entrance of the oesophagus 
round the great curve to the pyloric contraction 5 inches -rVtfis, 
the greatest breadth 2 inches Wths, the depth 1 inch -rVths; the 
spleen is small and elongated. . The length of the small intestines 
from the pylorus to the end of the ilium 3 feet 10 inches ; the cae- 
cum and first portion of the colon are of large size, made up of three 
half-circular convolutions, one central, with one of smaller dimen- 
sions on each outer side, containing numerous cells and divisions, 
strengthened by muscular bands and septa ; the whole length of 
ccecum, colon and rectum, measures 4 feet 10 inches. With the 
exception of the ccecum and commencement of the colon, which as 
I have stated are voluminous, all the intestines are of very small 



32 

calibre. The kidneys vary somewhat in shape ; one measures T vths 
of an inch in length and -rVths in breadth, that on the opposite side 
is much more spherical. The specimen is a female, and the uterine 
cornua measure each 3^ inches in length. 

" Of the skeleton, when mounted, the whole length from the 
nose to the end of the tail is 13 inches -rVths j the upper surface 
of the cranium from the occiput to the inter-orbital space is in 
form triangular and flat, the width at the occiput 1 inch x Vth, 
of the inter-orbital space -rVths, the whole length of the head 2 
inches x Vths, the mastoid processes and auditory cells of very 
large size, the external meatus also large, oval, directed upwards 
and backwards ; the zygoma narrow and slender posteriorly, but 
deep and stronger at its junction with the malar bone, which has 
an ascending bony division between the orbits and temporal fossa ; 
the nasal bones narrow, convex, and of parallel diameter; the lower 
jaw is curved, broad and strong, the course of the incisor teeth is 
visible, and the alveolar cavities of the molar teeth are well defined 
externally j the coronoid processes are wanting, apparently as if 
broken off during the preparation of the skeleton, but have obviously 
been of very small size ; the condyle elongated from before back- 
wards, the plate deep, and the posterior angle of considerable length. 
Dentition £~£ - the exposed portion of the incisors measures -rVths 
of an inch in length ; the molar teeth are all made up of three parallel 
portions or bony lamina, each portion invested with a thin coat of 
enamel and closely united, the base of a molar tooth presenting six 
lines of enamel and three cavities ; the anterior third of the first 
molar tooth on each side, above and below, is smaller than the 
other two portions, and gives to these teeth a triangular-shaped 
crown ; the posterior third portion of the last molar tooth on each 
side above is nearly round, and gives an increase of surface to these 
also ; in the molar teeth of the lower jaw the fold of enamel between 
the first and second portions of the bony lamince of each tooth does 
not reach quite to the outer edge, and the two portions of bone ap- 
pear therefore to be only partially separated. The direction of the 
parallel lamince of all the molar teeth is not at right angles with the 
line of the maxillary bones, but inclining obliquely from without 
backwards. 

„ "The length from the atlas to the end of the tail is 11 inches 
-rVths ; cervical vertebra 7, dorsal 13, lumbar 6, sacral 2, and cau- 
dal 23. The scapulae are small, measuring 1 inch from the exter- 
nal angle to the articulation with the humerus, the spine is but 
little elevated, Che acromion ample, the clavicles perfect ; length of 
the humerus 1 inch -rVths, the bone strong and furnished with an 
elongated crest descending from the head ; from the olecranon to 
the carpal articulation 1 inch -rVths, the ulna and radius firmly an- 
chvlosed throughout the distal half of their length ; thence to the 
end of the longest of the five toes -rVths of an inch. The ribs 13 pairs. 
The bones of the pelvis slender and elongated ; from the crest of the 
ilium, which is but little produced, to the inferior edge of the 
ischium is 1 inch Aths ; the ossa pubis, slight in structure, advan- 



33 

cing but little, the symphysis elongated, and the obturator foramen 
of large size. The femur is straight, strong and smooth, and mea- 
sures 1 inch T Vths ; the tibia 2 inches Aths ; the Jibula is complete 
and forms the external malleolus ; from the os calcis to the end 
of the longest toe 2 inches T vth; the toes four in number, of which 
the outer one is the shortest, the third from the outside the longest, 
the second and fourth equal. 

" In the published observations before referred to I stated that 
the Chinchilla appeared to be closely allied to Mr. Brookes's new 
genus Lagostomus, and the character of the skeleton of the Chin- 
chilla compared with the figure and description of Lagostomus in 
the 1st part of the 16th volume of the * Transactions of the Lin- 
nean Society' confirms the general similarity. Still, the more 
complicated structure of the teeth, and the existence of an additi- 
onal toe on each of the feet, require for the Chinchilla the generic 
distinction claimed for it by Mr. Bennett and by Mr. Gray. 

" The resemblance of the skeleton of the Chinchilla to that of 
the Jerboa is also remarkable, particularly in the form of the head, 
in the excessive development of the auditory cavities, and the 
small size of the anterior extremities compared with the hind legs." 

Mr. Yarrell having concluded the reading of his Notes, it was 
remarked that MM. Isidore Geoffroy- Saint- Hilaire and Dessalines 
d'Orbigny had proposed, in the * Annales des Sciences Naturelles' 
for November 1830, the creation of a new genus, Callomys, to in- 
clude the Chinchilla and the Viscaccia. The latter animal is the 
Dipus maximus, De Bl., and consequently the type of the genus 
Lagostomus, described by Mr. Brookes in a paper read before the 
Linnean Society in 1828, and published in the Transactions of that 
body in 1829, in which the system of dentition and the osteology 
are treated of in detail. The Chinchilla, long known in commerce 
but only recently made known to science, was described as the type 
of a distinct genus, under its common name, by Mr. Bennett in 
1829, and by Mr. Gray in August 1830: its true characters seem 
even now to be unknown to the French authors above referred to, 
who appear to be acquainted with its skin alone, and never to have 
examined either its teeth or the number of its toes. In these re- 
spects it deviates from the characters of their proposed genus ; a 
genus which cannot be adopted, inasmuch as it is composed of 
heterogeneous materials, and as the two types included in it have 
both previously been described and designated as distinct groups. 

Specimens were exhibited of the trachece of various Gallinaceous 
Birds included in the genera Pauxi, Crax and Penelope of M. Tem- 
minck $ and Mr. Yarrell observed that these birds have each, as 
far as they have yet been examined, been found to possess a spe- 
cific difference in their organs of voice. Among the trachece placed 
on the table was that of the Red-knobbed Curassom, Crax Yarrellii, 
Benn., a new species lately described from the Society's Menagerie, 
and which had recently died. The trachea of this species differs 
from all those previously known, but most resembles that of the 



34 

Crax Alector, L. ; while in external characters the bird approaches 
the Crax globicera, L., from which it is distinguished by the redness 
of its cere and by a prominence on each side under the base of the 
lower jaw, in addition to the globose knob near the base of the 
upper. The tube in the Crax Yarrellii is straight throughout its 
whole length, except a short convolution imbedded in cellular 
membrane placed between the shafts of the os Jurcatorium. The 
trachea is narrow, and the fold, invested and supported by a mem- 
branous sheath, gives oft* one pair of muscles, which are in- 
serted externally below the apex of the os Jurcatorium. The lower 
portion of the tube, immediately above the bone of divarication, 
sends off a pair of muscles to be inserted upon the sternum. The 
upper pair of muscles (furculo-tracheal) influence the length of the 
tube above the convolution. The inferior pair (sterno-tracheal) 
have the same power over the bronchial tubes and that portion of 
the trachea which is below the convolution. 

Several specimens were laid on the table of a Clupea taken in the 
mouth of the Thames, which Mr. Yarrell regarded as distinct from 
the commonHerring of our coasts, the Clupea Harengus, Linn. He 
dedicated it to Dr. Leach, who, he was informed, has often stated 
that the British coast possessed a second species of Herring. The 
Clupea Leachii is much deeper in proportion than the common Her- 
ring, an adult fish 8 inches long being 1 inch ^ths deep, while a com- 
mon Herring of the same depth measures 10^- inches in length. The 
dorsal and abdominal lines of the new species are much more con- 
vex; the latter is keeled, but has no serration. The under jaw has 
three or four prominent teeth placed just within the angle formed 
by the symphysis : the upper maxillce have their edges slightly cre- 
nated. The eye is large. The scales are smaller than in the other 
species, and there is no distinct lateral line. The back and sides 
are deep blue with green reflections, passing into silvery white be- 
neath. The dorsal fin is placed behind the centre of gravity; but 
not so far behind it as in the common Herring. The number of the 
fin-rays and of the vertebrcz differ in the two species as follows : 

D. P. V. A. C. Vertebra. 

Clup. Harengus 17 . . 14 . . 9 . . 14 . . 20 56 

Clup. Leachii lfc . . 17 . . 9 . . 16 . . 20 54 

The new species differs also from the common Herring in flavour, 
being much more mild. It is now full of roe, while the adult com- 
mon Herrings ceased spawning in November, and having retired 
subsequently to the deep waters are not at present to be met with 
on the southern coast. Mr. Yarrell added, that there was reason to 
believe that a third species of Herring, of a larger size than either of 
the others, occurred sometimes on our eastern coast. He also men- 
tioned that he had obtained last summer from the Thames, the 
two Shads regarded by M. Cuvier as the Clupea Alosa, Linn., and 
the Clupea Jallax, LaCep. 

Mr. Yarrell stated that he had received a letter from Mr. Dill- 



35 

wyn, mentioning the capture in Swansea Bay of a specimen of the 
Labrus maculatus, Bloch ; being a second instance of the occurrence 
of this fish on the British coasts within a few weeks. 

Mr.Yarrell also stated that the Summer Duck, Anas s/?ows«,Linn., 
male and female, had been shot recently near Dorking. The Anas 
occidua had also occurred in this country : and another American 
and Northern species of bird, the Alauda alpestris, Linn. 

The Chairman resumed the subject of the Himalayan birds, and 
exhibited and described the following species. 

Phcenicura cceruleocephala. Phcen. atra, abdomine strigd- 
que alarum longitudinali albis ; capite pallide cceruleo. 

Statura Phcen. communis. 

Phcenicura leucocephala. Phcen. corpor e apicequecaudce atris ; 
abdomine, crisso, uropygio, cauddque rufis ; capite supra albo. 

Statura Phcen. rubeculce. 

Phcenicura rubeculoi'des. Phcen. capite, collo, corporeque su- 
pra atro-cceruleis, capitis summo splendidiore ; abdomine albo ; 
pectore rufo. 

Statura Phcen. cceruleocephalce. 

Phcenicura fuliginosa. Phcen. corpore fuliginoso-plumbeo ; 
caudd rufd. 

Statura paullo major quam preecedens. 

Emberiza cristata. Mas. Emb. capite cristato corporeque 
atris ; alis cauddque rufis. 

Fcem., aut Mas jun. ? Capite subcristato corporeque fuscis, abdo- 
mine imo pallidiori ; alis cauddque rufescentibus, fusco tinctis. 

Statura Carduelis communis. 

Lamprotornis spilopterus. Mas. Lamp, supra plumbeo-ca- 
nus,plumis ad apicemfusco marginatis ; subtusalbus, rufotinctus; 
uropygio rufescenti ; remigibus atris viridi splendentibus, ma- 
cula alba ; caudd brunned ; gula intense rufd. 

Fcem. Supra pallide brunnea, subtus albescens, brunneo tincta. 

Statura Lamp, cantoris. 

Myophonus Horsfieldii. Myoph. coerulescenti-ater, Jronte, 
humeris, marginibusque plumarum pectoris splendide cceruleis. 

Statura Myoph. cyanei, Horsf. 

Phasianus Staceii. Phas. stramineo-albus, supra frequenter, 
subtus parce nigro fasciatus, dorso abdomineque imis rufescenti- 
bus ; capite cristato fusco ; caudd fasciis latis nigris, ad basin 
interne rufis, ornatd. 

Longitudo corporis ab apice rostri ad apicem caudae, 3 pedes 
4kf uncias. 

Otis nigriceps. Ot. corpore supra pallide badio, rifo-brunneo 
graciliter undulato ; collo, maculis parcis alarum, abdomineque al- 
bis; capite cristato, tectricibus alarum exterioribus, remigibus, no- 
tdque grandi pectorali nigris. 

Longitudo corporis ab apice rostri ad apicem cauda?, pedes 4 ; 
latitudo, -H. 



36 

The Chairman also directed the attention of the Committee to a 
remarkable deficiency observable in some of the groups of the Psit- 
tacidce, viz. the absence of the osjurcatorium. This deficiency he had 
observed in the osteology of the Psittacus mitratus, the Platycercus 
eximius, and the Psittacula galgula; skeletons of the two last of which 
species were exhibited. He observed that this extraordinary defi- 
ciency evinced the approaching affinity of that group of birds to 
the Rasores, one of the most conspicuous groups of which, the typi- 
cal Struthionidce, exhibited a like deficiency, indicating a corre- 
sponding failure in the powers of flight. 



37 



February 22, 1831. 

N. A. Vigors, Esq. in the Chair. 

A specimen was exhibited of a young Nyl-ghau, (Antilope picta, 
Pall.,) which was born at the Society's Farm in January last. The 
mother of this individual had borne two young about twelve months 
since, while in the possession of His late Majesty. On the present 
occasion she had also borne two, one of which is still living. The 
differences between the young and the adult animal were pointed 
out. The latter is well known. The former is generally of a dull 
reddish fawn colour, which is brighter on the lower part of the legs. 
A line along the belly, descending a short distance down the inside 
of the legs, together with a line on the fore part of the hock, is 
white. The under lip, a line along its under surface, and a cres- 
cent-shaped spot mounting on each side round the base of the lower 
jaw, are also white. A spot above the front of the eye, and one 
behind the angle of the mouth are white, as are also the inside of 
the ears. A black line passes along the middle of the nose, and 
spreading out between the eyes, becomes suffused and lost. From 
between the ears a black line passes along the middle of the back to the 
root of the tail. A black line passes down the front of the fore legs, 
commencing near their upper part, expanding in front of the knees, 
then contracting, and afterwards dilating again above the base of the 
hoof, which it surrounds. Above the pastern on the inner side is a 
white spot ; and there is a white spot just above the hoofs both on 
the outer and inner side. On the front of the lower part of the 
hinder legs there is a black line, and the pastern and feet are black. 
Above the pastern the limb is surrounded in front by a broad half 
ring of white ; and there are two white spots, nearly uniting in 
front, above the hoofs. The ears at their base for more than half 
their length, together with their extreme tip, are of the general fawn 
of the body becoming much lighter towards their outer margin : but 
a broad black blotch occupies nearly their upper half, with the ex- 
ception of the extreme tip. The tail is white beneath, and its tip 
is black. 

Mr. Cox adverted to the prevalence among Sheep of prolapsus 
uteri, which he stated to be almost universally fatal to the animals 
afflicted with it, and for the relief of which he pointed out a simple 
and efficient method. In a sheep suffering from this cause he re- 
moved the protruded parts by the application of a ligature ; the 
animal was subsequently turned out to grass, and became^s healthy 
and as fat as any of the flock with which it was associated. Mr. 
Brookes stated that prolapsus is equally frequent in some other 
animals, and gave the history of a case in which profuse and almost 

[No. IV.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. or Science. 



38 

fatal haemorrhage ensued from cutting away the displaced parts : 
he fully agreed in the propriety of removing them by ligature. 

Mr. Bennett called the attention of the Committee to one of the 
Spider- Monkeys, (Ateles, Geoff.,) at present living in the Society's 
Garden, which he regarded as a new species. He named and cha- 
racterized it as the 

Ateles frontalis. At, ater, maculdjrontali semilunari alba. 
Statura At. atri, F. Cuv. 

By the white patch on the forehead and the radiation of the hair 
from the back of the neck, this monkey approaches the At. hybridus, 
described in the 'Dictionnaire Classique d'Histoire Naturelle,' by 
M. Isidore Geoffroy- Saint Hilaire. In the latter, however, the co- 
lours of the body are varied and generally light, the darkest tint 
which is mentioned as occurring on the specimen described being 
the pure brown of the head and anterior limbs. In the Society's 
individual, on the contrary, the whole of the hairs, with the excep- 
tion of the frontal patch, are jet black : the naked parts of the skin 
are also black, except a flesh-coloured space on the face including 
the eyes, nose, and lips. It has been suspected that as the lighter- 
coloured species of Ateles advance in age they acquire the black 
which is so generally prevalent in the group ; but this change of 
colour yet remains to be proved. 

Some notes by Mr. Yarrell of an examination of the body of the 
lesser American Flying- Squirrel, (Pteromys volucella, Cuv.,) were 
read. The individual examined had lived in the Society's Collec- 
tion for upwards of a year. 

The pectoral muscles, and also the muscles of all the limbs were 
well marked and of large size ; the clavicles perfect ; and the general 
character of the bones similar to that of the Squirrels. The heart 
was comparatively large, and the lungs were formed of two unequally 
sized lobes on each side, bearing evident marks of inflammation ; 
the chest was capacious, the diaphragm being situated very low 
down, and dividing the body into two nearly equal cavities. The 
liver was composed of six lobes, varying in size, deeply divided, 
and placed three on each side ; the gall-bladder was small, elon- 
gated, and collapsed. The stomach in form and position resembled 
that of the Squirrel ; it was triangular, the apex forming the pyloric 
portion; the breadth l x vth of an inch, and I inch in depth. The 
length of the small intestines was 19^- inches ; the ccecum I inch ; 
the colon and rectum 7 inches; the ccecum also resembled that of our 
Squirrel in form, but the membrane connecting its inner surface 
being more free, the ccecum was less curved upon itself. The kid- 
neys measured each -rVths of an inch in length by -rVths in breadth ; 
they were inflamed ; and both ureters were also diseased and en- 
larged. The subject was a female, and the uterine cornua measured 
each 1 inch in length. The whole length of the intestinal canal was 
28 inches ; the length of the animal from the nose to the origin of 
the tail 4f inches. 



39 

The stomach, ccecum, and portions of the skeleton were laid ort 
the table. Mr. Brookes remarked that the cartilage which, passing 
from the carpus, affords support to the volitant membrane in the 
Flying- Squirrels , is found in all the Pteromyes and Sciuropteri ; but 
that it does not exist in Galeopithecus. 

One of the specimens of Suricate (Ryzcena tetradactyla, Ulig.), 
which were exhibited to the Committee on the 25th January, having 
died, the following notes respecting its anatomy were read by Mr. 
Owen. 

" The specimen was a female, and measured, from the end of the 
snout to the vent, 11 inches. On opening the body it was observed 
that the bile had exuded through the peritoneum, and had stained the 
ensiform cartilage close to which the fundus of the gall-bladder lay. 
The viscera of the abdomen presented a beautiful appearance when 
exposed; the liver occupied the hypochondriac and epigastric re- 
gions ; below this appeared the stomach with its vessels injected, 
and along the convexity of this organ the spleen swept across the 
abdomen from the left to the right lumbar region ; the convoluted 
intestines occupying the lower part. 

" The oesophagus has a course of about half an inch in the abdo* 
men, and enters the stomach half an inch from the left extremity 
of that viscus. The stomach is of a full oval shape, without any 
contraction in the middle, and retaining the same circumference to 
very near the pylorus : its longitudinal diameter is 2 inches j its 
depth 1 inch 10 lines. There is a large omentum, broadly attached 
to the stomach and spleen, which was hidden among the convolu- 
tions of the small intestines. The duodenum makes a large curve at 
the right side of the abdomen, is a loose intestine throughout its 
whole course, having a mesoduodenum which becomes shorter as it 
approaches the spine at the lower part of its curve ; it is continued 
into the jejunum before it crosses the spine. The small intestine 
then descends into the left iliac region, makes a sudden turn up- 
wards, and after a few convolutions again at the lower part of the 
abdomen, terminates in the ccecum which is situated in the left lum- 
bar region just above the left kidney. The circumference of the 
small intestines is nearly the same throughout their course, viz. 
1 inch ; their length 3 feet 2 inches. 

" The ccecum is nearly an inch in length, with a rounded extremity, 
and rather contracted at its commencement ; but its position and 
direction are the reverse of the ccecum in the human subject, having 
the blind end pointing to the diaphragm, and lying, as in birds, by 
the side of the small intestine, and in the direction of the large intes- 
tine, which is continued almost straight down to the anus. There 
is not any natural division into colon or rectum, the large intestine 
being without longitudinal bands or sacculi, and measuring in length 
only six inches. The circumference is rather more than that of the 
small intestines. 

«' The liver is tripartite, with globulus Spigelii ; the right division 
is bilobed ; the middle division has three lobes, with the gall bladder 



40 

lodged deep in the right fissure, and the coronary ligament in the 
left; the left division is entire. The gall-bladder is large j it had 
an irregularly contracted surface. The ductus choledochus enters 
the duodenum half an inch from the pylorus. 

(i The pancreas has a singular form. A thick transverse portion 
extends from the spleen behind the stomach to the pylorus ; it then 
divides and forms a circle, which lies in the concavity of the great 
curve of the duodenum ; sending off one or two processes in the 
mesoduodenum. 

" The spleen is a flat elongated body, four inches in length, about 
an inch in breadth, with the margins irregularly notched 5 one of 
these is thicker than the other, so as to give it the appearance of a 
three-sided body. Two large veins go from it to the vena portce ; 
on inflating these, the whole substance rose and became turgid, ap- 
pearing to be little else than a receptacle for venous blood. 

" The kidneys are small oval bodies, having the veins partly 
ramifying on their exterior, as in the Civet, the Genette, and the 
Cats. 

" The lungs have three lobes on the left side and four on the right, 
one of which lies in the mesial line behind and below the heart. This 
single lobe, which is very general in the Mammalia, has consider- 
able analogy with the lobulus Spigelii of the liver. 

iC The heart is oblong, with a round obtuse apex. The left 
brachial vein joins the superior cava ; the arch of the aorta gives off 
the two carotid arteries and the right brachial by a common trunk, 
then the left brachial artery. 

" The rings of the trachea are regular and of uniform size, in- 
complete behind, in number thirty-six. The arytenoid cartilages 
have thin elevated apices. The sides of the epiglottis extend back- 
wards as far as the cricoid cartilage, and it arches over the rima 
glottidis like a penthouse or shed. The thyroid gland consists of 
detached lobes lying below the larynx, in the interspace of the oeso- 
phagus and trachea. 

" The tongue measures one inch and eight lines ; it becomes 
gradually thinner to the tip, which is neatly rounded. The horny 
papillae are principally collected in three groups, one near the apex, 
and one on either side near the middle of the tongue. 

" The oesophagus has longitudinal ruga internally. 

u The parts of generation showed, by their vascular condition, 
evident traces of recent excitement: this individual, indeed, had 
been observed to receive the advances of the male a short time pre- 
vious to her death 5 but there was no visible proof of impregnation 
having taken place. The vagina had longitudinal rugce on its inner 
aspect j the urethra opened close to the external aperture, within a 
small fold of membrane, but without any appearance of clitoris. From 
the os tincce to the commencement of the cornua uteri was half an 
inch ; the cornua were an inch in length; the fold of peritoneum, or 
broad ligament, was continued from them as high as the upper part 
of the kidneys. The fallopian tubes made a turn round the ovaries, 
their extremities being closely attached to the capsules of these 



41 

glands. The ovaries themselves were small oval bodies, being about 
three lines in the long diameter, and were surrounded by a small cap- 
sule of peritoneum ; I observed on one part a small dark coloured 
speck, which was probably a corpus luteum. 

" Two small glandular follicles open on either side of the orifice 
of the urethra, and two larger spherical bags open at the verge of the 
anus ; these were filled with a white unctuous secretion, which had 
a faint odour, like the ordinary secretions of glandules odoriferce. 
The quantity of this secretion probably had reference to the con- 
dition of the sexual organs before alluded to. 

M The principal morbid appearances were in the lungs. They 
were of a dark livid colour, and in a state almost approaching to 
hepatization. Hurried and impeded respiration was the principal 
symptom noticed before death. The stomach and small intestines 
betrayed traces of inordinate vascular action. 

H In the structure of the alimentary canal, especially of the 
ccecum, and in the remarkable shortness of the large intestines, this 
animal has a close affinity with the Civet and Genette, as well as in 
the structure of the kidneys as before mentioned. The inferior sur- 
face of the tarsus is destitute of hair, as in many of the Viverridce, 
in the true plantigrade Mammalvt, and in the Kangaroo ; like the 
latter animal, the Suricate is in the habit of assuming the upright 
position, resting on the tarsus. It is carnivorous, and while in con- 
finement, manifested great agitation at the sight of small birds." 

In conclusion, Mr. Owen remarked, that the appearances which 
he had noticed, agreed with the description of the viscera of the ani- 
mal, as recorded by Daubenton, so far as that distinguished com- 
parative anatomist had observed them. 

The Chairman exhibited a collection of Birds which had been 
made in the Island of Mauritius by Mr. Telfair, an active and well 
known Corresponding Member of the Society. They had been 
consigned to Mr. Barclay of Bury Hill in Surrey, who had pre- 
sented them to the Society. Several species were of interest, as 
being confined to the Island and its immediate vicinity, and being 
uncommon in European collections: and others, although found in 
Europe, as affording some facts respecting the geographical range 
of species. Mr. Vigors proposed to lay a catalogue of the collec- 
tion before the Committee at an early Meeting; and on the present 
occasion named and characterized the following apparently new 
species of Spoonbill. 

Platalea Telfairji. Plat., corpore unicolore albo, rosaceo levU 
ter tincto ; regione circa rostrum, mandibida superiori, pedibus- 
que rubris ; mandibuld inferiori nigrescenti, basijlavd. 

Longitudo corporis a mandibular basi ad apicem cauda?, 25-^; 
rostri, 8 ; alee a carpo ad apicem remigis 2da?, 16 ; tarsi, 6 ; caudce, 6. 

The Chairman again resumed the exhibition of the Himalayan 
birds; and calling the attention of the Committee to the number of 
specks now known to belong to the genus Lanius as restricted by 



42 

modern authors, and to the expediency of subdividing the group 
according to the modifications of form exhibited in the wings and 
tail, proposed the following characters as separating the two ge- 
nera. 

Lanius. 

Rostrum longitudine mediocre, robustum, compressum, ad basin 
rectum, ad apicem curvatum, mandibular superioris tomiis fortiter 
emarginatis, dentem conspicuum exhibentibus ; naribus basalibus, 
lateralibus, fere rotundatis, membrana partim tectis $ rictu setis 
rigidis munito. 

Pedes mediocres ; digit is liberis ; acrotarsiis late scutellatis. 

Alee subacuminatae, subbreves ; remige prima brevissim&, tertid 
longissima, caeteris gradatim decrescentibus. 

Cauda brevis, aequalis aut subrotundata. 

Typus genericus, Lanius Collurio, Linn. 

Collurio. 

Rostrum pedes que ut in genere Lanio. 

Alee subrotundatae, breves; remige prima brevi, secund& sequen- 
tibus paullo breviore, tertia quarta et quinta fere aequalibus lon- 
gissimis. 

Cauda elongata, gradata. 

Typus genericus, lLanius Excubitor, Linn. 

To the latter group the following Himalayan species belong. 
Collurio Hardwickii. Coll. capitis parte anteriore, strigd per 
oculos ad collum extendente, alis, cauddque nigris ; capitis vertice, 
corpore infra, macula medid alarum, caudce tectricibus, rectricibus 
duabus lateralibus, cceterarumuue, quatuor mediis exceptis, basi 
apiceque albis ; occipite, nucha, dorsoque imo albescenti-griseis ; 
dorso medio lateribusque abdominis Jerrugineis. 
Rostrum pedesque nigri. Caput superne albo nigroque colore in 
duas fere partes transversim divisum. Longitudo corporis, 8 ; alee 
a carpo ad remigem 3tiam, 3-J-; rostri, f; tarsi, -g-; caudce, 3-|. 
Bay-backed Shrike, Lath.? Gen. Hist, vol.11, p. 13. sp. 6. 
This bird appears to be the same as that referred to in Dr. La- 
tham's work, the description of which is taken from one of the draw- 
ings of General Hanjwicke, to whom the species is inscribed. 
Collurio erythronotus. Coll. strigd Jrontali per oculos ad 
medium colli extendente, alis, rectricibusque quatuor mediis ni- 
gris ; capite supra, nucha, dorso superior i, rectricibusque latera- 
libus pallide cinereis ; corpore infra, alarum macula medid, remi- 
gum interiorum apicibus, rectricum lateralium marginibus omni- 
umque apicibus, albis ; scapularibus, dorso imo, abdominisque la- 
teribus Jerrugineis. 
Rostrum pedesque nigri, illius mandibular inferior!* ad basin flaves- 
centi. Striga per oculos nigra, supra graciliter albo marginata. 
Tectrices alarum inferiores albae. Longitudo corporis, 10J- ; alee a 
carpo ad apicem remigis 3tiae, 34; rostri, .g- ; tarsi, 1^; caudce, 4-J-. 
This bird was observed to bear a great resemblance to the de- 



43 

scription of the grey-backed Shrike of Dr. Latham, (Gen. Hist. vol. ii. 
p. 9. sp.S.) but to differ from it in the colours of the lesser wing- 
coverts and tail ; the former being all black in the Himalayan spe- 
cies, and blue grey, ending in pale rufous in Dr. Latham's, while the 
tail in the former species had four black middle feathers and the 
rest cinereous, but in the latter had the two middle ones only black, 
the rest being white. In a group exhibiting so much similarity in 
the disposition of the colours as the present, such differences are 
material as distinguishing species. 

Collurio tephronotus. Coll. fascid frontali pergracili ad 
medium colli per oculos latius extendente nigra ; capite, nucha", 
scapularibus, dorsoque saturatius cinereis ; collo anteriori pecto~ 
reque albescentibus, hocjiisco graciliter fasciato ; abdomine cris- 
soque ferrugineis ; alis caudaque brunneofuscis, apicibus palli- 
dioribus ; dorso imo iectricib usque caudce superioribus subrufes- 
centibus. 
Tectrices alarum inferiores ferrugineo fuscoque notatae. Statura 
paullo minor quam in specie praecedenti. 

This bird also was observed to be closely allied to the last, and 
to differ from it probably only in sex or age. Until such points 
however could be ascertained, it was considered adviseable to regard 
it as specifically distinct. 

Another interesting modification of form was exhibited among the 
Shrikes, in which the forked tail, acuminated wing, and short and 
feeble legs of the birds allied to Dicrurus appeared united to the 
head and bill of some of the Stares, particularly the genus Pastor. 
Mr.Vigors characterized the form under the generic name of 

Hypsipetes. 

Rostrum subelongatum, debile, parum curvatum, apice leviter 
emarginatum ; naribus basalibus, lateralibus, longitudinalibus, mem- 
brana partim clausis; rictus setis paucis, parum rigidis. 

Alee subelongatae, subacuminatae ; remige prima brevi, secunda 
longiori septimae aequali, tertia et sexta aequalibus, quarta et quinta 
aequalibus longissimis. 

Pedes brevissimi, debiliores ; acrotarsiis scutellatis. 

Cauda subelongata, forficata, rectricibus extrorsum spectantibus. 

Hypsipetes Psaroides. Hyps, capite supra subcristato, remi- 

gum apicibus , rectricibus que nigris ; corpore alisque cineraceo- 

griseis ; abdomine imo crissoque pallidioribus . 

Rostrum pedesque fiavi. Tectricum alarum remigumque pogonia 

interna fusca. Tectrices alarum inferiores cineraceo griseae. Lon- 

gitudo corporis, 1H; alee a carpo ad apicem remigis 3tiae, 5 ; rostri 

1 ; tarsi, ■§■ ; caudce, 4^. 

The following species were also exhibited and described. 
Muscipeta brevirostris. Mas. Muse, capite, collo, nucha, 
dorso superiori, alis, rectricibusque mediis splendenti -nigris ; 
corpore infra, dorso imo, pteromatum apicibus, fascia remigum, 
rectricibusque lateralibus splendide coccineis ; rostro brevi, sub- 
debili. 



41 

Fcem? Fronte, corpora infra, dorso imo,fasciA alarum, rectrici- 
busque lateralibus favis ; capite, nucha 4 , scapularibus, dorsoque 
superiori griseis ; alts rectricibusque mediis nigris, 

Longitudo corporis, 8-J- ; alee, 3-J- ; rostri, X V ; tarsi, -§- ; caudcz, 4. 

Carduelis spinoides. Mas. Card, fronte, occipite, collo corpo- 
reque infra, ptilis, pteromatum apicibus* fascia remigum, rectri- 
cumque later alium basibus flavis ; capite supra dorsoque oliva- 
ceis ; alis cauddquefuscescenti -nigris. 

Fcem. ? Coloribus minus saturatis ; abdomine dorsoque olivaceo- 
fusco striatis. 

Statura paulo major quam Card. Spini. 

Picus auriceps. Mas. Pic. capite supra aureo; occipite, cbdomine 
imo, crissoque coccineis ; colli parte posteriori et striga utrinque 
laterali, corporeque supra nigris ; colli parte frontali et lateribus, 
corporeque infra albis, hoc nigro striato ; scapularibus, pteroma- 
tibus, remigibus, rectricibusque lateralibus atbo-maculatis ; dorso 
medio griseo, albo nigroquefasciato. 

Fcem. Sine nota coccined occipitali. 

Statura Pic. mediL 

Picus pygm^eus. Mas. Pic. capite supra dorsoque medio griseo- 
canis, hoc albo nigro que fa sciato ; striga utrinque per oculos ad 
nucham extendente, guld, maculisque pteromatum remigum et 
rectricum lateralium albis; pectore abdomineque albescentibus, 
fusco graciliter striatis ; not a longitudinall gracili utrinque post 
oculos coccined. 

Fcem. Sine nota coccined postoculari. 

Statura minor quam Pic. minoris. 

The male exhibited of this species was observed to have the two 
middle tail feathers elongated beyond the rest, and the lateral fea- 
thers were shown to be altogether soft and flexible, like those of 
the genus Picumnus, Tenira. 

Cinnyris GouLDiiE. C'mn. capite supra, gidd colloque in fronte, 
regione auriculari, striga utrinque gracili ad latera colli usque 
ad humeros extendente, uropygio, caudce tectricibus, rectrici- 
busque duabus mediis elongatis purpureo et cceruleo metallice 
splendetdibus; capitis lateribus, occipite, nucha, scapularibus, dorso 
summo, ptilisque sanguineo-rubris ; dorso imo, pectore, abdomi- 
neque sulphur eis, his sanguineo sparsis ; remigibus rectricibusque 
lateralibus fuscis. 

Longitudo circiter 5 uncias. 

Mr. Vigors expressed the pleasure which he felt in dedicating 
this species to the accomplished artist, Mrs. Gould, who executed 
the plates of these Himalayan birds. 



March 8, 1831. 

Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart, in the Chair. 

The Report on the animals for the importation of which the Coun- 
cil should be recommended to take measures (prepared in pursuance 
of a Resolution of the Committee, Jan. 1 1.), was presented and read 
by Mr. Vigors. It was directed that it should be suspended in the 
Meeting Room for the consideration of the Members of the Com- 
mittee until the next Meeting, to which it should be again submitted, 
and its adoption be recommended. 

An extract was read from the ? Lecture faite a la lere Seance 
Annuelle de la Societe d'Histoire Naturelle de Tlsle Maurice, 
24 Aout, 1830, par M. Julien Desjardins, Secretaire de la Societe/ 
a manuscript copy of which had been transmitted by that Society. 

The zoological labours of the Mauritius Natural History Society 
have, during the first year of its existence, embraced numerous de- 
partments of animated nature. 

The Mammalia of the island have been treated of by M. J. Desjar- 
dins. They are twenty-six in number, of which twelve only exist in 
the wild state. These are enumerated as the Simia Aygula, L. ; 
Pteropus vulgaris ; Pter. rubricollis, Geoff, j Nyctinomus acetabulo- 
sus, Geoff. ; Taphozous Mauritianus, Geoff, j Erinaceus setosus, L. j 
Sorex Indicus, Geoff, j Mus Rattus, L. ; Mus Musculus, L. $ Lepus 
nigricollis; Sus scrofa, L. ; and Cervus Elaphus, L. 

Various Birds of Mauritius have been brought before the Society, 
including the Fulica Chloropus, L. ; the Numenius Madagascar iensis, 
Briss. 5 and a Snipe, known in the island as the Cul blanc. To the 
latter M.L. Desjardins has given, with some doubts, the name of Sco- 
lopax Mauritiana. 

Several birds from Madagascar have also occupied the attention of 
the Society, and M. J. Desjardins has identified them as follows : two 
species of Falco, Cuv. j Strix Jlammea, L. , Loxia Madagascar iensis, 
L. j Corvus Dauricus, Lath. 5 a species of Regulus, Cuv. ; Cuculus 
canorusy L. ; Tetrao Commix, L. ; Scopus Umbretta ; Rallus Mada- 
gascariensis, n. s. j Fulica Chloropus, L. ; Fulica cristata, Gmel. ; 
Scolopax Capensis, L.; Colymbus minor, L. ; and four species of the 
genus Anas, L. 

There are very few Reptiles met with on the island. An instance 
has occurred of the discovery of a living Snake, the second within 
the memory of the inhabitants. It was the Coluber rufus, LaCep.; 
and had probably been brought from India in some ship. The earlier 
travellers speak of the existence of Tortoises, but none are now found. 
M. J. Desjardins has, however, discovered three deposits of the re- 
mains of these animals, all of which are evidently of modern date, 
their age not exceeding two or three centuries. There are two 

[No. V,] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. ov Science. 



46 

Saurian Reptiles, which, although common, remained undescribed 
until M. L. Desjardins gave to them the names of Scincus Telfairii 
and Seine. Bojerii : he has also described a third, smaller and much 
more uncommon than the others, the Seme. Boutonii. 

Three new species of Fishes have been described and figured by 
M. T. Delisse. They are a Heniochus, Cuv. j a Holacanthus, Cuv. -, 
and an Ophidium, L. 

In invertebrated animals, especially those which inhabit the sea, 
Mauritius is rich. Among the Annelida, M. Lieriard, sen. has de- 
scribed an Amphitrite, which he believes to be new : he has also 
described the Amph. voluticornis and Amph. splendida, Lam., together 
with three new species, the Amph.fuscata, albicans, and tricolor. A 
lacustrine Erpobdella has been described by M. L. Desjardins, who 
has preserved to it the trivial name of sex-lineata, doubtingly given 
by MM. Quoy and Gaimard. Three new species of Crustacea, of the 
genera Lupa, Plagusia, and Cancer, have been described by M. Lie- 
nardjun.: and M. De Lisse, sen., has proposed to regard as the type 
of a new genus the Homard sans cornes of the fishermen ; to this 
group he gives the name of Scyllibacus, and places it between Scylla- 
rus, Fab. and Ibacus, Per. The species is named Scyllibacus orientalis. 
Many Insects have been exhibited at the meetings of the Society, and 
M. J. Desjardins has read a description and history of the metamor- 
phoses of the Coccinella sulphurea, Oliv. Among the Cirrhipeda a 
new species of Pentalasmis, allied to Pent, striata, Leach, has been de- 
scribed by M. Desjardins under the name of Anatifa Mauritiana. 

The Radiata which have been described, are a species of Fistularia, 
Lam., and anew species of Cephea, the Ceph. lamellosa, so named by 
M. Li6nard, jun. on account of the foliaceous lamellce which cover 
the under surface of its arms. 

Among the Mollusca, six species of Doris have been described by 
M. Li£nard, sen., to one of which, regarded by him as new, he has 
given the name of Dor. marginata. The same gentleman has also de- 
scribed a Pleurobranchus. M. Lienard, jun. has described another 
species of Doris, and has given a description of a Dolabella, with 
an account of its anatomy. 

Such is a brief outline of the zoological labours of the Mauritius 
Natural History Society, which within the short period of its exist- 
ence has received no less than fifty memoirs, descriptions, and notices 
on different branches of natural science. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Martin read his notes of the 
dissection of a specimen of the Testudo Indica, L., which recently- 
died at the Society's Gardens. 

The animal was of large size, although considerably less than one 
formerly in the possession of the Society, the dissection of which, 
by Mr. Yarrell, has been published in the Zoological Journal. The 
carapace or dorsal shell measured 2 feet 1 1 inches in length, and the 
plastron or ventral shell 2 feet 4? inches. The breadth was 1 foot 
9 inches. 

The length of the stomach was 2 feet ; the circumference in the 



47 

largest part 1 foot 3 inches ; its shape a flattened oval, contracting 
gradually towards the pylorus. On opening it, the coats, and espe- 
cially the middle or muscular, were found extremely thick and firm, 
and increasing in thickness towards the pylorus, which protruded in 
a singular manner, to the distance of nearly an inch into the duo- 
denum, at which part a few longitudinal rugae were observed, the 
rest of the lining membrane being perfectly smooth. It contained 
a little fluid only. The liver presented nothing remarkable ; it con- 
sisted of two principal lobes, in the right of which the gall-bladder 
was buried, so as just to show itself; the length of the gall-bladder 
was 2 inches. 

The small intestines were thick and firm, their length being 3 feet 
6 inches. The gall-duct enters the duodenum 3 inches, and the 
pancreatic duct 10 inches, below the pyloric orifice. On laying open 
the small intestines, their lining membrane appeared corrugated with 
numerous longitudinal rugce, and they were found perfectly empty. 

The large intestines were smooth on their internal surface, and 
filled with an immense mass of condensed vegetable matter, which 
was green and fibrous, and appeared to have only partially under- 
gone the process of digestion. In the colon near the entrance of the 
small intestines were two or three small black patches, seemingly 
gangrenous. There was no ccecum. The circumference of the colon 
measured 9 inches. The length of the large intestines was 6 feet 
8 inches, exclusive of the cloaca, which was 1 foot. 

At the lower part of the abdomen, (in a singular cavity, formed by 
a diaphragm-like expansion of peritoneum, from which, to the oppo- 
site or extreme side, passed numerous bands, bearing a resemblance 
to the chorda tendinece,)the urinary bladder, of enormous capacity,was 
lying loose, irregularly folded, but containing a considerable quan- 
tity of viscid fluid : its parietes were thin, but very fibrous in texture. 
When moderately distended with air, its shape was made manifest, 
as trilobed, or rather, as consisting of one large central bag, from 
each side of which, a conical process jutted out ; the extent from 
point to point being 1 foot 10 inches. It opened by a neck of about 
3 inches in length, and closely invested with lung, into the cloaca, 
about 6 inches from its termination ; the penis was long and deeply 
furrowed, and the glans large at the base, with a pointed apex. 

The lungs were very florid in colour, and extremely light, spongy, 
and cellular, the cells being large and distinct. They extended the 
whole length of the carapace. 

The kidneys were situated at the back of the abdomen, in shape 
oval; flat on one side, convex on the other; about 5 inches long, 
2| inches broad, and consisting of numerous lobes, which gave to 
their surface a furrowed or brain-like appearance ; the relative 
proportion of the venous ramification in them was found to exceed 
that of the arterial. 

As regards the death of the animal, nothing positive could be 
determined ; but it appeared to Mr. Martin, from the black patches 
about the colon, and the quantity of undigested matter in the large 
intestines, to have resulted principally from an unnatural accumu- 
lation of faecal matter, and the attending evil consequences. 



43 



March 22, 1831. 

Joshua Brookes, Esq. in the Chair. 

The Report on the animals for the importation of which the Coun- 
cil should be recommended to take measures, was again brought 
under the consideration of the Committee, and was adopted. 

A Report from Mr. Miller, the Superintendent of the Society's 
Gardens, was read, explanatory of the circumstances attending the 
birth of the Armadillos. On the morning of the 1st February it was 
discovered that the female had made a nest of straw, close up to 
the pipe that conveys the warm water round the building, and had 
brought forth two young, which were quite blind, and measured 
about four inches from the head to the tail. The male was imme- 
diately removed to another cage, but it was supposed that he had 
injured one of the young ones on the head before they were disco- 
vered, of which hurt it died on the following morning. At that time 
the other young one seemed to be perfectly well, and was sucking} 
but it also was found dead on the morning of the 3rd of February. It 
was bitten on several parts of the head by the mother. It is probable 
that the injuries were inflicted by her in consequence of her young 
ones having been moved about j and measures have been adopted to 
prevent the recurrence of such disturbance on any future occasion. 

The following notes on the Ctenodactylus Massonii, Gray, were 
read by Mr. Yarrell : — 

" The death of two examples of an interesting little animal from 
Barbary, very similar to the Lemmings in external appearance, has 
enabled me to place before the Committee some particulars of struc- 
ture and anatomy which possess considerable novelty. The subjects 
themselves were presented to the Society by Hanmer Warrington, 
Esq., British Consul at Tripoli, a Corresponding Member of this So- 
ciety, and one of its most liberal donors. 

" From two preserved skins of the same species, in the collection 
at the British Museum, Mr. Gray, in his ' Spicilegia Zoologica,' has 
lately published an account of this animal, under the name of Cteno- 
dactylus Massonii. These specimens were received from the Cape of 
Good Hope, and were considered new to science. There is reason 
however to believe, as suggested by Mr. Ogilby, that all the four 
specimens may be considered identical with the Mus Gundi of Roth- 
man, on whose description is founded the Arctomys Gundi of Gmelin 
and other writers, and the Gundi Marmot of Pennant's Zoology, 
vol. ii. p. 137 : Rothman's short description coincides with the animal 
in question, and he states that his species inhabits Barbary, towards 
Mount Atlas, near Massufin. 

" The resources of the Society furnish the following additional 
particulars : — 



49 

* v The length of the animal from the nose to the origin of the tail 
is eight inches ; of the tail itself, one inch. The general external re- 
semblance to the well-known Lemmings has been noticed, but these 
examples have but four toes on each foot, with one small naked pad 
under each toe : the two middle toes are the longest and equal, the 
outer toe the shortest, the inner toe intermediate in length, and on 
the hind feet of remarkable structure. 

" Immediately above a short curved nail there is a transverse row 
of horny points forming a pectinated apparatus j above this is a se- 
cond parallel row of stiff white bristles j and over this, a third row of 
bristles, which are much longer and more flexible : there are thus 
three distinct parallel rows of points of unequal firmness. The toe 
next the inner one has two small fleshy tubercles above the nail, 
covered by two rows of bristles, the under one short, the upper long ; 
it has no horny points. The two outer toes, without tubercles, have 
each only one tuft of long bristles. 

" With this described comb-like instrument on the inner toe only 
of each hind foot, the little animals were observed to be continually 
dressing their soft light brown fur ; and the facility with which they 
managed to reach every part of each lateral half with the toe of the 
foot on that side, as well as the rapidity of the motion, were very re- 
markable. 

u When walking, the whole length of the hinder foot, from toe to 
heel, was placed upon the ground 3 of the anterior extremity the 
toes only rested on the ground. 

u When deprived of the skin, the head appears large compared to 
the bulk of the body ; it is wide and flattened in form : the meatus au- 
ditorius externus is elongated, forming a tube 2-10ths of an inch in 
length on the inferior surface, and lined with a dense black pigment. 
No cheek pouches exist. The teeth are of singular character, 
the molars of the upper and under jaws being decidedly different. 

a n o o 

Incisors 33 canine tt, molars jr~q« The incisors of the upper jaw are 

stout, square and truncated j the molars are oblong, flat and plain 
on the inside, with one indentation on the outerside. The incisors 
of the lower jaw are slender and pointed j the molars somewhat dia- 
mond or lozenge-shaped, with one indentation between each of the 
four angles. This character more particularly applies to the two an- 
terior molar teeth of each jaw, the last molar tooth, both above and 
below, being more elongated. From the superior incisors to the 
molars, the roof of the mouth presented four prominent tubercles ante- 
rior to the usual rough expanse of the palate. The pharynx and eso- 
phagus were narrow. The lungs were made up of one large and two 
small lobes on each side j the heart presented nothing remarkable. 
The liver paler than natural, soft, and granulated in appearance, was 
composed of two small and one large lobe on the right side, and two 
equal-sized lobes on the left : the gall-bladder large and spherical. 
The spleen measured 1 inch and 7-10ths in length, and 6-10ths in 
width. The stomach, a single cavity, without any apparent division, 
measured 1 inch and 2-10ths in depth, in the direction of the entrance 



50 

of the cesophagus, and 2 inches in breadth : the pyloric orifice con- 
tracted, the duodenum dilated to I inch and 2-10ths in circumference: 
length of the small intestines 2 feet and 9 inches. The ccecum 3 inches 
in length, curved upon itself, 2 inches and 4-10ths in circumference, 
and divided by numerous septa. The colon equally large at the com- 
mencement, but gradually diminishing : at the distance of 7 inches 
from the insertion of the ileum it was of small calibre, occasionally 
dilated, forming sacculi, in which the faecal matter was collected and 
detained. The rectum narrow and uniform in size ; the whole length 
of colon and rectum 3 feet 8 inches. The kidney of the right side was 
two-thirds of its length in advance of that on the left : each mea- 
sured 7-10ths of an inch in its longest diameter, and 4-10ths in 
width. 

M Some peculiarities observed in these little animals are worthy of 
notice. The molar teeth, as before stated, presented the singular 
anomaly of those of the upper jaw being different in their structure 
and surfaces from those of the lower jaw. The former, in their 
crowns, are very similar to those figured by M. F. Cuvier, as pecu- 
liar to his genus Helamys {Pedetes, IHig.) j while those of the lower 
jaw somewhat resemble the teeth of the various species of Arvicola. 
The stomach, in form and pyloric contraction, is like the same organ 
in the Lemmings (Lemmus), Jerboas (Dipus), and Gerbilles (Ger- 
billus). The ccecum resembles that of the Guinea-Pig {Cobaya), 
Agouti (Dasyprocta), and Marmot (Arctomys) ; while the sacculated 
form of the colon is found in the common House-Rat (Mus decuma- 
nusy L.) 

•* Both the specimens possessed by the Society proved to be 
females. The skin of one has been preserved for the Museum : the 
bones of the other are in preparation for a skeleton, and when 
mounted may probably be the subject of further notice." 

Mr. Yarrell having concluded the reading of his notes, it was stated 
by Mr. Ogilbv, that since the time when he had originally mentioned 
his belief of the identity of the Ctenodaciylus Massonii with the Gundi 
Marmot, that opinion had been confirmed by a passage in Captain 
Lyon's Travels in Northern Africa, in which the Gundi is so well 
described, as to leave no doubt on his mind of its being the same animal 
as those presented to the Society by Mr. Warrington. 

Mr. Gray remarked, that the individuals of the Ctenodactylus Mas- 
sonii which he had described, having been sent from the Cape of Good 
Hope, he did not suspect their specific identity with an animal from 
Barbary, known to science by short and imperfect notes alone, and of 
which no specimen was recorded as existing in any collection. He 
added, that the size mentioned by Rohtman,that of a small rabbit, ap- 
peared to him to be greater than should be attributed to the animal in 
question ; which, moreover, he could not regard as being of a testa- 
ceous red colour. In the other particulars mentioned in Rothman's 
brief description, his Mus Gundi agreed well with the Ctenodaclylw 
Massonii. 

A specimen was exhibited of the Otis Kori, Buret)., which forms 



51 

part of the collection of Mr. Gould. This gigantic species of Bustard, 
the largest yet known of its genus, measures upwards of five feet in 
height. No figure of it has yet appeared, nor is it described in any 
of the general works on ornithology j but its characters will be found, 
together with some other particulars respecting it, in Mr. Burchell's 
Travels In Southern Africa, vol. i. p. 393. 

The following notes on the anatomy of a male Suricate were read 
by Mr. Owen : — 

" Since I had the honour to lay before the Committee an account 
of the anatomy of the female Suricate, her male companion, the only 
surviving specimen which the Society possessed of this interesting 
species, has also died. This circumstance, otherwise to be regretted, 
has enabled me to add the following particulars to that account. 

" The rugce of the cesophagus are longitudinal throughout the 
whole length of the tube ; — in the Lion, and some others of the feline 
genus, the rugce are transverse at the lower or terminal half of the 
cesophagus; — thecuticular lining is continued about two lines into the 
cavity of the stomach, where it terminates by a well-defined edge. 
This viscus, which was found moderately distended, presented no 
rugce on the inner aspect, but was lined by a simply villous membrane, 
to which layers of coagulated mucus adhered very firmly. The mus- 
cular coat was thicker, as is usual, at the pylorus : this aperture was 
very small, not more than a line in diameter. An inch beyond this 
part the biliary and hepatic ducts entered by a common orifice. 
The interior of the small intestines presented a finely villous surface; 
and in the ileum were five patches of glandulce aggregates, about half 
an inch in diameter, with intervals of four or five inches : the largest 
of these patches was situated at the termination of the ileum. The 
apex of the ccecum was occupied by a similar glandular structure. 
The terminal orifice of the ileum was of a circular form, about two 
lines in diameter, with a tumid margin, but unprovided with a val- 
vular structure. In the lining membrane of the short tract of* large 
intestines, villi were not perceptible to the naked eye. The verge of 
the anus was covered by the apertures of numerous follicular glands. 

** The disposition and admeasurements of the alimentary canal 
corresponded with those of the female previously given. The spleen 
was one-third smaller ; the pancreas had the same peculiar form, re- 
sembling the neutral symbol of the entomologist?. The liver had the 
same minutely mottled aspect which was observed in the female ; but 
on employing the test of injection,' the vascularity of the small bodies, 
which might have been mistaken for tubercles, became immediately 
evident, proving them to be the acini of the liver, remarkably dis- 
tinct in this animal. The inner surface of the. gall-bladder and its 
duct was villous, but without rugce or valvular structure. The tubu- 
lar structure of the kidneys terminates in a single pointed papilla : 
the ureters communicate, and end by a common orifice at the middle 
of the posterior surface of the bladder. 

" The testes were about the size of horse-beans, and lay upon the 
pubes ; the integument covering them had not any distinct appearance 



52 

of scrotum. The extremities of the epididymis or globi were propor- 
tionately large. The vas deferens had a blind process on each side. 
The urinary bladder was contracted, and its coats consequently were 
thick : the membranous portion of the urethra was one inch and a 
half long, and its canal wide. The prostatic glands, analogous in 
their situation to Cowper's, were two in number, and as large as the 
testes; each terminated by a single wide duct, a few lines from the 
extremity of the glans. An interesting provision exists to prevent the 
secretions of these glands being driven into the large extent of urethra, 
which lies between them and the bladder : the inner membrane of 
the canal is raised in a semilunar fold behind the entrance of the ducts, 
which must act as a very complete valve during the turgescent state 
of the parietes of the canal. The penis is about eight lines in length ; 
the glans of a pointed form, unarmed, the external orifice a lon- 
gitudinal groove directed backwards. 

" Both animals died with the pupil expanded, and of a circular 
form." 

A description of the Chiru Antelope, by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 
dated Valley of Nepal, Oct. 18, 1830, was read. — This animal, the 
supposed Unicorn of the Bhotians, was first described imperfectly 
by Dr. Abel, from an injured skin, and the notes of Mr. Hodgson. 
Dr. Abel gave to it the name of Antilope Hodgsonii ; and it has 
subsequently been mentioned by M. Lesson as the Ant, Chiru, and 
by Major Hamilton Smith as the Ant. Kemas? Opportunities which 
have occurred since his original notes were prepared have enabled 
Mr. Hodgson to make some additional observations on other indi- 
viduals, the results of which are given in the present paper. The 
species may be characterized as follows : — 

Ant. Hodgsonii, Abel. Ant. cornubus longissimis, compressis, 
gradatim attenuatis, suberectis, lyratis, annulis \5- c 20antice pro- 
minentibus, apicibus tantum Icevibus : vellere duplici ; interno la- 
nato cinerascenti-cceruleo ; externo piloso superne cervino, inferrie 
albo : tumore molli utrinque supra nares. 
Fcem. simillima ? 

Longitudo circa 5 ped. ; alt. ad humeros 1\ — 3 ped. 
In form the Chiru Antelope approaches the Deer. Its limbs are 
long and slender, but not weak ■ its neck is also rather elongated 
and slender : its head tapers forwards, but is somewhat deficient in 
elegance on account of the nasal tufts, and of a rather unusual 
quantity of hair and bristles about the mouth and nose. In its or- 
dinary attitude the line of the back is nearly horizontal ; the neck 
is bowed outwards and downwards, so that the head is carried not 
much above the level of the back ■ and there is a stoop in the hind 
legs on account of which, though they are rather longer than the 
fore legs, the hind quarters are not perceptibly raised. 

The ears and tail are moderate, and devoid of any peculiarity; 
so likewise are the suborbital sinuses. The horns are exceedingly 
long, measuring in some individuals nearly two feet and a half. 
They are placed very forward on the head, and may be popularly 



53 

said to be erect and straight, although properly speaking they bend 
forwards and outwards, and become suddenly incurved towards their 
tips. These latter are rather acute, and the horns near them be- 
come round; below they are laterally compressed, and are marked 
by a series of from fifteen to twenty rings, extending from the base 
to within six inches of the tip. On the lateral and dorsal surfaces 
of the horn these rings are little elevated, and present a wavy rather 
than a ridged appearance ; but on the frontal surface they exhibit a 
succession of heavy, large ridges, with furrows between. 

Close to the outer margin of either nostril is a soft, fleshy, or ra- 
ther skinny, tumour or tuft, about the size and shape of the half of 
a domestic fowl's egg. These tufts, the purpose of which Mr. 
Hodgson has been unable to discover, appear to be peculiar to the 
Chiru. 

In its double covering the Chiru agrees with all the hairy animals 
of Tibet; where not merely the goats and sheep, but the dogs, 
horses, and kine, possess an under fleece of soft and fine wool. The 
hair forming the external coat is about two inches long, and so 
closely set as to present to the touch an impression of solidity ; it 
is straight, nearly erect, rather harsh, and feeble, being for the most 
part hollow like a quill. Grey blue is the general colour of the 
hair throughout nine-tenths of its extent from root to tip, as well as 
exclusively so of the wool beneath the hair. This radical and 
prevalent colour is, however, but dimly seen through the external 
or superficial hues with which it is overlaid ; hues which on the 
upper parts of the animal are fawn-red, and on its under surface 
and the inside of its limbs are white. The shoulders are faintly 
marked by a tracing of colour lighter than that of the surround- 
ing parts. Down the front of all the legs runs a black line reaching 
to the hoofs on the fore legs, but to the knees only on the hind 
legs. The forehead is perfectly black, and a fringe of the same 
hue proceeding from the bottom of the frontal skin passes round 
the outsides of the nasal tufts. These tufts, as well as the rim 
surrounding them, are black ; as are also the bristles of the mouth 
and lips ; the few hairs, however, which depend from the lower 
lip are white. 

Some of the dimensions of the fully grown young male from which 
the preceding description was taken are as follow : Entire length, 
4- feet 11 inches ; length, minus tail, 4- feet 2-^ inches j length, minus 
head and tail, 3 feet 64- inches ; height at the shoulder, 2 feet 8 
inches j height of the fore-leg, 1 foot 8 inches ; of the hinder leg, 
1 foot 9 inches ; length of the horns, 2 feet £ inch ; basal depth of 
the horns, fore and aft, 2i inches, from side to side, H inch. 

The Chiru Antelope is highly gregarious, being usually found in 
herds of several scores and even hundreds. It is extremely wild 
and unapproachable by man, to avoid whom it relies chiefly on its 
wariness and speed ; but though shy it is not timid, for if over- 
taken it meets danger with a gallant bearing. The individual which 
was kept alive at the Residency, though captured very young, was 
perfectly fearless, and could only be approached with caution. It 



54 

is said by some to inhabit the plains of Tibet generally ; while, ac- 
cording to others, it is confined to those plains which are within 
sight of mountains, especially of the Hemachal mountains. It 
cannot bear even the moderate heats of the valley of Nepal ; an in- 
dividual belonging to the Lama of Digurchee, having died at the 
commencement of the hot season, when the maximum of tempera- 
ture was only 80°, a temperature seldom reached for two hours a 
day or for two days of that month, March. 

The Chiru is extremely addicted to the use of salt in the summer 
months, when vast herds are often seen at some of the rock-salt- 
beds which so much abound in Tibet. They are said to advance 
under the conduct of a leader, and to post sentinels around the 
beds before they attempt to feed. 

To complete this abstract of Mr. Hodgson's account of the Chiru, 
it may be added, that at the following meeting of the Committee 
there was exhibited a drawing of its head and horns, which had 
been subsequently transmitted by that gentleman ; together with a 
duplicate of his paper, to which he had added that he had recently 
seen a very old male, in which the dark parts had become grizzled 
and almost white. 

Mr. Vigors recalled the attention of the Committee to the sub- 
ject of the Himalayan Birds ; confining his observations this evening 
to some species of the family of Merulidce or Thrushes. Among 
these was a new species closely allied to the common European 
Blackbird, exhibiting the yellow bill and general black plumage of 
that bird, but differing from it in the varied markings of the wing. 
It was characterized as follows. 

Turdus pcecilopterus. Mas. Turd, corpore nigro, abdomine 
imo subcinerascenti-Jusco ; remigum mediarum pogoniis externis 
pteromatib usque cineraceo-griseis, his apice albis ; rostro pedi* 
busquejlavis. 
Fcem.? Corpore suprh brunnescenti-griseo, subtus pallidiori ; ptero- 
matibus remigumque mediarum pogoniis externis ui in mari nota- 
tis, sed colore subrufescenti tinctis. 
Statura fere Turdi Merulce, Linn. 

A species of Cinclus was exhibited, differing from the European 
in the uniform colouring of the plumage. Mr. Vigors expressed 
his opinion that it was the same species as that discovered in the 
Crimea by Pallas, and described by M. Temminck in his ' Manuel' 
as having " tout le plumage, sans exception, d'une seule nuance 
brune, couleur de chocolat." 

The following may be given as its specific character. 

Cinclus Pallasii, Temm. Cincl. unicolor, i?dense brunneus ; 

rostro pedib usque fuscis. 
Statura Cincli aquatici, Bechst. 

Mr. Vigors referring to the bird which had been described by the 
Prince of Musignano among the species from the Rocky Moun- " 
tains, added to his Synopsis of North American Birds in the 'Annals 
of the Lyceum of New York,' [p. 439, sp. 94 bis], and which was 



55 

conjectured by that distinguished naturalist to be the same as the 
Cinclus Pallasii, stated that upon comparing the original specimen, 
so described by the Prince, with the present bird, he found them 
perfectly distinct. The American bird is of a deep ashen grey co- 
lour, the Himalayan of a chocolate brown ; — the bill of the former is 
yellow with a dark apex, and the legs are yellow, the same mem- 
bers in the latter being fuscous. There are thus three species well 
known of this genus ; the CincL aquaticus, Pallasii, and unicolor, 
which latter name had been originally given by the Prince of Mu- 
signano to the American bird, on the supposition of its being dis- 
tinct. The CincL Mexicanus, Swains., [Phil. Mag. July 1827], if 
not the same as the Rocky Mountain bird, as stated in the 'Annals 
of the Lyceum,' will form a fourth species. 

A series of Birds belonging to this family were then exhibited, 
which Mr. Vigors referred to a group characterized by Dr. Hors- 
field and himself in the 15th volume of the ' Linnean Transactions,' 
under the name of Cinclosoma, the type of which was an Australian 
species, the Turdus punctatus of Dr. Latham. Mr. Vigors pointed 
out the characters that seemed to distinguish the true Thrush, or 
the type of the restricted genus Turdus, Auct. j which consist in 
a subacuminated wing, in which the first quill feather is ex- 
tremely short, almost spurious, the second somewhat shorter than 
the third, and the third, fourth and fifth almost equal, and the 
longest ; in the tail being even, and of moderate length ; and in the 
acroiarsia or front covering of the tarsi being generally entire, or 
undivided by any perceptible scales. To this typical division of the 
family belong the Throstle, Blackbird, Ring- Ouzel, Red- Wing, Field- 
fare, and Missel Thrush of Europe, the migratory Thrush of North 
America, the Himalayan Blackbird just described of India, the 
varied Thrush of New Holland, &c. &c. On the contrary, the group 
of Cinclosoma, while it exhibits the general characters of the bill of 
the true Thrushes, although partially modified in some of the spe- 
cies, displays an entirely different conformation of the wing and 
tail ; the former of these members is comparatively short, and 
rounded, the first quill feather being of moderate length, the se- 
cond, third, fourth, and fifth, gradually increasing in length ; the fifth, 
sixth, seventh and eighth, nearly equal; and the rest gradually de- 
creasing j the tail at the same time being lengthened and gra- 
duated, as is usually the case in birds where the wings are short 
and rounded. The scales also of the acrotarsia in Cinclosoma .are 
conspicuously distinct. In this group the feathers are generally de- 
composed, as has been observed to be the case in the genus Ti- 
malia, Horsf, to which it bears a close affinity, and from which per- 
haps it can only be separated by the more short and arched beak of 
the latter group. Mr. Vigors observed that there were several In- 
dian species which might be referred to this group. The four fol- 
lowing, which were apparently hitherto undescribed, were then cha- 
racterized as belonging to it. 

Cinclosoma ocellatum. Cinclos. capitis fronte et lateribus, cor- 
poreque supra rujb-brunneis ; vertice , colloque in fronte nigro- 



56 

brunneis ; pectore albescenti-rufo nigro fasciato ; abdomine pol- 
lute rufo, nucha, dorso, alls, coudceque tectricibus ocellis antice 
atris postice albis, notatis ; remigibus et rectricibus lateralibus 
griseofuscis, apicibus albis. 

Rostrum pedesque flavescentes, illius culmine fusco. Remigum 
mediarum pogonia externa grisea, strigam griseam alarem ex- 
hibentes. Tectrices alarum inferiores rufo nigro albescentique 
variegatae. Longitudo corporis, 14 ; alee a carpo ad remigis 
6tae apicem, 5 -, rostri, 1-rV ; tarsi, l-, 7 ^ j caudce, 7. 

Cinclosoma capistratum. Cinclos. capite supra, genis, ptero- 
matum macula, rectricibus que ad basin intense atris ; remigum 
pogoniis externis, rectricum apicibus, tectricibusque alarum fusco- 
griseis, his fascia albd notatis ; dorso medio pallide brunnescenti- 
griseo ; collo in fronte, nucha, pectore, abdomineque summo pal- 
lide, dorso abdomineque imis saturatius, ritfis. 

Rostrum nigrum, pedes flavescentes. Remiges interiores, rectri- 
cumque mediarum bases run". Longitudo corporis, 10 j alee a 
carpo ad apicem remigis 6tx, 4; rostri, -&■ ; tarsi, 1^; caudce, 
4*. 

Cinclosoma vaiuegatum. Cinclos. striga a rictu per oculos ex- 
tendente, mento colloque in fronte, macula pteromatum et media 
alarum, rectricumque mediarum basibus atris ; fronte, striga ge- 
narum infra, pectoreque pallide albescenti-rufis ; notd pteroma- 
tum, abdomine crissoque rufis ; capite supra, nucha, dorsoque 
brunnescenti- griseis ; alarum pogoniis externis, rectricumque me- 
diarum quatuor apicibus cineraceo-griseis ; rectricibus quatuor 
utrinque lateralibus externe Jlavo-olivaceis, apicibus albis. 

Rostrum nigrum, pedes rubri. Longitudo corporis, 1 1 ; alee a 
carpo ad apicem remigis 6tae, 4 ; rostri, X V ; tarsi, 1-fo ; caudce, 

Cinclosoma lineatum. Cinclos. capite supra, nucha, dorso imo, 
rectricibusque duabus mediis brunnescenti -griseis ; regione post- 
oculari, dorso summo, corpore infra, rectricibusque lateralibus 
pallescenii-riifis ; his fascia nigra pone apicem album notatis ; 
capitis nuchceque plumis in medio lineis fuscis, pectoris dorsique 
summi lineis pallidis, per totam rhachium longitudinem graciliter 
strigatis. 

Rostrum pedesque flavescentes. Longitudo corporis, 9-$- ; alee a 
carpo ad apicem remigis 6tar, 3^- ; rostri, T V ; tarsi, 1 ; caudce, 
8*. 



57 



April 12, 1831. 

N. A. Vigors, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Coleman, adverting to the statement made at the last meet- 
ing of the Committee that the female Armadillo had destroyed her 
young, remarked that the cause of this apparent aberration of in- 
stinct in a mother was generally to be found in the deficiency of 
her supply of milk. In the many cases which had fallen under his 
notice, in which female pigs, rabbits, and other domesticated ani- 
mals had destroyed their progeny, he had always observed that the 
secretion of milk in the mammary glands of the dam was greatly, if 
not entirely, deficient. 

A letter was read from M. F. Cuvier, acknowledging the receipt 
of the Society's circular, and embracing the offer contained in it of 
establishing a scientific correspondence. M. F. Cuvier states that 
the zoological subjects which possess at the present moment the 
greatest interest in Paris are those which have been transmitted 
from Chili, by M. D'Orbigny, who is now engaged in travelling on 
account of the Jardin des Plantes. M. F. Cuvier has not yet ex- 
amined them with care ; but he has observed among them a large 
Rodent animal, which is probably the Patagonian Cavy of Pennant, 
a species unknown to later zoologists : it forms the type of a new 
genus allied to Ancema and Kerodon, its teeth having nearly the 
form of those of the last-mentioned group, and being without distinct 
roots. He has also remarked a very small species of Ratel, distin- 
guished from the type of the genus, as it exists in the old continent, 
by having two false molar teeth less in each jaw : it is also much 
smaller, its size not exceeding that of the Pole- cat, (Mustela puto- 
riusy L.) It is remarkable, he adds, that in Chili, the southern 
extremity of America, a second species should at length be found 
of a genus hitherto met with only in Africa and in India. " If 
Buffon had been acquainted with this fact, he would have had a 
fine example to adduce in favour of his hypothesis of the diminu- 
tive size of the animals of the New World, as compared with those 
of the Old." The Jardin des Plantes has recently obtained living 
individuals of the small Deer of America, named by M. F. Cuvier 
Cervus campestris ; this will shortly be figured in his ' Histoire Na- 
turelle des Mammiferes.' Two other Deer have been presented to 
the collection by M. Dussumier, by whom they were brought from 
Timor : these appear to belong to two new species. From Mada- 
gascar, M. Goudot has brought a small carnivorous animal, which 
he states to be the true Vansire. The cranium of a very young 
specimen agrees closely with that of a very young individual of the 
Gulo orientalist Horsf. ; and as these crania in their general struc- 
ture and their system of dentition differ from those of the genus 



58 

Guhy and approach the crania of the Viverridcs, it is probable, M. 
F. Cuvier remarks, that the Gulo orientalis, and M. Goudot's ani- 
mal, should both be referred to the family of Civets. 

At the request of the Chairman, the following Notes of the dis- 
section of the Riffled Lemur {Lemur Macaco, L.,) were read by Mr. 
Martin. 

*' The Ruffed Lemur which died lately in the Museum was a male, 
and one of a fine pair recently brought to this country. It exhibit- 
ed marked symptoms of illness a few days only before its death, 
but had probably been long diseased. 

«' On the abdomen being opened, the viscera presented themselves 
as follows. In the epigastric and hypochondriac regions, stretch- 
ing from side to side, appeared the liver, and below this the sto- 
mach, and the omentum loaded with fat, extending to the pubes, and 
covering the whole of the intestines. On turning aside the omentum 
and intestines the spleen was observed ; it was large, dark coloured, 
bound by adhesions to the surface of the kidneys, and studded with 
numerous small vomica, from which, on cutting, a thick pus oozed 
out abundantly. 

"The liver was trilobed, deeply divided, of a pale colour, singu- 
larly mottled with red, and indurated : on cutting into it, the same 
paleness was found to obtain, joined to a sort of granulated ap- 
pearance and fracture. The gall-bladder was small, and contained 
no bile, to the secretion of which the liver was probably of late 
inadequate. The ductus choledochus communis entered four inches 
from the pylorus. 

" The intestines were pale and flaccid with extensive adhesions 
both of these and the mesentery, affording proofs of inflammatory 
action. The length of the colon and rectum was two feet ; that of 
the ccecum thirteen inches ; the shape of the latter was not unlike 
that of a horn, its base being broad, from whence it gradually ta- 
pered to a point, with spiral gyrations on the mesentery. The 
small intestines measured 5 feet 4+ inches. 

" The cavity of the chest was relatively small, that of the abdo- 
men advancing high. The lungs were divided into three lobes on 
the left, and three large^and one small lobe on the right side. Their 
surface afforded strong indications of inflammation, and their sub- 
stance when squeezed between the fingers communicated a very 
distinct crepitus. The heart was large, and tolerably firm ; on the 
surface of the right ventricle there were two hydatids in a line one 
above the other. 

" The kidneys were rather large, and their structure soft and 
pulpy. The testes were small, elongated, lying in front of the pubes 
and distant from the abdominal ring about one inch. The bladder 
was small and long ; and the ureters entered about a line from the 
neck. The vesiculce seminales were small and handle-shaped, with 
a single turn. 

" The tongue was long, thin, rounded at the tip, of a black co- 
lour except at the root, soft in texture, and covered with downy 



59 

papillte, which increased in size and length, but diminished in num- 
ber, towards the root. The epiglottis was large and broad ; the 
rima glottidis long ; and from the arytenoid cartilages two processes 
extended backwards, having a triangular flattened surface ending 
in a point." 

The body of one of the Society's specimens of the Razor-billed 
Curassotv, (Ourax Mitu, Cuv.,) was laid on the table, and Mr. Yar- 
rell pointed out the peculiarities of its very elongated trachea, which 
is produced between the skin and the muscles beyond the sternum, 
and reaches almost to the vent. It has been figured by Dr. Latham, 
M. Temminck, and others. Mr. Yarrell displayed the sterno-tra- 
cheal muscles extending along the whole of the tube, and remarked 
that this disposition prevails-, with one or two exceptions, in all 
birds in which the fold of the trachea is not included in bone. In 
those birds, on the contrary, in which the prolongation of the trachea 
enters a cavity in the sternum, (as for instance in the Hoopers Cygnus 
Jerus and Cygn. Beuoickii,) the sternotracheal muscles pass from 
the entering portion of the tube to that which has just left the bone, 
and are not continued along the fold of trachea included within the 
bone. 

A portion of a large collection of Fishes from the Mauritius, pre- 
sented to the Society by Mr. Telfair, was exhibited ; and Mr. Ben- 
nett called the attention of the Committee to the species of Mullet 
contained in it. These were eight in number, and belonged to the 
extra-European form to which the name of Upeneush&s been given 
by M. Cuvier, and which is distinguished from the European Mullets 
by the presence of teeth in the upper jaw. Four of these fishes 
appear to have been previously undescribed, and may be thus cha- 
racterized : 

Ui'ENEUs bit^eniatus. Up. dentibus velutinis apud maxillas, 
vomerem, et ossa palatina : capite pone oculos subdepresso : pin- 
nis dorsalibus caudalique nigro oblique Jasciatis ; corpore toto 
rubicundo, dorso argenteo-vittato, vittis duabus aureis infrh li- 
neam lateralem. 
D. 7, £. A. 4-. C.15. P. 16. V.*. 

Affinis Up. vittato, Cuv. & Val.: sed differt vittis duabus aureis; 
differt etiam vertice depresso rostroque subtumido, capite haud 
aequaliter rotundato. 

Upeneus Mauhitianus. Up. dentibus velutinis maxillaribus : 
rosiro brevi, orbital subcequah : pinnis dorsali secundd analique 
declivibus. 
D. 7,i. A.*. C.15. P. 16. V.*. 

Affinis Up* Jlavo-lineato, Cuv. & Val.: brevior est, rostrumque 
multo brevius, in illo nempe orbitae sesquidiametrum aequat. 
Upeneus pleurostigma. Up. dentibus conicis maxillaribus: cor- 
pore pinnisque (prceter dorsali 2dd analique) cinnabarinis ; ma- 
cula magna rotundata later all media nigrd ; punctis plurimis 
infra et post oculos aureis. 
D. 8, i. A.*. C.15. P. 16. V.-J-. 



60 

Aifinis Up. lateristriga , Cuv. & Val. Caput rotundatum sicut 
in Mullo Surmuleto, L. 

Upeneus immaculatus. Up. dentibus conicis maxillaribus dis- 
tantibus : corpore, basi anteriore pinna: dorsalis prioris, apiceque 
lobi inferions\ caudalis, cinnabarinis : cirris albis, ultra opercu- 
lum productis. 
D. 8,+. A.i. C.15. P. 16. V..f. 

Affinis Up. chryserydro, Cuv. & Val.: sed corpus duplo latius, 
rostrumque magis declive. 

The species characterized embrace instances of three of the dis- 
tinct types of dentition indicated in this genus by MM. Cuvier and 
Valenciennes. 

The original drawings by Mr. Abbott of the Lepidopterous In- 
sects of Georgia, (engravings from which were published by the late 
Sir J. E. Smith,) were exhibited. The Committee was indebted to 
Mr. Henry Brogden, F.L.S. for this exhibition. 

Mr. Vigors referred to a pair of Owls which had been lately 
added to the Society's collection. These were closely allied to the 
European Strix jlammea, a species which is found with some slight 
modifications of character all over the globe ; but from which the 
present species differs essentially, exclusively of other characters, by 
the markings of the disk of the face. They were from Australia; 
and not having appeared to have been noticed by any ornithological 
writer were characterized as follows. 

Strix personata. Strix pallide badia ; capite suprh, dorso, 
alisque Jusco brunneo variegatis, albisque guttulis parch sparsis ; 
corpore infra pallidiori, brunneo parce maculato ; caudd badio 
brunneoque undulaiim Jasciata ; disco purpurascenti- badio, cir- 
culo marginali intense brunneo notato ; digitis unguibusquefor- 
tissimis. 
Longitudo corporis, 13-J-; alee a carpo ad^apicem remigis 2dae, 9; 
tarsi, 2 ; caudce, 1\. 

A series of birds, belonging to several Families, which were ap- 
parently undescribed species, was exhibited by Mr. Leadbeater 
who mentioned his intention of continuing a similar exhibition du- 
ring some future meetings of the Committee, and then giving a ge- 
neral description of the whole. 



April 26, 1831. 

Joshua Brookes, Esq. in the Chair. 

Mr. Vigors exhibited, from the collection of Mr. Leadbeater, an 
undescribed species of Cockatoo from New Holland, and pointed 
out its distinctive characters, which may be expressed as follows : 
Plyctolophus Leadbeateri. Plyct. alius; genis, collo in 
fronte, pectore, tectricibus alarum inferioribus, abdomineque 
medio roseo-tinctis ; cristce elongatce occipitalis plumis basi roseis, 
apice albis, macula Jlavd in medio notatis; pogoniis remigum 
rectricumque internis roseis, illorum saturatioribus. 
Statura Plyct. sulphurei, Vieill. 

Eleven species of Chcetodons, forming part of the collection of 

Fishes from the Mauritius presented by Mr. Telfair, were laid on 

the table. Seven of these were referable to the genus Chcetodon as 

restricted by M. Cuvier; and among them Mr. Bennett pointed out 

more particularly the Chcet. strigangulus, Sol.; the Chcet. vittatus, 

Schn.; the Chcet. Lunula, Cuv. & Val. ; and two species which he 

believed to be new to science, and which may be thus characterized : 

Chmt. flavescens. Chcet. Jlavus ; ore, fascia oculari, linea 

pinnas dorsalem analemque postice ambiente, apiceque pinnarum 

ventralium nigris ; lateribus argenteo vittatim guttulatis , pinna 

caudali recta, apice late hyalino. 

D. 44. A. T v> &c. 

Affinis, ut videtur, Chcet. virescenti, Cuv. & Val. Differt colore 
flavo ; pinnis verticalibus postice nigro tenuiter cinctis ; lateribus 
obscure argenteo-guttulatis. 

Chjet. Zoster. Chcet. brunneo-niger ; zona lata media ventreque 
argenteis ; pinnd caudali recta albd : Jascid oculari nulla. 

p. n. a. w. P. 17. C. 15. V. * . 

The remaining species exhibited types of the genera Heniochus, 
Cuv.; Zanclus, Cuv. & Val.; Holacanthus, Lacep. ; and Platax, 
Cuv. : the Heniochus being the species recently described by 
MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes as the Hen. monoceros. In this 
individual the spine in front of each orbit is strong, almost equalling 
the single spine which projects from the middle of the slope of the 
head ; and the whole contour of the anterior part of the fish ap- 
proaches very nearly to that of Taurichthys, Cuv. & Val. ' 

Mr. Gray exhibited several living specimens of the Rana Ru- 
beta, L., the Natter-jack of Pennant, a reptile intermediate in form 
and habits among the British Amphibia between the Toad and the 
Frog. He stated that this animal, the indigenous existence of 
which has frequently been doubted, is found abundantly on Black- 
heath, and on other commons in the neighbourhood of London. 

[No. VI.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



62 

Mr. Gray also exhibited several specimens of the genus Rhyn- 
chcea, Cuv., and pointed out from among them two distinct species, 
which may be thus characterized: 

Rhynchjea Capensis, Sav. Rhynch. remigibus angustis^fasciis 

latisjlavis sex notatis, infra griseis, nigro-vermicutatis,Jlavoque 

Jasciatis ; secundariarum macula pogonii externi, fascidque po- 

gonii intemifjlavis. 

Long, corporis 9 J unc. : tarsi, 21 £ lin. : digiti unguisque medii, 

20±lin. 
Rhynchjea picta. Rhynch. remigibus sublatis, extemis Jiavo 
late 7:fasciatis, infra griseo nigroque vermiculatis, inlerno obso- 
lete Jlavo -Jasciato : secundariarum apicibus, maculd ultimajascice' 
formi pogonii externi, Jascidque pogonii interni, albis. 
Long, corporis 10J unc. : tarsi, 19J lin. : digiti medii, 19 lin. 
The wing-coverts of both species are spotted with yellow in the 
young state ; and in the adult state are metallic olive with black 
bands. 

Mr. Gray added that the three figures of birds of this genus which 
were published by BufFon, and which had of late years been re- 
garded by M. Temminck and by M. Cuvier as representing various 
states of but one species, were none of them sufficiently correct in 
the details to enable him to refer either of the present species to the 
representations given in the 'Planches Enluminees;' but that the 
figure of the Rhynchcca Capensis given by Savigny in the ' Oiseaux 
d'Egypte' [tab. 14*. fig. 2.], furnished a faithful representation of 
the first species exhibited by him. He had not, however, obtained 
this bird from the Cape of Good Hope, his specimens being from 
India and China. The second species, Rhynchcea picta } he had re- 
ceived from Africa as well as from India and China. 

Mr. Vigors called the attention of the Committee to the Frigate- 
bird (Tachypetes Aquilus,Vie'i\\.) , and dwelt upon those peculiarities 
of its organization which point out its station in the series of na- 
tural affinities that connect the orders of birds. Although it possesses 
the webbed feet which constitute the technical character of the Na- 
tatorial Order, the weakness of its legs and their complete covering 
of feathers preclude it from employing these members in the same 
manner as the typical groups of the Swimming Birds ; while on the 
other hand its great powers of wing and tail adapt it for powerful 
and long-continued flight, and evidently connect it with the Rap- 
torial Order, which it also resembles in its manner of taking its 
food. It is in fact rather an inhabitant of the air than of the water : 
and it has been believed that it derives support during its unlimited 
flights not merely from the strength and expansion of its wings and 
the singular mechanism of its tail, but also from the buoyant nature 
of the inflated sac beneath its throat. A proof of the correctness of 
the opinion that this pouch is really an air-sac, and that it is filled 
with air, which passing through the bones becomes rarified and ca- 
pable of imparting a high degree of buoyancy, has recently been 
obtained from the anatomical notes made by Mr. Collie, late Sur- 



63 

geon of H.M.S. Blossom, who accompanied Captain Beechey in 
his voyage to Behring's Straits; notes which will shortly be pub- 
lished in illustration of the natural history of that expedition. " The 
pouch beneath the throat of this bird," says Mr. Collie, "is of a 
yellowish red colour, and when distended, the feathers on its upper 
and posterior surface are separated to some distance from each 
other, and exhibit very distinctly the quincuncial order in which 
they are implanted. On first looking at this pouch, I was a little 
surprised at finding that it did not communicate with the mouth or 
fauces in any way that I could perceive. I succeeded in inflating 
it only by long and forcibly blowing into the trachea. I desired the 
man who had the skinning of the specimens brought on board to 
inflate the pouch before commencing the skinning, and to let me 
know when he had advanced to the shoulders. He however dis- 
located the shoulder-joint first, when the distended pouch imme- 
diately collapsed. The trachea had been tied. As soon as I was 
informed of this, I had little doubt that the pouch had been in- 
flated from the lungs ; and on observing two wide openings, one 
anterior to the humeral articulating face of the scapula, the other 
the usual opening of the joint, I hesitated not to infer that it was 
through the first of these the air had passed in, and that the dislo- 
cating of the joint, by which its capsular ligament was torn, had 
allowed the air to escape at the opening which corresponds to that 
on the head of the humerus, and which immediately leads, as well 
as the other just mentioned, into the centre of the scapula. I now 
opened the trachea immediately before the sternum, and again 
attempted inflation from that part, but in vain. I tried it also, but 
with no better success, from the larynx, I next examined with the 
blowpipe near the opening of the scapula, in the cellular substance 
under the skin, and soon detected a small opening that conducted 
the air to the pouch, which was readily inflated by blowing through 
the opening, and so long as it was shut the pouch continued dis- 
tended. That this opening was not artificial, — the effect of the 
rupture of the fine membrane lining the air-bladder, — was evident 
from ics not opening directly into it, but only after a passage of 
some length, gradually enlarging. That this was the sole opening 
into the pouch appears proved from the fact that after detaching 
the sac from all the parts beneath, i. e. from all the parts excepting 
the skin, it did not permit the gas to escape except by this open- 
ing, and that it continued to be capable of inflation from it. I was 
satisfied in discovering it on one side -, and of course inferred 
that it was similar on the other, the opening of the scapula being 
similar." 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Martin read the following 
notes of the dissection of a female Testudo Grceca, L., which died 
in the possession of Oct. Morgan, Esq. The animal was of the 
usual size, its dimensions being as follows : the carapace in length 
13 inches ; the plastron 9§ inches in length ; and the circumference 
of the shell, 18 inches. 



64 

" The plastron being removed, the viscus which first attracted 
notice was the liver, of large dimensions, stretching across from side 
to side, and quite covering the stomach. Its structure was very 
firm, and its colour a dull ochre. It consisted of two lobes, both 
deeply fissured. In the cleft of the right lobe was situated the gall- 
bladder, of the size of a large nut, and containing green bile. The 
cystic and hepatic ducts united, and entered the duodenum 1 J inch 
below the pylorus. 

"On the liver being turned aside, the stomach presented itself; its 
coats were firm and thick, especially in the pyloric portion, which 
was produced long and narrow to the extent of 3^ inches ; the 
total length of the stomach was 6| inches. 

" The small intestines, remarkable also for their firmness, mea- 
sured 2 feet 8 inches in length, and terminated in large intestines 
very little exceeding them in circumference. In the Testudo In- 
dica lately dissected, there was no caecum; but in the present 
species the caecum existed ; its form was globular. On the left side 
the large intestine assumed a sigmoid flexure with a bold sweeping 
fold, and then took on a straight and short course to the cloaca ; 
the length of the large intestines was 1 foot 8 inches. They con- 
tained faeculent matter in small quantity, consisting of fibrous vege- 
table substance. There were no longitudinal bands. 

M The cloaca, into which opened the bladder and oviducts, was 
in length 2 or 3 inches. The bladder in the present instance 
did not exhibit that immense volume which was so remarkable in 
the Test. Indica : it was of a moderate size ; both in this respect and 
in figure resembling a pear. It was united to the sides of the upper 
shell by a broad peritoneal ligament, and was connected also to the 
pelvis by several fibrous bands. Its coats were extremely thin and 
fibrous ; and it contained a small quantity of thick fluid. 

" The oviducts were before their opening into the cloaca united 
for a considerable distance, and were there thick and firm, becoming 
gradually thinner as they proceeded upwards, their course being in 
an indefinite convoluted manner. Throughout the greatest part of 
their length there ran a number of longitudinal folds, which became 
fainter, and were at length obliterated as the oviducts proceeded. 

M The ovaries contained a multitude of eggs of various sizes, and 
of a round figure ; fifty of them at least were nearly as large as a 
pigeon's egg : they were not covered with a shell, and were filled 
with a thick yellow yelk. 

" The kidneys laid upon the lungs (which extended over the 
carapace), to which they adhered; their figure was somewhat 3-sided, 
from a broad flat base, with a rounded apex : their length was 2\ 
inches. Their surface was convoluted in a very singular manner, 
the folds being divisible, producing an appearance not unlike that 
of the cerebellum, which they also resembled in colour. 

M On the mesocolon and near the intestine was situated an oval 
glandular body of a dark colour, and of the size of a sparrow's egg, 
containing white gritty specks. From this, which I suspected to 
be the spleen, a large vein proceeded along the mesentery, and uni- 



65 

ting with several others, entered the liver j all the veins proceeding 
from the viscera along the mesentery were very large and full of 
dark blood. 

" The tongue was thick and fleshy, about an inch in length and 
two-thirds in breadth, white in colour, and covered thickly with 
elongated papillce ; the tip was rounded, the base heart-shaped. 
Between the glottis and base of the tongue so siight a distance in- 
tervened, that the larynx might be said to open directly into the 
mouth, the glottis rising to a point corresponding with and adjusted 
to the heart-shaped indentation at the base of the tongue. This 
elevated apex is divided downwards and a little way longitudinally 
by the rima. The larynx is supported posteriorly by the os hyoides, 
which is broad, flat, and pointed with double barbs, resembling 
some double-barbed arrow heads : it is however composed of three 
bones, viz. a body, and two long curved bones united by cartilages 
to it, the body itself ending in two long cartilaginous processes ; 
where the osseous processes arise there is also on each side a small 
cartilaginous projection. An inch below the rima the trachea divides 
into two branches, or bronchice, which run down for a little way on 
each side of the neck, but shortly, in consequence of the bend of the 
neck, almost at the back of it, and describing in their course a large 
sigmoid inflexion, they then subdivide and immediately enter the 
lungs. About half an inch below the great division a strong muscle 
of two or three lines in breadth passes across, arising from the ver- 
tebra of the neck on one side and united to the same on the oppo- 
site, thus acting as a constrictor on the two tubes, and being doubt- 
less of use in the deglutition of air. The length of the trachea and 
the great branches to the lungs was 7J inches ; the rings were per- 
fect. The subdivisions of the bronchice before entering the lungs arc 
surrounded closely by numerous yellow glands." 



May 10, 1831. 
W. Yarrell, Esq. in the Chair. 

A letter, addressed by Richard Thursfield, Esq. to Dr. Roots, 
was read, in illustration of" the history of a hybrid between the Hare 
and the Rabbit, which was lately living at the Society's Farm. A 
gentleman who was rearing a pair of tame rabbits, placed with them, 
when they were about two months old, a young buck hare appa- 
rently about the same age, which became in a short time as domes- 
ticated as its companions. When the doe rabbit was old enough, 
she had, by the buck rabbit and the hare, a litter, consisting of three 
young ones, which resembled in all respects the mother and buck 
rabbit, and of three mules. Two of these mules shortly died : the 
third, a female, was reared with rabbits of her own age, and when 
six months old produced one young one : she was afterwards bred 
from eight times, by tome rabbits and b) r a wild one, but no oppor- 
tunity occurred of placing a buck hare in confinement with her. 
Her progeny by a white tame rabbit, with which she bred twice, 
consisted of two young ones, which were perfectly gray, and of 
two which were spotted : the latter are still alive, and breed regu- 
larly, producing from five to eight at a time. The average weight 
of the progeny of the mule female was about five pounds ; one, 
however, weighed six pounds and a half. She died shortly after 
coming into the Society's possession. 

Mr. Owen, having examined the body of this hybrid animal after 
its death, reported that its size and colour were those of the Hare, 
but that its hinder legs were shorter than in that species, and agreed 
rather with those of the Rabbit. The length of its small intestines 
corresponded with that of the hare j its ccecum was seven inches 
shorter ; while its large intestines measured one foot more than 
those of the hare. 

Mr. Bennett called the attention of the Committee to the speci- 
men of the Sociable Vulture ( Vultur auricularh , Daud.), which has 
been an inhabitant of the Society's Gardens for nearly two years. 
His object in adverting to this bird was to correct an erroneous im- 
pression which might be produced on the minds of those who had 
never seen an individual of the species, by the statement made by 
M. Ruppel, in a late Monograph of the genus to which it belongs, 
that considerable doubts as to the existence of such a species might 
reasonably be entertained. M. Ruppel's doubts appear to have been 
excited by the fact which he reports, that the stuffed skin in the 
collection of the Due de Rivoli at Paris, which has been regarded 
as that, of the Vult. auricularis, is evidently factitious ; the folds of 
the skin on the head and neck having been produced in that speci- 
men by artificial means. These doubts must, however, be at once 



67 

dissipated by the existence of a living specimen brought from the 
Cape of Good Hope, according in every particular with Le Vail- 
lant's description of the Oricou, and having the remarkable folds of 
skin which pass up the sides ol the neck and round the ears developed 
even to a greater extent than is represented in his figure. A specimen 
of the Pondichery Vulture ( Vultur Ponticerianus, Daud.), the only 
other species in which the naked neck has on each side a longitudi- 
nal fold of skin, was laid on the table : and it was pointed out that 
in this bird the fold of skin terminates an inch below the opening 
of the ear, while in the Sociable Vulture it passes upwards and sur- 
rounds the upper part of the ear ; and that the breast- feathers of 
the Pondichery Vulture are short and rounded, while those of the 
Sociable Vulture are very long and somewhat sabre- shaped. 

Mr. Gray stated, that since M. Kuppel's Monograph was written, 
he had apprised that scientific traveller, in answer to his previous 
inquiries on the subject, that a specimen of another vulture rejected 
by him as a doubtful species (the Vidtur Angolensis, Lath.) exists 
in the British Museum, to which it was presented on the return of 
the unfortunate expedition up the river Congo. 

Mr. Owen resumed the reading of his Memoir on the Anatomy of 
the Orang Utan (Simia Satyrus, L.), portions of which had been 
communicated by him to the Committee at several of its previous 
Meetings. On this occasion he limited himself to the myology of 
the lower extremities. 

He commenced by remarking, that no anatomist can contemplate 
the lower extremity of a ^uadrumanous animal, or experience the 
degree of mobility of which the several parts of it are susceptible in 
the living or undissected body, without being prepared to find cor- 
responding modifications of the muscular system and consequent de- 
viations from the structure of these parts <is they exist in man. It is 
accordingly in this part of the body that the most remarkable diffe- 
rences in the forms, proportions, and attachments of the muscles are 
found to obtain between the ape and the human subject ; and it will 
not therefore be matter of surprise to find, that in the Orang Utan, 
whose inferior extremities, from their shortness and flexibility, are 
so well adapted to the various agile movements of a climber, there 
exists a high degree of this deviation from the human structure, 
and an approximation, in some measure symmetrical, to the arrange- 
ment of the moving powers in the upper extremity. Variations of 
more or less consequence occur, indeed, so frequently as to render 
it necessary to consider the whole of the muscles seriatim; and 
each of them was accordingly described separately as regarded 
its attachments, foim, and relative position. These details are 
necessarily abridged in the present abstract, except as regards 
the muscles of the hinder hands, which require a developed notice 
to render their structure intelligible. 

The glutcBus magnus is a thin narrow muscle, inserted lower down 
the thigh bone, and having a more posterior origin than in man : 
its extent of action is consequently increased, though its strength 



68 

is diminished. The glutc&is medius is also relatively longer than in 
man, and is four times as thick as the preceding muscle. The glu- 
teus minor is narrow, long, and thin. The pyriformh is narrower 
than in man. The tendon of the obturator intemus passes as usual 
between the gemini, of which the inferior is much the largest. The 
obturator externus is considerably larger than the internal. The 
quadratus Jem oris has very little of the square in its shape, being 
much longer than it is broad, and becoming narrow and rounded at 
its insertion. 

The biceps cruris consists of two portions, each maintaining a 
distinct course and having a distinct insertion : one of these may 
be termed ischio-jibularis, and is inserted into the head of the^'- 
bula; the other may be termed Jemoro-Jibularis ; its insertion is 
into the outer edge of the jihula from the head to the middle of the 
bone, and into the fascia in front of the leg. The semitendinosus 
and semimembranosus have the same origins as in the human sub- 
ject, and the latter muscle a similar insertion ; but the semitendino- 
sus separates from it at the lower part of the thigh, and continues 
fleshy for some distance below the knee-joint ; after which the ten- 
don expands into a broad strong aponeurosis, which is attached along 
the anterior and inner aspect of the tibia to within a short distance 
of its lower extremity. In its insertion, the semitendinosus of the 
Chimpanzee approaches more nearly to the human type, being im- 
planted by a narrower tendon in front of the tibia immediately be- 
neath the insertion of the gracilis ; but both these muscles are 
inserted lower down than in man. 

Mr. Owen remarked, that the names of these last- mentioned 
muscles by no means agree with the proportion of tendon found in 
them either in the Orang or the Chimpanzee, the fleshy portion 
being in these animals of much greater extent ; — a fact which is in 
accordance with a law that receives many illustrations from the 
myology of the Orang Utan, viz. that the extent of the fleshy part 
of a muscle is in proportion to the quantity of motion it has to 
produce: and this is generally indicated by the degree of motion 
allowed by the structure of the joint which is the centre of the mo- 
tion in question. Thus in the human subject it is very rare that an 
individual can, by the contraction of the flexors of the leg, bring 
the heel in contact with the back of the thigh; but in the Orang 
Utan this action is readily performed, and without the slightest op- 
position at the knee-joint. 

The tensor vagincejemoris exists distinctly in the Chimpanzee, but 
no trace of it was found in the Orang. A more powerful rotator of 
the thigh inwards exists in both animals in a peculiar muscle, which 
may be termed invertor Jemoris. It was first discovered by Dr. 
Traill in the Chimpanzee ; and its origin, form, and insertion in that 
animal agree with those which are met with in the Orang Utan. 
Mr. Owen considers that from its insertion into the under and outer 
part of the trochanter major, and consequently very near to the 
centre of motion, it can have little effect in drawing the thigh up 
towards the body as compared with the power of the proper flexors 



69 

of the thigh. It appears rather to have reference to that structure 
of the hip-joint which, in the Orang especially, from the absence of 
the ligamentum teres, and in the Chimpanzee, from the yielding tex- 
ture of that ligament, permits a greater extent of inward rotation 
than can be accomplished in man. 

The sartorius is inserted lower down than in man. The rectus 
cruris corresponds with the same muscle in the human subject ; but 
the vasti and crurceus are much weaker and thinner, and are evi- 
dently little adapted to support the thigh and trunk upon the tibia. 

The psoas magnus and iliacus internus are, on account of the form 
of the pelvis, proportionally longer muscles than in man. Beneath 
them exists a small distinct muscle passing from the fore part of the 
ilium, over and attached to the capsule of the hip-joint, to be inserted 
into the root of the trochanter minor. This muscle is not found in the 
Chimpanzee. The pectineus is a narrower muscle than in man, and 
gives off, in the Chimpanzee, a small slip, which is continued under 
the femoral vessels and outwards to the origin of the sartorius. The 
gracilis is a very powerful muscle in the Orang, but is comparatively 
of less bulk in the Chimpanzee, in which it is inserted beneath the 
sartorius. On this muscle being removed, a number of others appear 
passing from the pelvis to the inner part of the thigh, among which 
it is difficult to select those which are precisely analogous to the 
muscles in the corresponding region of the human subject. Mr. 
Owen, however, distinguished the adductor longus ; an accessory 
adductor arising from the upper part of the symphysis pubis ; the 
adductor brevis ; and the adductor magnus. 

The gastrocnemius preserves nearly a uniform thickness and 
breadth throughout its course, and is continued fleshy down to the 
os calcis: it has no sesamoid bone, as possessed by some monkeys 
(e. g. Macacus cynomolgus, Lacep.), at either of its origins. The 
soleus has only one origin, and is continued fleshy to the os calcis. 
The tendon of the popliteus contains, behind the knee-joint, a fibro- 
cartilaginous sesamoid body, which was noticed by Camper, who 
states that it exists also in baboons, dogs, cats, &c. : this body, how- 
ever, is not found in the Chimpanzee. 

In the Orang Utan there are some important differences in the 
disposition of the flexors of the toes, as compared with the Chim- 
panzee and inferior Si mice ; thus the muscle analogous to the flexor 
longus pollicis pedis sends no tendon whatever to the thumb of the 
foot, and its origin is extended above the knee-joint in a manner 
analogous to the flexor sublimis in the upper extremity. It has two 
origins, one from the outer condyle in common with the gastro- 
cnemius internus, the other from the head of the fibula, and is con- 
tinued down the posterior part of that bone and the interosseous 
ligament to within an inch of the tarsus ; under which it passes 
through abroad synovial sheath, deeper seated than, and external to, 
the Jlexor longus digitorum ; becoming tendinous centrad, but con- 
tinuing fleshy on the dermal aspect till it has reached the sole. 
There it divides into two stout perforating tendons, which are in- 
serted into the distal phalanges of the third and fourth toes. Im- 



70 

mediately after the division each tendon gives origin to a lumbri- 
calls muscle, which terminates in a thin aponeurosis attached along 
the tibial side of the proximal phalanges of the third and fourth toes. 

The Jlexor longus digitorum pedis arises as in the human subject, 
but continues fleshy till it has passed under the abductor pollicis ; 
it then gives origin to a lumbricalis muscle, and divides into three 
tendons. The lumbricalis terminates in the middle tendon of the 
three. The innermost or first tendon goes to the distal phalanx of 
the second toe ; it also gives rise to a lumbricalis, which is inserted 
mto the tibial side of the proximal phalanx of the same toe. The 
second tendon, after receiving the insertion of the lumbricalis before 
mentioned, goes to form the perforated tendon of the fourth toe. 
The third or outer tendon is inserted into the distal phalanx of the 
fifth toe, and also gives origin to a lumbricalis, which terminates in 
the tibial side of the proximal phalanx of the same toe. 

The Jlexor brevis digitorum pedis arises from the posterior part of 
the os calcis, its fibres passing transversely over the insertion of the 
tendo Achillis. At about two inches from its origin it gives off a small 
tendon, which is inserted into the second phalanx of the second toe. 
It then continues fleshy for an inch further, and terminates in the 
perforated tendon of the third toe. 

Thus all the toes from the second outwards, have ajlexor tendon 
inserted into the distal phalanx : they have also a lumbricalis tendon 
attached to the proximal phalanx, and the second, third, and fourth 
have tendons inserted into the middle phalanx. As each perforating 
tendon gives origin to the lumbricalis muscle of its respective fin- 
ger, these not only assist in the flexion, but act as guys on the 
tendons, from which they originate, preventing them from starting 
from the long concavity of the sole over which they travel : they 
also afford a variety of independent motions to the fingers. The 
tibialis posticus has the usual origin; its tendon passes along a dis- 
tinct sheath close by the internal malleolus ; it is inserted into the os 
cuneiforme internum. The tendon has no sesamoid bone where it 
passes over the astragalus. In the Chimpanzee it is inserted into the 
os naviculare. 

The muscles in front of the leg are covered with a strong fascia, 
into which the tendons of the semitendinosus and biceps are inserted; 
it affords origins for the muscles situated beneath it, and becomes 
very strong at the ankle, binding down and forming sheaths for 
the several tendons. The tibialis anticus arises from the anterior 
inner and posterior aspects of the tibia, embracing it, as it were, and 
giving the appearance of a rickety convexity to the leg ; it passes 
over the malleolus internus posterior to the centre of motion, and is 
consequently an extensor of the foot; it also turns the sole inwards. 
In close connection with this arises another muscle, not found in 
man ; it becomes tendinous about three-fourths down the leg, and 
is inserted into the base of the metatarsal bone of the thumb, which 
it extends : this muscle is found in the Chimpanzee, and also, ac- 
cording to M. Cuvier, in the inferior Simice. The extensor longus 
pollicis makes its appearance as usual between the tibialis anticus and 



71 

extensor longus digitorum; it is inserted into the base of 'the phalanx : 
(the female specimen that was dissected had only one phalanx to the 
hinder thumb). The digitorum tensor longus has the usual origin, 
continues fleshy to the ankle-joint, there divides into three tendons, 
which diverge at the middle of the foot, and are attached to the 
third, fourth and fifth toes; each tendon expanding into a sheath 
over the back part of the phalanges. 

The extensor brevis digitorum pedis arises from the os calcis, and 
divides into three portions ; the strongest of which gives two ten- 
dons to the second toe, one being inserted at the base of the proximal 
phalanx, the other expanding over the second and distal phalanges 
like the tendons of the extensor longus. The remaining portions go 
to the fibular aspect of the third and fourth toes. 

The peroneus longus and brevis arise together from the outer, fore, 
and back part of tne jibula ; on the latter aspect they are in con- 
nection with the Jiexor longus pollicis. The tendon of the peroneus 
brevis is inserted into the base of the metatarsal bone of the little 
toe. The tendon of the peroneus longus passes under the cuboid 
bone, without the interposition of a sesamoid bone, crosses the foot, 
and is implanted into the metatarsal bone of the thumb of the 
hinder hand, of which, as far as the structure of the articulation 
will permit, it is a jiexor. There is no peroneus tertius. 

The thumb is very short, consisting, in the female at least, 
of only two bones, set on at right angles to the foot, and at a 
great distance from the toes. In this part, however, the power of 
a considerable muscular apparatus is concentrated. Receiving no 
tendon from the jiexor longus pollicis, it is rendered more inde- 
pendent in its actions; not being necessarily flexed, except in the 
action which turns down that side of the foot to which it is attached, 
and by which it is brought closer to the object to be seized. On 
the sole of the foot we find an abductor and an adductor pollicis, both 
powerful muscles inserted at very open angles into the phalanx ; 
which, when they cooperate in their contraction, they must draw 
down in the diagonal with great force. Between these are situated 
two more direct faxors, constituting what is usually termed the 
Jiexor brevis pollicis. 

The space between these muscles, which in man and the Chim- 
panzee is filled by the tendon of the Jiexor longus pollicis, in the 
Orang Utan is occupied by a small peculiar muscle which arises 
from the metatarsal bone, and is inserted into the phalanx. In a 
young male Orang that had two phalanges the flexor brevis was 
inserted partly into the second phalanx. The extensor brevis pol- 
licis arises from the os naviculare and os calcis, and is inserted into 
the base of the proximal phalanx, when there are two. 

On the dorsum of the foot may also be observed interossei ex- 
terni of a penniform shape ; they are attached to the fibular aspect 
of the proximal phalanges of the toes. There was also an adductor 
minimi digiti, and interossei interni, but not any trace of transver- 
salis pedis. 

Mr. Owen concluded his observations with some remarks on the 



72 

structure of the principal joints of the lower extremity, and on the 
degrees of mobility of which they are susceptible. 

In the hip-joint the most remarkable circumstance is the freedom 
of motion in the rotation inwards ; this is, however, more limited 
than in the opposite direction. The motions of flexion and ex- 
tension, abduction and adduction, are also very free. On examining 
the cause of the limitation of the inward rotation, he found it to be 
a strong band of ligamentous fibres arising from the posterior margin 
of the cotyloid cavity, and passing along the back part of the cap- 
sule to the root of the great trochanter ; when this was divided the 
rotation inwards was as free and extensive as happens in other cases 
after a division of the ligamentum teres. The synovial membrane is 
reflected over a greater patt of the anterior and upper than of the 
back and under part of the cervix femoris. The marginal ligament 
of the articular cavity is four lines in depth, a remarkable thickness 
for the size of the cavity. The blood-vessels enter the joint by the 
usual notch, and supply abundantly the process of synovial and 
adipose substance called the gland of Havers. 

The motion at the knee-joint is sufficiently free to allow the heel 
to be brought to the buttock, and even beyond, as in natural 
flexion it is carried external to the thigh. The only circumstances 
remarkable in the structure of the joint are, that the internal lateral 
ligament is longer, and the ligamentum mucosum stronger and of a 
more ligamentous nature, than in the human subject. 

The motion at the ankle-joint is so free, that the dorsum of the 
foot can be brought into apposition with the fore-part of the leg ; 
and it is worthy of remark, that when this motion is produced, the 
effect on the tendons passing behind the ankle-joint is such, as to 
cause a flexion of the toes similar to that which is produced in 
perching birds by bending the tarsus upon the ]eg. In the opposite 
direction the foot may be brought so far back as to form a right 
angle with the leg. Lateral motion is also very free, especially the 
turning of the sole inwards, to which aspect it naturally inclines. 
A certain degree of motion is allowed between the first and second 
set of tarsal bones. The ligaments of the ankle-joint are disposed 
as in the human subject, one at the inner and three at the outer side. 

The ligaments that connect the metatarsal bone of the thumb to 
the internal cuneiform bone, are two in number, one at the upper 
and the other at the lower or plantar aspect ; these limit the motions 
of flexion and extension, but allow very freely abduction and ad- 
duction. From this circumstance when the peroneus longus acts on 
the foot in turning the sole outwards, its tendency to bend the me- 
tatarsal bone upon the foot is resisted, and this bone is rendered a 
fixed point without the necessity of the counteraction of a mus- 
cular antagonist. 



May 31, 1831. 
N. A. Vigors, Esq. in the Chair. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Gould exhibited a specimen 
of the male of the Urogallus medius ; the Telrao hybridus of Gmelin 
and Dr. Latham, and the Tetrao medius of M. Temminck. 

Mr. Yarrell observed that this individual, with one other example of 
the same rare species, also a male, was found among a considerable 
number of the Tetrao Urogallus of both sexes, brought from Nor- 
way by a boat partly laden with lobsters for the London market. 
Some of the older writers considered this bird to be a hybrid pro- 
duced between the Wood Grouse and the Black Grouse, and had 
named it accordingly : modern authors have, however, established 
its distinction as a species j and the female and its egg are now 
known. Notwithstanding the general resemblance between these 
two large Wood Grouse they are decidedly and very obviously dif- 
ferent. In the Tetrao medius the beak is black ; the shining fea- 
thers on the front of the neck and breast are of a rich Orleans-plum- 
colour ; and of the 18 feathers of the tail the outer ones are the 
longest. In the Cock of the Wood the beak is white ; the feathers 
on the front of the breast are of a dark glossy green ; and the centre 
feathers of the tail are the longest. 

The organ of voice in the Tetr. medius is peculiar. The trachea 
of this bird and that of the Tetr. Urogallus were exhibited ; and Mr. 
Yarrell pointed out that the trachea of the Tetr. medius, eleven 
inches in length, has no loose fold, like that of the Tetr. Urogallus, 
but descends in a straight line to the lungs. From the thyroid car- 
tilage two pairs of muscles follow the course of the trachea, one pair 
firmly attached to the trachea itself, the second pair suspended 
loosely in the cellular tissue. Both these pairs of muscles, after an 
extent of eight inches, are lost in a membranous expansion, form- 
ing a sheath, which invests the inferior fourth portion of the trachea, 
and from which sheath one muscle only on each side is sent off, 
immediately above the bifurcation of the bronchice, to be attached 
to the inner surface of the sternum. 

The stomach is a true gizzard of great muscular power, and the 
intestines and cceca, as in all the Grouse tribe, are very long : the 
cceca in the present instance measured each three feet in length. 

There is reason to believe that this bird inhabits the Apennines 
as well as the more northern localities assigned to it. Mr. Fox in 
his * Synopsis of the Newcastle Museum' quotes a note of the late 
Mr. Tunstall which states that " he knew some old Scotch gentle- 
men who said they remembered, that when young, there were in 
Scotland both the Cock of the Wood, and the Tetr. hybridus!" 

Mr. Yarrell availed himself of the opportunity to state that the 
hybrid Grouse of White's ' Natural History of Selborne' is believed 

[No. VII.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



74 

to be a young black Cock, having nearly completed his first moult. 
He added that lie was indebted to Mr. Sabine for the information 
that the Tetr. rupestris of Pennant's 'Arctic Zoology' has been killed 
in Perthshire, and that the specimen is preserved in the collection of 
Lord Stanley, the President of the Society. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Martin referred to the notes 
of the dissection of a specimen of Tesludo Grceca which he had laid 
before the Committee on the 26th of April, and stated that the 
correctness of these notes had been subsequently confirmed by the 
examination of another individual of that species, in which he had 
observed the same lengthened form of stomach j similar intestines j 
and a ceecum agreeing with that previously described. The urinary 
bladder also corresponded in form and size. The trachea bifurcated 
in the same manner; and the bronchia had the same remarkable 
sigmoid flexure, and were furnished with the compressing muscle 
which he had before noticed. 

Mr. Owen remarked that he had ascertained the existence of a 
ceecum in another species of Tortoise, (Emgs concentrica, Leconte,) 
which he had recently dissected. 

The preparation of the ceecum of the Testudo Gr&ca having been 
laid upon the table, it was pointed out that the part so termed in 
this instance consisted of a pouch formed by the oblique insertion 
of the small into the large intestine, the upper end of the latter 
being dilated as in the human subject into a ceecum caput coli: but 
that it by no means corresponded with the cceca of birds, and might 
almost be regarded as wanting when contrasted with the develope- 
ment of the same part in some of the Ophidian Reptiles, as in the 
genera Python, Boa, &c. 

A living individual, apparently referable to the Gulo barbarus, L., 
was exhibited. It was presented to the Society by Edmonstone 
Hodgkinson, Esq. of Trinidad, who describes it as being " playful 
and gentle, although easily excited, and very voracious. It is ex- 
ceedingly strong, as is indicated by its shape ; and it has the same 
antipathy to the water as a cat." Mr. Hodgkinson suspects that it is 
a native of Peru. He obtained it in Venezuela, where it was presented 
to him by the President, General Paez. The name he received with 
it was " the Guache " but this appellation, it was observed by Mr. 
Bennett, was probably erroneously applied to the present animal, 
belonging rather to the Coati, the orthography of which is variously 
given as Coati, Couati, Qiiasje, Quachi, and Guachi. The latter 
form occurs in the ' Personal Narrative' of the Baron Von Hum- 
boldt, where it evidently refers to a nocturnal species of Nasua. 

The form and general appearance of the animal were remarked 
to be altogether those of a Mustela, to which genus it is probable 
that it should be referred, together with the typical Gulo barbarus. 
A specimen of the latter was placed upon the table, from which the 
living animal was shown to differ by the absence of the large yellow 
spot beneath the neck : a remarkable distinction in this group, but 
on the occurrence of which, unless confirmed by several specimens, 



75 

it was considered improper to propose regarding it as a distinct 
species. 

A stuffed specimen and a skeleton of the Acouchy (Dasyprocta 
Acuschy, Illig.) having been laid on the table, the following notes 
on the anatomy of that animal were read by Mr. Owen. 

" The subjects examined were the male and female Acouchies 
which were exhibited to the Committee on the 23d of November 
last by Mr. T. Bell, in whose possession they remained alive till 
May, when they both died in one of the remarkably cold nights of 
that month. 

" The following circumstances were common to both animals. 

" On laying open the cavity of the abdomen the intestines were 
found to be generally adherent to each other and to the parietes of 
the cavity, arising from recently effused lymph : they were also of 
an unusually dark colour, owing to their contents. 

" The stomach consisted of a simple cavity, of a full oval shape, 
without any contraction between the cardiac and pyloric portions. 
The oesophagus had a course of nearly an inch within the abdomen 
before its termination. This is a circumstance worthy of notice, and 
which occurs in a marked degree in most of the Rodentia. The 
inner cuticular membrane of this part terminated abruptly at the 
cardia. The villous coat of the stomach was without rugce, and of 
a gray colour, whilst that of the intestines immediately beyond the 
pylorus was stained of a very dark colour ; showing that the pylorus 
had acted as a very effectual valve. 

" The ccecum was of a capacious size, and had the same sacculated 
appearance as in the Guinea-pig ; it occupied the whole of the iliac, 
lumbar, and part of the hypochondriac regions of the right side, 
and was disposed in a sigmoid form j the colon at its commencement 
followed the curvatures of the ccecum, and was attached to it by a 
continuation of the peritoneal membrane ; about six inches from the 
ccecum thejceces became divided into pellets. The ccecum itself was 
filled by a black tough pultaceous mass, of a slightly acid odour ; 
and the same coloured matter, but in a more fluid state, was con- 
tained in a greater or less quantity throughout the small intestines. 

* The liver consisted of four principal divisions and a lobulus 
Spigelii ; the gall-bladder was imbedded in a cleft in the right di- 
vision, and contained a small quantity of dark-coloured watry fluid. 
The pancreas consisted of two separate lobes. The spleen was of a 
very dark colour, pointed at the lower extremity, and about one 
inch and eight lines in length. 

" The kidneys were prominently situated in the hypochondriac 
regions, the right being nearer to the diaphragm by one half it* 
length than the left. Each was about one inch in length and con- 
globate. The supra-renal glands were of an oval shape, six lines by 
two in their dimensions, situated anterior to the upper extremities 
of the kidneys, but unattaehed to them ; the right closely adhering 
to the vena cava inferior, the left to the vena emulgens of its own side 

" The viscera of the chest, like thoje of the abdomen, presented 
traces of general inflammatory action. 



76 

" The lungs were divided into three lobes on the left side and 
four on the right, the fourth being the lobulus medius seu impar, 
occupying the space between the pericardium and diaphragm. The 
heart terminated obtusely, with a slight indication of a double apex. 
The aorta gave off the carotids and the subclavian arteries by a 
common trunk. 

"The rings of the trachea were incomplete, their extremities 
being separated behind by a small space. 

" The cricoid and arytenoid cartilages were of large size as com- 
pared with the thyroid ; the apices of the latter were continued into 
each other j the chordce vocales were very short but distinctly- 
marked, and with *a small sacculus on each side. There were no 
cuneiform cartilages ; the epiglottis was triangular with the apex 
prolonged into a small mucro. Viewed from above, the aperture of 
the larynx was circular, and was directed from behind forwards. 
The tongue was subacuminate, minutely papillate above, with a 
middle longitudinal line extending half an inch from the tip : it had 
no elevated posterior part as in the Guinea-pig, Beaver, Hare, &c. 
but at the root of the tongue there were numerous elongated cuti- 
cular processes, and on each side of the fauces a fold of membrane, 
whose action is evidently to obviate too rapid transmission of the 
food through thefauces. 

" In the male the testes were found within the abdomen, with the 
extremity of the epididymis projecting through the abdominal ring; 
but as the whole gland could be pushed with ease through the 
aperture, the Acouchy cannot be considered one of the true testi- 
conda. The levalores penis were very distinct, arising from the upper 
part of the pubes and terminating in tendons which ran along the 
convexity of the dorsum penis to the glans. 

" In the female the ovaries were found of very small size and 
apparently in a scirrhous state. 

" In both there were small clavicular bones, about the thickness 
of a small pin, and eight lines in length, which were connected by a 
ligament of the same length to the sternum. Their office appeared to 
be to afford a fixed point of attachment to a muscle arising from 
the transverse processes of the cervical verlebrce analogous to the 
levator claviculce in Apes, and to give origin to part of the deltoid, 
by which it is better adapted to draw forwards the humerus" 

The following notes on the anatomy of the Thibet Bear ( Ursus 
Thibetanus, F. Cuv.) were also read by Mr. Owen. The subject 
examined was a young individual which had lived about two years 
in the Society's Garden. 

t( An extensive abscess was found under the scapula, which ap- 
peared to have communicated with the cavity of the chest ; but the 
lungs, heart, and liver having been removed before the animal came 
under my hands, I had no opportunity of ascertaining the connec- 
tion it had with diseases of those parts. 

" The length of the animal from the nose to the root of the 
tail was 3 feet 4 inches : that of the intestinal canal 33 feet. Every 



77 

part in the abdomen was loaded with fat. The stomach resembled 
the human in shape, and had a well marked contraction between 
the cardiac and pyloric portions ; the muscular parietes of the 
latter were half an inch thick j and, as in the Bears generally, 
had a tendinous appearance externally on each side. The intes- 
tines were simply villous internally. The biliary and pancreatic 
secretions entered at a distance of four inches from the pylorus. 
There were four or five longitudinal ruga in the terminal six feet 
of the intestinal canal ; and the diameter was smallest at this part. 
There was no ccccum, nor any valvular apparatus in any part of the 
intestinal canal. 

" The anal follicles were two in number of the size of hazel-nuts. 
One of them was filled tensely with a yellowish-brown cheesy sub- 
stance, which had a strong acetous odour; the contents of the other 
were of more fluid consistence, but had the same odour ; the excre- 
tory orifice was just capable of admitting a common probe ; the 
lining membrane was thin, of a white colour, but not so distinctly cu- 
ticular as is commonly found 5 it resembled more the lining mem- 
brane of the urinary bladder. Each follicle was surrounded by the 
fibres of a muscle which was inserted into the crus penis. 

"The spleen was of a trihedral shape, 7 inches in length, \\ in 
breadth, of a light mottled pink colour and granular texture ; the 
splenic vein contributed to form the vena porta in the usual manner. 
The pancreas was of about the same size as the spleen 5 but the py- 
loric portion bent at right angles with that which passed behind the 
stomach. 

" The kidneys consisted each of about thirty lobules. The ureters 
terminated separately but close together at the neck of the bladder. 
The urinary bladder was a narrow oblong bag, and about half an 
inch of the urachus still remained permeable from the fundus vesica, 

" The tongue was long, broad, and thin at the extremity, with the 
edges turned down. On the upper part was a longitudinal mesial 
groove extending four inches from the tip. The surface was uni- 
versally papillose, and with the simple papilla were intermixed 
numerous small white petiolate papilla. At a distance of five inches 
from the tip there were eleven large f ossulate papilla, forming two 
sides of a triangle whose apex is towards the epiglottis. Nearer to 
the epiglottis were numerous cuticular pointed processes directed 
backwards. The lytta, or worm of the tongue, was 5 inches in 
length, about the thickness of a crow quill, and bent upon itself 
near its middle part : it had fibres of the linguales muscles inserted 
into its anterior extremity, but laid loosely for the rest of its extent 
among the cellular texture in the interval of the linguales and 
genio-glossi. The velum palati was terminated at its lower margin 
by a short bifid uvula, the azygos uvula consisting here of two quite 
distinct muscles." 

A pair of the middle tail-feathers of the Phasianus Reevesii, 
Hardw. and Gray, (Phas. veneratus, Temm.) were exhibited; for 
one of which the Society is indebted to the liberality of John Reeves, 



78 

Esq., of Canton. These feathers measured each about five feet six 
inches in length. The bird from which they were obtained is the 
first individual of this rare and magnificent species ever brought 
alive to Europe. It was presented to the Society by Mr. Reeves, 
and is now living at the Garden in the Regent's Park. A second 
individual died on the passage to England. 

The Report on the animals for the importation of which the 
Council should be recommended to take measures, which was 
adopted at the Meeting of the Committee of the 22d of March, hav- 
ing been submitted to the Council and approved of, was ordered to 
be printed. It is as follows : — 



Report of the Committee of Science and Correspondence to the Council. 
March 22nd, 1831. 

The Committee of Science and Correspondence, having taken into 
consideration the request of the Council, that they should prepare a Re- 
port upon the Animals most desirable to be introduced into this coun- 
try for the purposes of utility or exhibition, beg leave to submit a List 
of such Animals arranged under the heads of the respective countries 
of which they are natives. The selection of these countries has been 
made upon the principle of particularizing those in which the political, 
commercial and scientific interests of England have established such 
correspondents as are likely to exert themselves in forwarding the 
views of the Council. 

The Animals most desirable for the purposes of utility may be se- 
verally considered as they are likely to supply the objects of food, 
clothing, medicine, or draft. 

The Committee recommend to the primary consideration of the 
Council the first class of these animals, or those which are serviceable 
for food, as being by nature most capable of domestication, most pro- 
lific, and best able to bear the vicissitudes of climate. As their food 
also is for the most part vegetable, they can be readily supplied with 
it in their transmission to this country, and in confinement after- 
wards. The Animals referred to under this character include the greater 
part of the Ruminant or Hoofed order among the Mammalia, and the 
Gallinaceous order among Birds; the former comprehending the va- 
rious species of Deer, Antelopes, Oxen, Sheep, Goats, &c. 5 and the 
latter the numerous species of Pigeons, Turkeys, Guinea Fowls, Jun- 
gle Fowls, Pheasants, Grouse, Partridges, Quails,the. Struthious Birds, 
Curassows, Penelopes, Sfc. And to these may be added a few species 
from the Rodent order of the Mammalia, such as Hares, Rabbits, 
Agoutis, fyc. ; and a few from the Natatorial order of Birds, as Ducks, 
Geese, Swans, fyc. 

In thus particularly directing the attention of the Council to the 
above-mentioned groups, the Committee are not equally sanguine of 
success in the attempt to naturalize all. Climate in many instances 
has an evident influence in advancing or retarding this object. Many 
species of Deer for example, the inhabitants for the most part of 
northern latitudes or of high elevations in southern, breed freely in 
this country, while the Antelopes and Musk Deer of Africa and India, 
although closely allied to the Deer, have been found, with scarcely an 
exception, incapable of enduring our colder temperature. On the 
other hand the influence of climate appears in many cases either 
not to have been felt or to have been counteracted -, the Pheasant 
and Jungle Fowls of India, for instance, and the Guinea Fowls of 
Africa, having been naturalized among us with equal success as the 



80 

Turkey of the temperate parts of America. The habits of migration, 
also, which are peculiar to many of the above-named groups, oppose 
an obstacle to their bearing confinement as the period of migration 
approaches : while, from causes hitherto unexplained, various others, 
even among our indigenous species, although hardy and prolific in a 
state of freedom, will not breed nor indeed live for any length of time 
in a state of captivity. The Committee nevertheless are unwilling 
to make any exceptions in their previous recommendation to intro- 
duce the whole of these Animals. The endeavour to counteract the 
natural causes that may in the outset operate against success will af- 
ford many points of interesting inquiry j and the very failure of 
the attempt will supply the philosophic investigator of nature with as 
important facts for his speculations as actual success. 

The Committee do not augur many favourable results from the at- 
tempts to introduce such Animals as are useful for clothing. A colder 
climate than ours seems requisite for the full development of the fur 
in such Animals as the Sable, Chinchilla, Lynx, Bear, &c, and of the 
down in the Swans, Eider Ducks, &c. It is doubtful also on the other 
hand whether a warmer climate may not be equally necessary for the 
production of feathers among the Struthious and nearly allied Birds, 
in such quantity and of such quality as may be useful. Still the same 
observation may be applied to all these species as to the preceding. 
The trial will tend to establish a fact which, although likely to be a 
negative one, will furnish authentic ground, hitherto wanting, for the 
inferences of the physiologist. Our temperate climate however seems 
congenial to the growth of wool and hair. And with reference to this 
tendency the Committee recommend the introduction of all such 
species of Sheep and Goats, as are not natives of the British Islands, 
or of such varieties of the indigenous species as may tend to improve 
or vary the quality of their covering. 

The Animals hitherto known as useful for medicinal purposes are 
few in number, appearing limited to the Beaver, which supplies the 
antispasmodic medicine, called castor -, to the Civet, and the Musk 
Deer. The introduction of all these Animals is recommended by the 
Committee, not so much in the expectation of their affording any sup- 
ply of their peculiar produce, as with the object of ascertaining the 
physiological fact whether confinement will alter the nature or quan- 
tity of that produce. 

In referring to the Animals useful for the purposes of draft, the 
Committee are aware that little improvement can be effected in this 
object, beyond what has already been attained in this country. Every 
climate has its native beast of burthen most suited to its own charac- 
ter, and no animal, however superior in general organization, could 
supersede to advantage the use of the Rein Deer in Lapland ; the 
Camel in the deserts of Africa -, the Llama in the mountains of Peru ; 
or the Horse and Ox in more temperate latitudes. On a limited 
scale, however, the Committee recommend the introduction and train- 
ing of Animals suited to this purpose. Some of the larger species of 
Deer, such as the American Moose and Wapiti, and the Swedish 
Elk, the various foreign species of Bos, all the species of Llamas, and 



81 

of the Solipede Animals, such as the Zebras, Qudggas, Dzettais, &c- 
would afford interesting subjects for the trial. The attempt would 
probably disappoint the hopes of the utilitarian, but it would afford 
abundant scope for the speculations of the naturalist. 

The Committee feel some hesitation in proceeding to the recom- 
mendation of Animals for exhibition. It is difficult to make a selec- 
tion where all are objects of general attraction, as exhibiting their 
structure in perfection, as well as their native habits and economy, 
and where equally all are desirable as objects of science to the phy- 
siologist and comparative anatomist. In this point of view it would 
perhaps fall more within the province of the Committee to point out 
such Animals as from their previous introduction into this country are 
no longer wanted, than to particularize what are. They venture, 
however, to make a partial selection, and to annex to the respective 
localities, where the correspondents of the Society are established, a 
list of what appear to them to be the less known and more attractive 
of the native species of each: observing, that they generally place those 
species first in order, which they would first recommend to the atten- 
tion of the correspondent. They wish to add as a general recommenda- 
tion, that those Animals should be selected for transportation to this 
country, which have been previously domesticated, or at least ac- 
customed to confinement in their own ; and they suggest to those 
correspondents who may have leisure and inclination to attend to the 
rearing of Animals, to bring up those which are intended for the So- 
ciety, as much as possible from the earliest stages. As many animals 
suffer much from solitary confinement, it is desirable that they should 
be brought over in moderate numbers, and whenever attainable that 
they should be of different sexes. 

In reference to the mode of treatment of Animals during their pass- 
age to England, the instructions of the Committee must necessarily 
be very general j much depending on the particular character of the 
Animal, and the extent of the accommodation capable of being afford- 
ed. It may generally however be suggested that correspondents should 
engage some individual of the ship's company to take especial charge 
of the Animals on board, and guarantee to him a handsome recom- 
pense on his bringing them safely to their destination. Great attention 
must necessarily be paid to their being kept constantly warm, dry, 
and in a clean condition j and a more watchful care should be be- 
stowed upon the Animals of southern latitudes as they approach the 
colder climates 5 many valuable specimens being constantly lost by the 
abrupt change of temperature. Their food must be an object of pri- 
mary consideration, a sufficient stock of such as is appropriate to the 
several species being laid in previously to their embarkation. A con- 
stant supply of fresh water is indispensably necessary, and gravel 
should be at all times within the reach of the Gallinaceous and the 
hard-bilVd Birds. In case of the failure of the more general food of 
these latter Animals, and of the graminivorous Mammalia, the common 
biscuit of the ship's store will afford an adequate substitute. It is in 
general more difficult to bring home the soft-bill' d Birds, or those 
which partially require a supply of animal food, such as Thrushes, 



82 

Warblers, &c. but even these with due attention may be safely con- 
veyed to this country. Fresh meat finely scraped, hard eggs cut into 
small pieces, bread, biscuit, or barley meal, mixed with milk, or with 
water in which fresh meat has been boiled, will afford a nutritious, 
and at most times an available food : when pounded and mixed 
more or less together, until they assume the consistence of paste or 
honey, these ingredients will suffice even for the most delicate of the 
Warblers. Ants' -eggs, which are abundaht in all tropical climates, may 
be preserved in ajar well tied down, and with the addition of the 
Blattai or Cock-roaches, so generally attainable on board ship in all 
their stages of growth, and of the Meal-worms, which are equally 
abundant in the bread-room, they will occasionally afford an acceptable 
treat to these birds on their voyage. It is even to be hoped that, with 
due attention to their wants, the Humming Birds of America maybe 
brought to this country and be exhibited in our conservatories. It 
has been ascertained that they can be supported for some time at least 
in confinement on honey or sugar and water ; and a further trial may 
with some prospect of success be attempted to introduce them, as well 
as all the corresponding groups of Meliphagous Birds of Australia 
and the old world. 

The Committee do not wish to include in the present Report any 
reference to the subject of the importation and breeding of Fish. The 
subject is one which requires much inquiry at home, and still further 
correspondence abroad. And as the plans of the Society are not yet 
sufficiently ripe for entering upon any practical experiments, the Com- 
mittee think it advisable to reserve their observations on this subject, 
which in the present state of their information would necessarily be 
imperfect, for a future and a separate report. 

There are various other Animals, not included among the foregoing 
groups, which would be highly acceptable to the Society, but which 
the Committee do not include in the list submitted to the Council, lest 
they should appear to overload it with too many and too particular re- 
commendations. They will therefore refer to them generally. Many of 
the Reptiles would be valuable ; more particulary the different species 
of Tortoises and Lizards. Some of the Molluscous Animals also might 
be introduced with advantage and interest, such as the larger land 
Snails, and the freshwater Bivalves. Various Insects also, the foreign 
species of Bees for example, with their nests, and the larger silk bear- 
ing Moths'* of India and North America, if imported in a living state, 
would be so many accessions to science. All these and similar animals 
might be easily kept alive in our conservatories, and in addition to 
their scientific value would be objects of extreme attraction. Eggs 
of birds also, carefully packed in some soft substance with either end 
upwards, may be sent to this country, with some prospect of an ad- 
vantageous result. But the Committee must content themselves 
with this general reference and recommendation, and leave the follow- 
ing-up of the suggestions to the kindness and discretion of the friends 
and correspondents of the Society. 

* Moths should be sent over inthe pupa state. 



83 

Before they close these introductory observations of their Report, 
the Committee beg earnestly to press upon the Council the recom- 
mendation that instructions be given to all persons in charge of Ani- 
mals, to preserve entire in spirit the body of every species which may 
chance to die on the passage. If spirit is not easily procured, strong 
brine will in most cases answer as a substitute ; and in case of its 
being difficult to preserve the soft parts, the bones would be highly 
valuable. An attention to these suggestions would occasion little 
expense, and the labour would be trifling ; but the value of the addi- 
tions thus likely to be made to the materials of Science is incalculable. 



AMERICA. 



York Factory and Quebec. 



Rocky Mountain Sheep. 

Rocky Mountain Goat. 

Prong-horned Antelope. 

Musk Ox. 

Grisly Bear. 

Beavers. 

Deer of all kinds ( Wapiti excepted). 

Wolverene. 

Lynx. 

Hares. 

Foxes. 

Marmots. 

Flying and other Squirrels. 

Weasels. 

Star-nosed Moles. 
Canada Porcupine. 
Ondatra, or Musk Rat. 
Carcajou, or Badger. 
Jumping Mouse. 



Grouse of all species. 
Californian and other Quails. 
Swans (excepting the Hooper). 
King Ducks. 
Eider Ducks. 
Jays. 



United States. 



Virginian and other Deer. 

Foxes. 

Black and other Wolves, including 

Prairie Dog. 
Squirrels of all kinds. 



Wild Turkey. 

Virginian Quails. 

Jays. 

Mocking Thrush. 

Stares and Troupiales. 

Hard-billed birds of all sorts. 

Turkey Buzzard. 

Canvas-backed Ducks. 



And generally such of the Quadrupeds and Birds, mentioned under the 
preceding head, as can be procured. 



84 



West Indies, Demerara, Cuba, &c. 



Capromys, or Hutias, of all species. 
Armadillos, ditto. 
Agoutis, ditto. 
Acouchis. 



Gallinules. 
Whistling Ducks. 
Doves of all sorts. 



Mexico, Honduras, Vera Cruz, &c. 

Deer of all kinds. Ocellated Turkey 

Small or burrowing Dog called Chi- Quails. 

wawa. Jays. 

Cayopollin and other Opossums. 
Tiger-cats of all kinds. 

SOUTH AMERICA.— Pernambuco, Rio Janeiro, &c. 



Mountain Tapir (from the Andes). 

Grison. 

Monkeys, (particularly Howlers 

and Lion Monkeys). 
Sloths. 
Agoutis. 

Armadillos of all kinds. 
Deer, ditto. 
Kinkajou. 
Foxes. 
Ocelots. 

Margay and other small Cats. 
Opossums of all kinds. 
Hares. 
Coypu. 
Capybara. 
Ant-eaters. 
Tree Porcupines. 



Trumpeters. 

Curassows. 

Tinamous. 

Penelopes. 

Rhea or Nhandu Ostrich. 

Screamer. 

Dicholophus, or Cariama, 

Roseate Spoonbill. 

Scarlet Ibis. 

Jabiru. 

Flamingo. 

Ring Vulture. 

Quails of all kinds. 

Humming Birds. 



Buenos Ayres, Falkland Isles and Straits of 
Magellan. 



Hares. 
Foxes. 
Cavies. 



Swans. 
Geese. 
Ducks. 
Quails. 
Humming Birds. 



WESTERN COAST, SOUTH AMERICA.— Santiago, Lima, &c. 



Vicugna. 

Chinchilla. 

Viscaccia. 

Deer of all kinds. 

Foxes ditto. 

Chlamyphorus, or Pichichiago. 

Coypu. 



Birds before mentioned from Straits 
of Magellan and Juan Fernandez. 
Condor Vulture. 



85 



Sheep. 

Deer. 

Wolves. 

Foxes. 

Squirrels. 

Sea Otter. 

Weasels. 



WESTERN COAST, NORTH AMERICA. 

Californian Vulture. 
Californian Quails. 
Douglas' Quails, and others. 
Jays of all kinds. 



EUROPE. 
Petersburgh. 



Sables. 
Alpine Hares. 

Elk. 

Reindeer. 
Lynx. 

Swedish Hare. 
Lemmings. 



Chamois. 

Ibex. 

Marmots. 



Monkeys. 



Norway and Sweden. 

Capercailzie. 
Grouse of all kinds. 
Jerfalcon. 



Switzerland. 

Bearded Vulture. 
Black Vulture. 

Gibraltar, Malta, &c. 
Bustards. 



Francolins. 

Red-legged Partridges. 

Quails. 

Purple Gallinules. 



AFRICA. 






Alexandria 

Giraffe. 

Fennec. 

Hyrax. 

Ichneumon. 

Barbary Mouse. 

Gazelles. 

Jerboas. 

Hippopotamus of Upper Egypt. 

Genettes. 

Booted Lynx, and smaller Feline 

Animals. 
Wolves and Foxes. 



, Tripoli, &c. 

Sacred Ibis, or Abou-hannez. 
Percnopterus, or Pharaoh's 

Chickens. 
Bustards of all kinds. 
Demoiselles. 
Marabou Cranes. 
Francolius. 
Sand Grouse. 
Red-legged (Greek) Partridge. 



86 



Mogadore, Sierra Leone, Fernando Po, &c. 



Fasciculated Porcupine. 

Chimpanzee and other Monkeys. 

Antelopes. 

Galagos, or Gum Animal?. 

Potto. 

Genettes. 

Pangolin or Manis. 



Touracos of all species. 
Plaintain-eater. 
Francolins. 
Sand Grouse. 
Marabou Cranes. 



Cape of Good Hope. 



Two-horned Rhinoceros. 




Secretary Bird. 


African Elephant. 




Bustards of all kinds. 


Hippopotamus. 




Flamingo. 


Antelopes of all kinds (Gnu 


ex- 


Crested Guinea Fowls. 


cepted). 




Mitred ditto. 


Ethiopian Hog. 




Touracos. 


Variable Mole. 




Vultures of all kinds. 


Ratel. 




Eagles. 


Suricate. 




Francolins or Partridges of al 


Painted Hyena. 




kinds. 


Cape Ant-eater. 






Caffrarian Ox. 






Quagga. 






Aard Wolf (Proteles). 






Genettes. 






Serval, or Bosch-kat. 






Pedetes, or Spring- Haas. 






Hyrax. 






Mole Rats. 






Madagascar, 


Mauritius, &c. 


Macaucos of all kinds. 




Spoonbills with red bill and legs. 


Tenrecs of different sorts. 






Cheiromys, or Aye-aye. 






Fossane. 






Sus larvatus (Native Hog). 






Tndri, 






Vansire. 


AS 


IA. 




Bom 


BAY. 


Monkeys of all kinds. 




Flamingo from Cambay. 


Deer, ditto. 




All Pheasants and Gallinaceous 

Birds. 
Florican and other Bustards. 



87 



Ceylon. 



Asiatic Elephant. 
Monkeys. 
Slow Lemur. 
Slender Lemur. 
Meminna Musk Deer. 



Jungle Fowls. 

Gallinaceous Birds of all kinds. 



Madras and Calcutta. 



Asiatic Lion and Lioness. 
Arctonyx (or Sand Hog). 
Small Feline Animals. 
Pangolin, or Manis. 
One-horned Rhinoceros. 
Panda or Chitwa. 
Deer of all kinds (except Axis and 

Samboo). 
Chiru Antelope. 
Isabella Bear of Nepal. 
Bandycoot Rat. 
Malabar and other Squirrels. 
Flying ditto. 
Musk Deer of Thibet. 
Thibet Bear. 



Cassowary. 

Adjutant. 

Cyrus Crane. 

Stanley or Paradise Crane. 

Jungle Fowl. 

Florican and other Bustards. 

Pheasants from Nepal of all kinds. 

Pondicherry and other Vultures. 

Ducks and Teal. 



Sumatra and Java. 



Malay and Bornean Bears. 
Indian Tapir. 

Long-armed Apes and other Mon- 
keys. 
Civets and Genettes. 
Orang Utan. 
Sumatran Rhinoceros. 
Flying Squirrels. 
Panda. 
Benturong. 

Mydaus or Telagon. • 
Tupaias. 
Gymnura. 

Prionodon, or Delundung. 
Small Feline Animals. 
Rimau Day an Tiger. 
Pangolin or Manis. 
Tarsier. 

Musk Deer of all kinds. 
Flying Macaucos (Galeopithecus). 



Crowned Pigeon. 
Nicobar ditto. 
Pigeons (various). 
Fire-backed Pheasant. 
Argus ditto. 
Two- spurred Peacock. 
Javanese Peacock. 
Rouloul. 
Jungle Fowl. 



Chtna. 



Monkeys, Deer, and all wild Qua- 
drupeds. 



Pheasants of all kinds, except Gold 

and Silver. 
Mandarin and other Teal. 
Fishing Pelicans. 



88 



AUSTRALIA. 
Sydney, Van Diemen's Land, Swan River, &c. 



Ornithorhynchus. 

Echidna. 

Wallabee and Kangaroos of all sorts 

(common excepted). 
Kangaroo Rats. 
Opossums of all kinds. 
Flying ditto or Phalangers. 
Wombat. 
Coala. 

Dasyurus ursinus. 
Thylacinus Harrisii. 



Menura superha, or Tree Pheasant. 

Black Cockatoos. 

Parrots of all kinds. 

Quails. 

Bronzed-winged, Magnificent, and 

other Pigeons. 
Large A lectura, called New Holland 

Vulture by Dr. Latham. 
Dollar Birds. 



POLYNESIAN ISLES. 



Papuan Hog. 

Deer of Marianne Islands. 

Babyroussa. 

Phalangers. 



Megapodius. 
Birds of Paradise. 



From each of the above localities the smaller Quadrupeds, such as 
Rats, Mice, Shrews, Moles, &c. ; and the smaller Birds, especially the 
hard-billed species j would be desirable, as likely to include subjects 
of considerable scientific interest. 



June 14, 1831. 
Joshua Brookes, Esq. in the Chair. 

A letter addressed to the Secretary of the Society by Charles 
Telfair, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z. S., dated Port Louis, December 
15th, 1830, was read. It referred to previous unsuccessful 
attempts on the part of the Society's valuable correspondent to 
transport from the Mauritius to England living Gouramies and 
Tanrecsy and promised a repetition of the experiment. Mr. Tel- 
fair states that he has now a pair of living Tanrecs fully grown 
ready to send to England when he can place them under proper 
care. " They live on boiled rice, but will probably not exist long 
upon that alone, as their natural food is chiefly composed of worms, 
insects, lizards, and the eggs of snails, of which it would be difficult 
to carry ar sufficient supply in a living state on board ship. Fresh 
supplies might, however, be obtained at Madagascar or the Cape of 
Good Hope, at St. Helena, Ascension, and the Cape de Verd 
Islands ; and the animals might thus arrive in good health in En- 
gland, where they would probably survive for some time burrowing 
under a dungheap, or living in straw in a hot-house or green- 
house. An opportunity would thus be furnished of observing their 
habits. In the Mauritius they sleep through the greater part of the 
winter, from April to November, and are only to be found when 
summer heat is felt, which being generally ushered in by an electric 
state of the atmosphere, the negroes (with whom they are a favour- 
ite food) say they are awakened by the peals of thunder which 
precede the summer storms or ' pluies d'orage.' Even in summer 
they are not often seen beyond the holes in which they burrow, 
except at night. Their favourite haunts are among the old roots 
of clumps of bamboos. They have a very overpowering smell of 
musk at all times, which is increased to an extraordinary degree 
when they are disturbed or frightened : yet their flesh is considered 
so savoury by the negroes that they are unwilling to sell those 
which they catch, and would not exchange it for any other food, 
except perhaps for the * ourite,' which is the Catfish hung up in 
the sun until it acquires a most foetid smell tainting the atmosphere 
to a great distance j in this state it is a chief ingredient in their fa- 
vourite ragout. This mode of living may be one of the causes of 
the peculiar odour of the skin of the woolly-headed race, which no 
ablutions can remove, and which is not less distinctive of their race 
than the colour of t v itself." 

Mr. Telfair then „o the collection of Fishes last presented 

by him to the Society, portions of which have been exhibited at 

the Meetings of the Committee on the 12th and 26th of April. He 

is continuing his ichthyological collections, and states the proceed- 

[No.VIII.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Com m. oe Science. 



90 

ing which he adopts in the preservation of the specimens to be as 
follows. " The moment the fish is caught it is thrown into a tub of 
rum ; and the numbers are gradually augmented until there is no 
further room and the spirit begins to acquire a slight smell of the 
fish. They are then taken out ; washed in fresh rum ; and again 
put into clean spirit. They are then ticketed and numbered with 
lead and wire, and are ready to be put up in the preparation bottles 
as opportunities for their embarkation offer: this is done with fresh 
spirit also." The success of this method was shown to be in many 
instances almost complete, the fishes exhibiting great beauty and 
brilliancy of colour. In some cases, however, it is less successful, 
and even the same species varies considerably in its state of preser- 
vation. Thus of the Julis decussatus, (Sparus decussatus, J. W. Benn.) 
two specimens almost equal the brilliancy depicted in the ' Fishes 
of Ceylon' [Plate xiv.], while a third has parted with nearly the 
whole of its colouring, and retains merely the markings. The iron 
wire employed in affixing the leaden numbers has generally rusted 
so as to stain the fishes where it has been in contact with them, and 
has in some instances been so weakened by corrosion as no longer 
to retain the lead. 

Mr. Telfair concludes by referring to the neighbouring island of 
Madagascar, and to the interest attaching to its natural productions 
so far as they have been already investigated. He remarks how 
imperfect this investigation yet is, and gives a historical sketch of 
the various attempts made by European naturalists during the last 
twenty years, but few of which have been attended with even mode- 
rate success. In several instances they have been fatal to the zealous 
individuals who have devoted themselves to the pursuit, the climate, 
especially that of the coast, being generally ill suited to Euro- 
peans. A new attempt is about to be made under the auspices of 
Mr. Telfair and the Mauritius Natural History Society, from which 
he anticipates considerable additions to science, the individual se- 
lected being well adapted for the purpose by long practice in col- 
lecting and preserving specimens, and by being thoroughly accli- 
mated to Madagascar, in which he has on several occasions resided 
for a considerable time. 

Mr. Owen, having had occasion to examine recently with Mr. 
Yarrell the body of a Gannet, (Sula Bassana,) which died at the So- 
ciety's Garden, read his notes of the examination. They referred 
chiefly to the situation and connections of the air-cells, and differed 
in some particulars from the observations recorded by Montagu, 
who states in the ' Supplement to the Ornithological Dictionary' 
[article Gannef], that "by reason of some valvular contrivance the 
skin could not be artificially inflated through the lungs;" and adds, 
" it is also clear that there is no direct communication between 
the sides." 

" In the examination our attention was chiefly directed to the 
air-cells, which in this bird, as in the Pelican, have a most extensive 
distribution. We commenced by gentle but continued inflation 



91 

through the trachea, a pipe having been introduced into the upper 
larynx : in a short time the integuments of the whole of the lateral 
and inferior parts of the body rose, and the air-cells seemed com- 
pletely filled, especially that which is situated in front of the os 
Jurciforme. Being thus satisfied that they all had a free commu- 
nication with the chest, we next proceeded to see at what points 
these communications took place, and in what degree the air-cells 
communicated with each other. For that purpose the air-cells on 
the left side of the body were laid open, and shortly after those of 
the opposite side collapsed, indicating the existence of apertures of 
communication, although the septum which ran along the middle 
line of the body appeared at first sight imperforate. There was a 
free communication between the lateral air-cells of the same side of 
the body from the os Jurciforme to the side of the pelvis ; but the 
air-cell in front of the os Jurciforme remained still tensely inflated. 
The lateral air-cells had a free communication with the cavity of the 
chest at the axilla, at which part the air had entered these cells 
during the inflation. The pectoral muscles and those of the thigh 
presented a singular appearance, being as it were, cleanly dissected, 
having the air-cells extended above and below them ; the axillary 
vessels and nerves also passing bare and unsupported by any sur- 
rounding substance through these cavities. We traced the air-cells 
down the side of the humerus, ulna, and metacarpal bone, into all of 
which the air entered, and even into the bone corresponding to the 
first phalanx, which agrees with what Mr. Hunter has described 
in the Pelican, (Animal (Econ. p. 92.) 

" As none of these proceedings had any effect on the air-cell in 
front of the os Jurciforme, which still continued distended, it was 
evident that inflation by the humerus could not have filled it except 
through the medium of the lungs themselves. We next proceeded 
to detach the integument from this air-cell to see its shape and ex- 
tent ; this required to be done with great care, as it adhered pretty 
closely to the skin and roots of the feathers : it was of a globular 
form, about four inches in diameter, and communicated with the 
thorax at its anterior aperture below the trachea. 

" Numerous strips of muscular fibres passed from various parts 
of the surface of the body, and were firmly attached to the skin ; a 
beautiful fan-shaped muscle was also spread over the external sur- 
face of the air-cell anterior to the os Jurciforme. The use of these 
muscles appeared to be, to produce instantaneous expulsion of the 
air from these external cells, and by thus increasing the specific 
gravity of the bird to enable it to descend with the rapidity neces- 
sary to the capture of a living prey while swimming near the surface 
of the water. 

" With respect to the general anatomy of this bird, it may be 
observed that we found the two small glands at the termination of 
the trachea, which are noticed by Montagu, and which exist in ad- 
dition to the ordinary pair lying above the bronchia. The stomach 
corresponded exactly with the figure given by Sir Everard Home 
(Comp. Anat, pi. xlvi.), the pyloric orifice being provided with the 



92 

bilobed valve which is there represented, though not described in 
the text j it evidently opposes a too ready egress of the contents 
of the stomach." 

Mr. Vigors exhibited a collection of African Birds which had 
been presented to the Society by Henry Ellis, Esq., of Portland 
Place. They consisted of about one hundred and thirty species, 
many ot them of extreme rarity and value, and a great portion un- 
known to the cabinets of England. They came immediately from 
Algoa Bay ; but were supposed to have been collected far in the 
interior of the country. Mr. Vigors expressed his intention of lay- 
ing before the Committee at an early Meeting, a descriptive cata- 
logue of the whole collection, as well as whatever particulars he could 
collect respecting the locality from which it was brought. He named 
and characterized in the mean time the following apparent novelties 
from the Insessorial Birds. 

Turdus guttatus. Turd, superne olivascenti-brunneus, subtus sub- 
rufescenti-albidus; strigis tribus genarum, guttis rotundis pectoris 
abdominisque, tectricumque alarum notis brunnescentuatris ; tec- 
tricibus alarum, rectricibusque tribus utrinque lateralibus ad apicem 
albo notatis. 
Statura paulo minor quam Turdi iliaci, Linn. 
Pyhrhula albifrons. Pyrr. nigra, capite nuckdquejerrugineo 

nitore subtinctis ; fronte maculdque remigum albis. 
Longitudo corporis, 7f ; alee, 4 : caudce, 3 ; tarsi, J ; rostri, J, 

altitudo J. 
Ploceus gutturalis. Ploc. supra, pallide olivaceo-brunneus ; 
capite colloque in fronte aurantiacis, corpore subtus aurantiaco- 
Jiavo ; gula juguloque nigris, rostro attenuatiore. 
Longitudo corporis, 6}. 

Ploceus spilonotus. Ploc. capite supra corporeque subtus aw 
rantiaco-jlavis ; gula, jugulo, dorsoque summo nigris, hocjlavo 
maculato ; uropygiojusco-lutescente ; alis cauddquejiiscis. 
Statura praecedentis ; rostro fortiore. 

Ploceus chrysogaster. Ploc. capite genis corporeque toto supra 
saturate castaneo-brunneis ; gulafiano et brunneo variegata ; cor- 
pore subtus aureo-Jlavo. 
Statura praecedentium j at rostrum multo validius. 
Lampromorpha * chalcopepla. Mas. Lamp, supra splendide 
viridis^ cupreo nitens; subtus alba, lateribus viridi-cupreo fascia- 
tis; strigd in capitis medio, secundd superciliari, alteraque maxil- 
lari, maculis tectricum alarum, remigum, rectricumque, duabus 
mediis exceptis, albis. 
Fcem. aut mas jun.? Lamp, corpore supra metallice viridi ; capite, 

* A group including the shining Cuckoos of Africa, India, and New Hol- 
land, indicated in the Transactions of the Linnean Society, vol. xv. p 300. 
Mr. Vigors expressed his belief of having lately seen a name attached to 
this group by some modern author ; but he could not call to his recollection 
the work in which it occurred. 



93 

nucha, regioneque interscapulari cupreo splendentibus ; collo in 

f route pectoreque rufescenti ; abdomine albo, lateribus viridi-ceneo 

Jasciatis; caudd Jerruginea, viridi-ceneo Jasciata ; rectricum 

trium utrinque lateralium pogoniis, omniumque apicibus albo 

notatis* 

Statura Cuculi aurati, Gmel. 

Corythaix porphyreolopha. Cor. collo, abdomine medio, pec- 
tore, regioneque scapulari gramineo-viridibus, his subrufescentU 
bus ; J route strigdque per oculos splendide viridibus ; capite cris- 
tato, alls, cauddque splendenti-purpureis ; remigum fascia lata 
subpurpurascenti-coccmeis ; dorso abdomineque imis, tectricibusque 
Jemorumjusco atris ; rostro pedibusque atris. 

Statura Cor. Persce, 111. 

Bucco nanus. Bucco supra niger, sulphureo striatus ; striga su- 
perciliari gracili, alteraque per totam longitudinem alarum ex- 
tendente lata, aurantiis ; gula crissoque sulphureis, abdombiejus- 
cescenti ; J route coccineo. 

Longitudo corporis, 4£ ; rostri ad frontem, -fV, ad rictum tV. 

Yunx pectoralis. Y, supra pallide brunnescenti-griseus, Jusco 
graciliter undidalus ; nucha scapularibusque nigro notatis, cauda 
nigro fasciatd ; subtus albidus, collo injronte confertim,Jemorum 
tectricibus minus confertim, nigro Jasciatis, abdomine nigro li» 
neato ; macula grandi pectorali adgulam extendente riifd ; remi- 
gibusjuscis, pogoniis externisjerrugineo Jasciatis. 

Statura Y. TorquiHce f Linn. 



94 



June 28, 1831. 

Rev. W. Kirby in the Chair. 

A letter from Sir Robert Ker Porter, Corr. Memb. Z. S., 
dated City of Caracas, Venezuela, March 25, 1831, was read. It 
announced his having recently obtained possession of a specimen of 
the American Tapir, (Tapir Americanus, Gmel.), which it was his 
intention to transmit to the Society at the earliest opportunity. It 
embraced a full description of the animal $ and entered at consider- 
able length into an account of its habits. The letter was accompa- 
nied by two drawings of the Tapir, and by sketches of its proboscis- 
like upper lip. 

Mr. Gray exhibited the skins and skulls of two Mammalia brought 
from China by Mr. Reeves, together with the skull of a third, of 
which a skin was also in his possession. On these he proposed to 
found three new genera, the characters of which may be given as 
follows : 

Helictis. 



Dentes primores & : laniarii -f i : molares f. £ 5 e 

riores falsi conici compressi ; carnivori 4- -f, in maxilla superiori 
3-lobati, cum processu interno subcentrali lato 2-acuminato ; tu- 
berculares -f -}-, superiores mediocres transversi, inferiores exigui. 
Caput elongatum. Pedes breves ; plantce ad calcaneum Jere 
nudce ; digiti 5 — 5 ; ungues validce, anteriores longcs compresses. 
Cauda cylindrica mediocris. 
This genus, which inhabits eastern Asia, has the general appear- 
ance and colouring of Mydails, combined with a dentition resem- 
bling that of Gulo or Mustela, but differing from both the latter 
genera in the large internal central lobe of the upper carnivorous 
tooth. The species exhibited may be characterized in the follow- 
ing terms. 

Helictis moschata. Hel. supra argentata, pilis singulis basi 

cinereis apice argcnteo-albis, colore argenteo ad latera corporis et 

versus apicem caudce dominante, capite pedibusque anticis in 

fusco-cinerascentem vergentibus ; striga inter, aliisque duabuspone, 

oculos, macula interauriculari nuchalique, labio superiore, mento, 

guld, gastrceo medio, femoribusque internis, albis. 

1 The entire length of the animal is 234 inches, of which the tail 

measures 8. It inhabits China, and smells strongly of musk. 

Mr. Gray added that the Gulo orientalis of Dr. Horsfield's ' Zoolo- 
gical Researches in Java' appeared to him to form a second species 
of the genus, closely resembling the Chinese in its general characters, 
and in the disposition of its colouring, but differing in its browner 
colour and in the larger proportion of white upon the head and 



95 

back. The internal lobe of the upper carnivorous tooth in the Ja- 
vanese animal is also described as being anterior and very minute. 

Paguma. 

Denies primores £ cequales : laniarii -f 4- .* molares f £ '> quorum 

utrinque in maxilla superiori 3 falsi parvi compressi, 1 carni- 

vorus brevis obtuse 3-lobus cum processu interno centralis 2 tuber- 

culares subquadrati interne subangustati antice non producti ; 

in maxilla inferiore 4 falsi, 1 carnivorus, 1 tubercularis. Pedes 

postici plantigradi, ad calcaneum usque nudi callosi, Cauda longa 

attenuata. 

In the number and disposition of its teeth this genus agrees with 

Viverra, from which, however, it differs in their conformation. It 

is much like Ictides in colouring, but has about the face the pale 

marking of Paradoxurus : the skin has the odour of civet. From 

the genus Viverra it is distinguished by the shape of its skull, the 

cerebral cavity being in it much larger, the space between the eyes 

broader, and the nose much broader and shorter. The species was 

characterized in the following terms : 

Paguma larvata. Pag.grisea ; fascia albafrontali transversa, 
alteraque longitudinali per frontem ad nasum duct a ; cauda 
apice nigrescenti. 
Gulo larvatus. Ham. Smith in Griff. TransL Cuv. Regn. An. ii. 
p. 281, c. fig. /8*7 

Viverra larvata. Gray, Spic. Zool. p. 9. 

The third genus described was founded on a glirine quadruped, 
nearly allied to the Bamboo-Rat (Mus Sumatrensis, Raffl. ?), with 
which Mr. Gray associated it under the following characters. 

/"Rhizomys. 

Denies primores -f- maximi, elongati, triangulares, acutati: mo- 
lares 4 ■§- radicati, subcylindrici, coronis transversim subparal- 
lelim porcatis ; superiores interne lobati. Caput magnum. Oculi 
parvi aperti. Auriculae nudce conspicuce. Corpus crassum sub- 
cylindricum. Pedes breves validi, digit is 5 — 5. Cauda mediocris, 
crassa, nuda. 
In teeth and general appearance this genus is most nearly allied 
to Spalax, from which it differs in its tail of moderate length, its 
exposed eyes and ears, and the more complex character of its 
molar teeth. The species of Rhizomys live moreover upon, and 
not under, the ground, being found about Bamboo-hedges, on the 
roots of which they principally subsist. The following were stated 
to be the distinctive characters of the two species known. 
Rhizomys Sinensis. Rhiz. pallide cinerascens unicolor. 
Hab. in China. D. Reeves. 

Rhizomys Sumatrensis. Pallide fuscus, pilis raris albidis in- 
terspersis ; corporis lateribus pedibusque saturatioribus ; . genis 
pallidioribus, occipite nigrescenti lined longitudinali alba, pec~ 
tore albido. 



96 

Mus Sumatrensis, Raffles, Linn. Trans, xiii. 258 ? Temminck, 
Mus. Leyd. 

Spalax Javanus, Cuv. Regne Anim., ed. 2., i. 211. 

Hab. in Sumatra, Raffles? Temminck ; Java, Cuvier. 

The latter species seems to have been first observed by Colonel 
Farquhar, in whose collection of drawings, preserved in the Museum 
of the Asiatic Society, a representation of it is found. Of the former 
we owe the discovery to Mr. Reeves. 

Mr. Vigors exhibited, on the part of Captain Cook, specimens of 
several Birds recently presented by that gentleman to the Society, 
and also of some other Birds shot by him in the South of Europe, 
some of which were interesting on account of their rarity, and others 
with reference to the localities in which they were obtained. Among 
them was a specimen of the Pica cyanea, (Corvus cyaneus. Pall.), a 
species not included by M. Temminck in the * Oiseaux d'Europe', 
which had been killed by Captain Cook in Spain. There were also 
specimens of the Falco tinnunculoides ; of the Sturnus unicolor, 
Marm., killed in Spain ; of the Lanius meridionalis, Temm., a species 
referable to the genus Collurio as recently distinguished by Mr. 
Vigors : of the Sylvia conspicillata, Marm., killed in Spain : of the 
Saxicolce cachinnans and stapazina, Temm., also killed in Spain : and 
of the Fringilla domestical Linn., which is met with in great num- 
bers in Spain, and consequently extends far beyond the southern 
limits assigned to the species by M. Temminck. 

A collection of Birds presented to the Society by H. H. Lindsay, 
Esq. of Canton, were laid upon the table. They were accompanied 
by a letter from that gentleman to the Secretary, of the date of 
Jan. 25, 1831, stating that the collection had been formed during 
the summer of the previous year in the neighbourhood of Manilla, 
and adding some notes respecting the various species, as well as the 
names in the Tagallo or native language of the country. The col- 
lection consisted of about fifty-six species, fifty of which at least had 
not previously been in the Society's Museum, or in any other public 
collection in England. — Mr. Vigors pointed out the different species ; 
and announced that a catalogue of them was in preparation, which 
would shortly be submitted to the Committee. In the mean time 
he characterized the following species. 

Hierax erythrogenys. Hier. capite et corpore supra, cauda 
Jemoribusque intense atris ; gula, colto injronte, corporeque subtus 
albis ; strigd a rictu ad aures extendente rufd ; rostro albo, pe- 
dibus nigris. 
Statura Hier. ccerulescentis. 

Buteo holospilus. But. superne brunneus, subtus brunnescenti- 
rufus ; capite, Jasciisque duabus remigum rectricumque Jusco- 
atris ; nuchd et dorso, collo in Jronte, pectore abdomineque toto, 
tectricibusque alarum maculis albis ocellatis, harum maculis dimi- 
nutioribus. 
Statura tertia parte minor quam Buteo Bacha ; ei speciei simil- 
lima, diffeit tamcn capite lacvi, corporeque toto maculato. 



97 

Caprimulgus macrotis. Cap. intense brunneus, rufo undulatus, 

corpore subtus caudaque rufo Jasciatis ; capite aurito scapulari- 

busque rujo-brunneis, Jusco undulatim punctulatis nigroque no- 

talis ; torque jugulari albo ad nucham extendente rufo* 

Longitudo corporis, 15 ; rostri ad frontem ^, ad rictum, I J; alee 

a carpo ad apicem remigis 2dae, 10J; cauda, 7; tarsi, \. 
Dacelo Lindsayi. Dae. corpore supra brunneo, olivaceo et viridi 
nitente,guttis rufo-albidis notato, pectore abdomine crissoque albis, 
illorum plumis, medii abdominis exceptis, olivascenti-viridi mar- 

finatis ; capitis pileo saturate olivascenti-viridi, vittd superciliari 
izulind circumdato, deinde vittd per oculos nigra, alter dque sub- 
oculari ferrugined marginato ; guldjuguloquejerrugineis ; striga 
utrinque maxillari lazulind; remigibus Juscis ; rectricibus omni~ 
bus ad apicem, duabus utrinque externis ad latera, Jerrugineo 
notatis ; rostro subbrevi. 

Longitudo corporis, 10§ ; rostri, 1|; alee a carpo ad apicem re- 
migis 3tia?, 4 \ ; caudce, 4j, tarsi, \. 

Dacelo Lesson ii. Dae. corpore supra brunneo, olivaceo et viridi 
nitente, albido guttato ; capitis pileo saturate olivaceo -viridi, vittd 
superciliari cceruleo -viridi circumdato, deinde vittd alterd nigra 
marginato ; collo infronte corporeque subtus albo, pectoris abdo- 
minisque plumis viridi'brunneo marginatis ; striga utrinque max- 
illari viridi ; remigibus Juscis ; rectricibus omnibus ad apicem, 
tribus utrinque externis ad later a, Jerrugineo notatis ; rostro sub- 
longo. 

Longitudo corporis, 11|; rostri 1J; alee a carpo ad apicem re- 
migis 3tiae, 4J; caudce, 4f-; tarsi, |. 

Muscicapa occipitalis. Muse, corpore supra pallide lazulino, 
capite colloque splendidioribus ; abdomine lazulino-albido ; ma- 
cula occipitali grandi, torqueque gracili jugulari, sericeo-atris. 

Longitudo corporis, Q§« 

Rhipidura nigritorquis. Rhip. cinereo-grisea ; corpore subtus, 
rectricumque, duabus mediis exceptis, apicibus albis ; Jronte, tor- 
queque jugulari nigris ; remigibus rectricibusque Juscis. 

Longitudo corporis, 7. 

Irena cyanogastra. Ir. nigrescenti-cyanea ; capite supra, Jascid 
tectricum alarum, uropygio, crissoque splendenti-cyaneis ; collo in 
Jronte, genis remigibusque atris. 

Statura Irenes Puellce, et simillima j differt abdomine caudaque 
cyaneis, baud nigris, dorso cyaneo haud lazulino, et rostri culmine 
plus elevato. 

Oriolus acrorhynchus. Or. aureo-Jlavus ; vittd a rictu per 
oculos extendente sinciputque obtegente latd, remigibus totis, rec- 
tricumque basibus nigris ; rostro Javo, culmine elevato. 

Longitudo corporis, 12; ala? a carpo ad apicem remigis 4ta?, 6 ; 
cauda?, 4£ ; tarsi, 1 ; rostri, 1-f. 

Psittacula rubifrons. Psitt. viridis, subtus pallidior ; Jronte, 
dorso imo, rectricumque tectricibus coccineis ; remigibus caudaque 
viridi-Juscis , rostro subelongato ritfo. 

Statura paullo major quarn Psitt, Galgtdi, 



98 

Pjcus spilolophus. Pic. dorso alisque sanguineo-coccineis ; sub- 
tics sordide alius, Juscescenti undidatus ; capite colloque nigris, 
guttis albis maculatis ; hujus maculis grandioribus ; remigibus 
cauddquejuscis, harum pogoniis internis albo maculatis. 
Longitudo corporis, 1 If. 

Picus modestus. Pic. supra ater, alis ad latera apicesque subru- 

Jescentibus ; capite in J route genisque obscure coccineis, occipite, 

guldy jugulo, colloque grisescenti-atris, plumis maculd minuiis- 

simd alba ad apicem terminatis ; rectricibus duabus mediis elori' 

gatis. 

Longitudo corporis, 15 ; alee a carpo ad apicem remigis 4tae, 6 j 

caudce, 6 ; tarsi, 1 ; rostri, ]i. 
Lampromorpha amethystina. Lamp, supra splendide ame- 
thystina ; abdomine albo, Jasciis viridi-amethystinis ornato ; rec- 
tricibus lateralibus albo notatis. 
Longitudo 7^. 

This description is taken from a bird in the state of change, the 
amethystine feathers on the back, tail and breast, appearing par- 
tially through a ferruginous ground, but sufficiently numerous and 
defined to indicate the adult plumage. A younger bird in the col- 
lection has nearly the whole of the upper body ferruginous with an 
amethystine feather here and there breaking out. In a note ap- 
pended to the description of the species, Mr. Lindsay states that the 
natives considered them of extremely rare occurrence. 

Nycticorax Manillensis. Nyct. supra castaneo-riifa ; collo in 
Jronte, abdominis lateribus, Jemorum tectricibus, alarumque iec- 
tricibus inferioribus pallidiori-rufis ; capite colloque supra nigris, 
cristce pennis longis pendentibus albis, apice nigro ; pectore ab- 
domine crissoque albis. 
Statura. paulo major quam Nyct. Caledonica, cui simillima; dif- 
fert tamen colore crista?, colli in fronte, tectricumque inferiorum 
alarum. 



99 



July 12, 1831. 
W. Yarrell, Esq. in the Chair. 

Skins of numerous species of Mammalia obtained in Dukhun, 
(Deccan), East Indies, were exhibited by Major W. H. Sykes, Corr. 
Memb. Z. S. They were accompanied by a Catalogue of the Mam- 
malia noticed by Major Sykes in Dukhun, which included also ob- 
servations on the habits of each species, with occasional remarks on 
their rarity or abundance, on their geographical range, and on 
other interesting points connected with their history. 

The following species were enumerated : — 

Semnopithecus Entellus, F. Cuv. Makur of the Mahrattas. — Is 
found in large troops in the woods of the Western Ghauts ; and is 
not venerated by the Mahratta people, nor do they object to its 
being killed. 

Macacus radiatus, Geoff. Waanur of the Mahrattas. — Inhabits 
the woods of the Western Ghauts in small troops. 

Pteropus medius, Temm. Wurbagool of the Mahrattas. — Is very 
numerous in Western India, and such variations are found in the 
colouring of different individuals in the same troop, that two or 
three species might be supposed to be included in it. Some indi- 
viduals have a greater length of body (14| inches) than is given to 
the Pter. Javanicus of Dr. Horsfield. 

Nyctinomus plicatus, Geoff. (Vespertilio plicatus, Hamilton?)— 
This Bat bears a very close resemblance to Dr. Horsfield's Nycl. 
tenuis. 

Rhinolophus Dukhunensis, Sykes. — Rhin. supra murinus, 
infra albido-brunneus : auribus capite longioribus : antibrachio 
corpus longitudine cequante. 

This Bat belongs to the same section as Dr. Horsfield's Rhin. 
insignis, but differs from that species in being much smaller j in 
having the ears larger and more rounded ; the nose-leaf with the 
upper lobe concave, ridged beneath and revolute above ; and the 
front lobe oblong and notched in the centre. It differs from the 
Rhin. crumenifcrus, Per. and Le Sueur, (which is the Rhin. marsupi- 
alts of M. Geoffroy's lectures, andthe/2/«'w. Speoris of M.Desmarest,) 
in being much smaller, this species having the fore arm nearly half 
as long again as the Dukhun bat. The upper nose-leaf also is much 
more produced, and finally the colour of the fur in this species is 
reddish. The fore arm of the Rhin. Speoris as figured is 2 inches 
2 lines long, and the body and head 2 inches 2 lines. In the Duk- 
hun species the fore arm is only the length of the body. Expan- 
sion of its wings 10 inches. 

Sorex Indicus, Geoff. Cheechondur of the Mahrattas. — These 
troublesome and disagreeable animals are very numerous in Dukhun, 



100 

but much more so in Bombay. The sebaceous glands in an old 
male were observed to be very large, and the odour of musk from 
them almost insupportable; while in an adult female the glands were 
scarcely discoverable, and the scent of musk very faint. The 
Sorex Indicus and Sor. giganteus are regarded by Major Sykes as 
specifically identical, he having killed them in the same room, and 
seen them frequently together. 

Ursus labiatus, Blainv. Aswail of the Mahrattas. — In the skulls 
of many individuals of this species which he has examined, Major 
Sykes has never seen more than four incisor teeth in the upper and 
six in the lower jaw; the two centre teeth standing a little in front 
of the line of the rest. One individual, now in his possession, is so 
young that he does not conceive that the deficient incisors can have 
fallen out j nor is there any appearance of dentition having existed 
in the places which they should have occupied. He remarks that 
it might be deemed advisable therefore to remove this animal from 
the genus Ursus. 

Lutra Nair, F. Cuv. Juhl Marjur or Water Cat of the Mah- 
rattas. — The Otter of Dukhun differs only from the jMu'rin wanting 
the white spots over the eyes, in having a white upper lip, and in 
being somewhat larger. 

Canis Dukhunensis, Sykes. — Kolsun of the Mahrattas. 

Can. rufuSy subtils pallidior : caudd comosd pendente : pupilla ro- 
tundatd. 

This is the wild Dog of Dukhun. Its head is compressed and elon- 
gated j its nose, not very sharp. The eyes are oblique : the pupils 
round, iridesWght brown. The expression of the countenance that 
of a coarse ill-natured Persian Greyhound, without any resemblance 
to the Jackal, the Fox, or the Wolf, and in consequence essentially 
distinct from the Canis Quao or Sumatrensis of General Hardwicke. 
Ears long, erect, somewhat rounded at the top, without any repli- 
cation of the tragus. Limbs remarkably large and strong in relation 
to the bulk of the animal ; its size being intermediate between the 
Wolf and Jackal. Neck long. Body elongated. Between the eyes 
and nose, red brown: end of the tail blackish. 

From the tip of the nose to the insertion of the tail 33 inches in 
length : tail 8| inches. Height of the shoulders 16£ inches. 

None of the domesticated Dogs of Dukhun are common to Europe. 

The first in strength and size is the Brinjaree Dog, somewhat 
resembling the Persian Greyhound in possession of the Society, but 
much more powerful. 

The Pariah Dog is referable to M. Cuvier's second section. They 
are very numerous, are not individual property, and breed in the 
towns and villages unmolested. 

Amongst the Pariahs is frequently found the Turnspit Dog, long 
backed, with short crooked legs. 

There is also a petted minute variety of the Pariah Dog, usually 
of a white colour and with long silky hair, corresponding to a com- 
mon Lap-Dog of Europe ; this is taught to carry flambeaux and 
lanterns. 



101 

The last variety noticed is the Dog with hair so short as to ap- 
pear naked like the Canis JEgyptius. It is known to Europeans by 
the name of the Polygar Dog. 

Canis pallipes, Sykes. — Landgah of the Mahrattas. 

Can. sordide ritfescenti-albidus ; dor so nigrescenti Jerrugineoque 
vario ; pedibus totis pallide ferrugineis : caudd sublongd pen- 
dente. 

This is the Wolf of Dukhun. Its head is elongated, and its muzzle 
acuminated : a groove exists between the nostrils. Eyes oblique : 
irides yellowish bright brown. Ears narrow, ovate, erect ; small 
for the length of the head. Tail pendent, thin but bushy, extend- 
ing below the os calcis. General colour of the fur a dirty reddish 
white or whited brown. Along the back and tail very many of the 
hairs are tipped black, mixed with others tipped ferruginous. The 
tail ends in a black tip. The inner surface of the limbs, the throat, 
breast and belly, dirty white. Legs pale. From the ears to the 
eyes reddish grey, with a great number of short black hairs inter- 
mixed ; from the eyes to the nostrils, light ferruginous. The fur 
from the occiput to the insertion of the tail is two or three inches 
long, gradually shortening as it approaches the sides ; hence all 
over the body very short and lying close. 

The description is taken from two three-parts grown animals. 

Length from tip of nose to insertion of tail 35 to 37 inches ; of 
the tail 11 to 12 inches ; the hair extending two inches beyond the 
measurement. 

These animals are numerous in the open stony plains of Dukhun ; 
but are not met with in the woods of the Ghauts. 

Canis aureus, Linn. Kholah of the Mahrattas. — Jackals are 
numerous in Dukhun. Major Sykes had in his possession at the 
same time a very large wild male and a domesticated female. 
The odour of the wild animal was almost unbearable. That of 
the domesticated Jackal was scarcely perceptible. 

Canis Kokree, Sykes.— Kokree of the Mahrattas. 

Can. supra* rufescenti-griseus, infra sordide albus ; caudce comosce 
apice nigro ; pedibus rufescentibus : pupilld elongatd. 

The Fox of Dukhun appears to be new to science, although it 
much resembles the descriptions of the Corsac. It is a very pretty 
animal, but much smaller than the European Fox. Head short ; 
muzzle very sharp. Eyes e-blique: irides nut brown. Legs very 
slender. Tail trailing on the ground ; very bushy. Along the back 
and on the forehead fawn colour with hair having a white ring near 
to its tip. Back, neck, between the eyes, along the sides and half 
way down the tail reddish grey, each hair being banded black and 
reddish white. All the legs reddish outside, reddish white inside. 
Chin and throat dirty white. Along the belly reddish white. 
Ears externally dark brown, and with the fur so short as to be 
scarcely discoverable. Edges of eyelids black. Muzzle red brown. 

Length 22 and 22£ inches : of the tail 1 li to 12 inches. 

Viverra Jndica, Geoff., (Viv. Rasse, Horsf.) Juivadee Manjur, 






102 

or Civet Cat of the Mahrattas. — There are two varieties of this 
species of Viverra in Dukhun ; one inhabiting the woods along the 
Ghauts ; the other the country eastward of the Ghauts. The 
former has the ground colour much grayer, and the lines more dis- 
tinctly broken into spots. The other variety has a ferruginous tint, 
and the four black longitudinal lines or stripes on the sides of the 
neck are more marked : it attains the length of 28^ inches. 

Herpestes griseus, Desm. Moongus of the Mahrattas. — Some 
specimens of this animal measure from 19^ to 20^ inches from the 
tip of the nose to the insertion of the tail, and the tail 15 to 16i 
inches. 

Paradoxurus Typus, F. Cuv. Ood of the Mahrattas. — This 
animal is by no means rare in Dukhun. Its carnivorous propensi- 
ties are very strong, but it may be fed entirely on rice and clarified 
butter. In the stomachs of some individuals examined at Poona, 
were found fruit, vegetables, and Blattce. 

Hyarna vulgaris, Cuv. Turrus of the Mahrattas. — Hycenas are 
numerous in Dukhun, and are susceptible of the same domestica- 
tion as a dog. 

Felis Tigris, f L. Puttite Wagh or striped Tiger of the Mahrat- 
tas. — Royal tigers are so numerous in the province of Khandesh, 
that 1032 were killed from the years 1825 to 1829 inclusive, accord- 
ing to the official returns. They are much less numerous in the 
collectorates of Poonah, Ahmednuggar, and Dharwar. 

Fel. Leopardus. Cheeta of the Mahrattas. — This is regarded by 
Major Sykes as the Leopard of M. Temminck's monograph of the 
genus Felis. It is a taller, longer, and slighter built animal than 
the succeeding, which he considers as the Panther. It differs also 
in more of the ground colour being seen, in the rose spots being 
much less curved, and in other particulars. The natives of Dukhun 
consider the Cheeta and succeeding Cat as distinct animals. The 
Cheeta is extremely rare. On the contrary, the 

Fel. Pardus, BeebeeaBaugh of the Mahrattas, is so abundant that 
472 were killed from 1825 to 1829 inclusive, in the four collec- 
torates of Dukhun. It exactly resembles the animal figured as the 
Panther of the ancients in Mr. Griffiths's Translation of the ' Regne 
Animal.' It differs from the preceding in its smaller size, stouter 
make, darker ground colour, and in its crowded rose rings. 

Fel. jubata, L., and Fel. venatica, H. Smith. Cheeta of the 
Mahrattas. — These animals appear to be identical, the specific diffe- 
rences deduced from the hair originating in domestication. A skin 
of the wild animal has a rough coat, in which the mane is marked, 
while domesticated animals from the same part of the country are 
destitute of mane and have a smooth coat. 

Fel. Chaus, Guld. Mota Rahn Manjur or larger wild Cat of the 
Mahrattas. 

Fel. torquatus, F. Cuv. Lhan Rahn Manjur or lesser tvild Cat of 
the Mahrattas. — The specimens from Dukhun differ only from the 
Fel. torquatus figured in the third volume of the f Histoire Naturelle 
des Mammifcrcs' in the cars externally being tipped dark brown, 



103 

and in having two narrow stripes behind the eyes instead of one. 
The sexes resemble each other in colour, marks and size. 
• Mus giganteus, Hardw. Ghoos of the Mahrattas. — In fully 
grown individuals of the well-known Bandikoot Rat, none of the 
teeth are tuberculous. Its body attains a length of 16 T V inches ; 
the tail ll^v inches. 

Mus decumanus, Pall. Chooa of the Mahrattas. — The Norway 
or brown Rat abounds in Dukhun. 

Mus Musculus, L. — The Mouse is comparatively rare in Dukhun. 

Another Mouse was observed by Major Sykes, which he believes 
to be new. It is bright light chestnut above, reddish white below. 
Tail much longer than the body: size of the common mouse. 
Found only in fields and gardens. 

Sciurus Elphinstonii, Sykes. — Shekroo of the Mahrattas. 

Sc. supra nitide castaneus, infrh riifescenti-albidus ; caudce dimidio 
apicali pallide rufe scent e. 

This very beautiful animal is found only in the lofty and dense 
woods of the Western Ghauts. It is of the size of the Sc. macci- 
mus, and the general arrangement of its colours is the same ; but 
its colours are invariable, and do not present those differences 
which exist in the Sc. maximus. 

Ears and whole upper surface of the body, half way down the 
tail, outside of the hind legs and half way down the fore legs out- 
side, of a uniform, rich reddish chestnut. The whole under surface 
of the body, from the chin to the vent, inside of limbs and lower 
part of fore legs, crown of the head, cheeks and lower half of tail, of 
a fine reddish white, the two colours being separated by a defined 
line and not merging into each other. Feet of a light red. Fore- 
head and down to the nose reddish brown, with white hairs inter- 
mixed, hides nut brown. Ears tufted. Length from the tip of the 
nose to the insertion of the tail 20 inches ; of the tail 15^ inches. 

Dedicated to a very distinguished person and a zealous promoter 
of scientific research, the Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone. 

Sc. Palmarum, Briss. Khurree of the Mahrattas. — The Palm 
Squirrel is very abundant in gardens in Dukhun. 

Hystrix leucurus, Sykes. — Sayal of the Mahrattas. 

Hyst. caudd alba. 

This animal appears to be distinct from the European species, 
which it closely resembles in form and covering. It is nearly a third 
larger. All the spines and open tubes of the tail are entirely white, 
which is not -the case in the Hyst. cristata. The spines of the 
crest also are so long as to reach to the insertion of the tail. The 
cars are much less rounded, and the nails are shorter, infinitely 
deeper and more compressed, and with deep channels below. 
The white gular band is more marked ; and, finally, the Asiatic 
species is totally destitute of hair, spines where wanting being 
replaced by strong bristles even down to the nails. 

Lepus nigricollis, F. Cuv. Sussuh of the Mahrattas. — This species 
of Hare is very common in the stony and bushy hills of Dukhun. 



104. 

Manis pentadactylus, L. Kwwlee Manjur or tiled Cat of the 
Mahrattas. — Very common in Dukhun, living on white ants. 

Sus Scrofa, L. Dookur of the Mahrattas. — Wild Hogs are nume- 
rous in Dukhun, and the males attain to a very great size. Every 
village also abounds with Hogs, but any property in them is equally 
abjured by individuals and the community. These village Hogs are 
of the same colour as the wild animal, mostly a rusty black, and the 
only variations are slate black or slate intense brown j but it is not 
above two-thirds of the size of the latter. Tail never curled or 
spirally twisted. 

Equus Caballus, L. Ghora of the Mahrattas. — A fine breed 
of Horses exists on the banks of the Beema and Mahn rivers in 
Dukhun, supposed to have been improved by the Arabian blood. 
The variety called Pony by us, and Tuttoo by the Mahrattas, is 
sedulously propagated. 

Equus Asinus, L. Gudha of the Mahrattas. — The Ass of Dukhun 
is very little larger than a good mastiff or Newfoundland dog. It 
is said to be found wild in Katteewar. 

Camelus Dromedarius, L. Oont of the Mahrattas. — The Dro- 
medary is rarely bred in Dukhun, but is in very general use. The 
two-humped Camel is not known. 

Moschus Meminna, Erxl. Peesoreh of the Mahrattas. — This beau- 
tiful little animal is found in considerable numbers in the dense 
woods of the Western Ghauts, but never on the plains. 

Cervus equinus, Cuv. Sambur of the Mahrattas. — Abounds in 
the Ghauts of Dukhun and in Khandesh, and is no doubt the same 
as the Malayan Rusa figured in Mr. Griffiths's Translation of the 
* Regne Animal'. It wants the size of the Cerv. Aristotelis of Bengal, 
also called Sambur (not Samboo), and is not so dark in colour. 

Cerv. Muntjak, Zimm. Baiker of the Mahrattas. — This beautiful 
species of Deer is a native of the Western Ghauts of Dukhun, and 
is never seen on the plains. It has large suborbital sinuses, which it 
uses in the manner of the Ant. Cervicapra. 

Antilope Cervicapra, Pall. Bahmunnee Hum of the Mahrattas. — 
This animal abounds on the plains of Dukhun, in flocks of scores, 
but is not met with in the Ghauts. The suborbital sinuses are ca- 
pable of great dilatation, and the animal applies them to objects as 
if for the purpose of smelling. 

Ant. Bennettii, Sykes. Ant. cornubus nigris, lyratis, apicibus 
Icevibus leviter introrsum antrorsumque versis, ad basin ultra me- 
dium annulatis [annulis 8-9) ; rufescenti-brunneus, infra albus, 
fascia laterali hand conspicud ; Jascia media strigaque ab angulo 
oculi ad oris angulum externa nigris ; Cauda nigra. 
Kalseepee or Black Tail of the Mahrattas. Goat Antelope of Eu- 
ropeans. 

This Antelope is found on the rocky hills of Dukhun, rarely 
exceeding three or four in a group, and very frequently soli- 
tary. It belongs to the same section as the Ant. Dorcas. Horns 
erect, slightly diverging from each other, bending slightly back- 






105 

wards at first, subsequently with their points bending forward: 
ringed for £ of their length. The whole upper surface and out- 
side of the limbs rufous or red brown. Under surface and inside of 
the limbs white. Tail black. A black patch on the nose. A black 
narrow streak from the anterior corner of each eye towards the angle 
of the mouth. Suborbital sinuses very small; in dried skins not 
observable ; nor does the animal dilate them unless very much 
alarmed. Limbs long and slender ; black tufts at the knees. Body 
light. The female has horns, but they are slender, cylindrical, and 
without rings. The buttocks present a heart-shaped patch of white. 
Unlike the Ant. Cervicapra it carries its tail erect when in rapid mo- 
tion. It stands as high as the Bahmunnee Hum, but has less bulk* 

There is another Antelope found in Dukhun, which Major Sykes 
has not yet identified, on account of the immature age of his 
specimen. It is brown above, whited brown below. Horns cylin- 
drical, pointed, without rings. Its general appearance is that of 
the Ant. rufescens and Ant. silvicultrix. 

Capra Hircus, Linn. Bukee of the Mahrattas. — The goats in 
Dukhun are gaunt, stand high on their legs, have the sides much 
compressed, and are covered with long shaggy hair, which in most 
is black. Ears nearly pendent, hides ochrey yellow or reddish 
yellow. Tail always carried erect in movement. 

Ovis Aries, Linn. — The variety of Sheep most extensively bred 
in Dukhun, has short legs, short thickish body, and arched 
chaffron. The wool is short, crisp and coarse, and is almost univer- 
sally black. In most individuals there is a white streak or line from 
the anterior angle of each eye towards the mouth, and a white 
patch on the crown of the head. 

Ant.picta, Pall. Damalis risea, H.Smith. Rooee of the Mah- 
rattas. Nylghau of the Persians. — This animal is an inhabitant of 
the Western Ghauts of Dukhun. 

Bos Taurus, var. Indicus. (Bos Indicus, Linn.) Pohl and Byl of 
the Mahrattas. — This animal, remarkable for its hump, is when 
early trained to labour or to carriage nearly destitute of it. Dwarf 
cattle are not met with in Dukhun. 

Bos Bubalus, Br. Male called Tondgah ; Female, Muhees of the 
Mahrattas. — The Buffaloe of Dukhun is the long-horned variety, 
and is mostly bred in the Mawals or hilly tracts along the Ghauts. 

Major Sykes subsequently called the attention of the Committee 
to a Monkey presented by him to the Society, and now living at 
the Gardens. It was obtained at Bombay, where it was believed 
t6 have been taken from Madagascar; and as it has some characters 
in common with the Cercopitheci (especially with the group of which 
the Cere. Sabceus forms a part) and the Semnopitheci of India, it 
was remarked that it may ultimately prove to be a connecting link 
between the African and Asiatic monkeys. It wants the long limbs 
of the Semnopitheci; and although its tail is very long, it is not par- 
ticularly thin. Major Sykes referred it provisionally to the Semno- 



10G 

pitheci, until by an examination of its posterior molars its real station 
in the system should be determined. 

It is thus characterized : 

Semn.? albogularis, Sykes. Semn.? supra Jlavo nigroque^ 
infra albo nigroque irroratus ; guld alba; artubus nigris : mysta* 
cibus latis aures pene obvelantibus ; supercUiorum pilis rigidis 
exstantibus. 

Hub. in Madagascar ? 

Its canines are remarkably long (nearly 4 of an inch), slender, 
sharp; the incisors very short and even. Head rounded and short. 
Ears very small, nearly rounded, and for the most part concealed in 
the long hair about the head. Eyes deeply seated, and shaded by a 
continuous arch of long hairs directed forwards. Irides broad; of 
a brown ochre colour. Hair forming a bunch on each cheek and 
resembling whiskers : no beard. Cheek pouches rudimentary only, 
not observable externally, even when filled, being concealed by the 
bushy hair of the cheeks. Thumbs of anterior hands short and dis- 
tant ; those of the posterior long. Whole of the upper surface of 
the animal of a mingled black and yellowish ochre colour, each 
hair being banded black and ochre ; the black prevailing on the 
shoulders, the ochre on the back and flanks. Under surface griz- 
zled white and black* Anterior limbs uniform black ; posterior black 
with a little of the dorsal colour. Chin and throat pure white. 
Tail black, half as long again as the body. 

The manners of this monkey are grave and sedate. Its disposi- 
tion is gentle but not affectionate : free from that capricious petu- 
lance and mischievous irascibility characteristic of so many of the 
African species, but yet resenting irritating treatment, and evincing 
its resentment by very smart blows with its anterior hands. It never 
bit any person on board ship, but so seriously lacerated three 
monkeys, its fellow passengers, that two of them died from the 
wounds. It readily ate meat, and would choose to pick a bone, 
even when plentifully supplied with vegetables and dried fruits. 

Mr. Gray exhibited a specimen of a Tortoise which he regarded 
as the type of a new genus in the family Emydidce. It is charac- 
terized as follows : 

Platysternon. 

Sternum latum, antice truncatum, postice emarginatwnu Scutella 
sterni 12: quorum duo anteriora brevia, lata, per tbtam sterni 
latitudinem externa* Symphysis scutellorum pectoralium abdo- 
minaliumque extremitatibus tecta : scutellis axillari inguinalique 
magnis ; inter quce scutellum tertium accessorium iis simile ; scu- 
tella hcec tria in suturam symphysis inserta. 

Caput maximum, cute corned continud tectum. Cauda longissima, 
teres, attenuata ; superne serie unica, injerne duplici, squamarum 
tecta ; hand cristata. 

This genus is intermediate between Emys and Chelydra. It has 



107 

the broad sternum and simple tail of the former genus ; and pos- 
sesses, in common with the latter, a large head, and the peculiar 
plates which are situated between the outer extremities of the pec- 
toral and abdominal, and the marginal dorsal plates. It differs from 
Chelydra, however, in the peculiar plate which covers the symphysis 
of the sternum being here comparatively very small, not exceeding 
in size the axillary and inguinal plates, and in its being inserted in 
the same line with them. 

The only species known was characterized as the 

Platysternon megacephalum. Plat, capite brunneo, obscure 

nigro radiato : testd superne saturate brunnea, infrh pallidejlava : 

marginibus scutellorum sidcis aliquot obscuris striisque radian- 

tibus confertis. 

Long, testa?, 3£ unc. ; sterni, 2|- : latitudo testa?, 2*- ; sterni an- 

tice, 2^: long, capitis 2i 5 caudae, 3. 
Hab. in Chin&. 

In illustration of the conterminous genus Emys, Mr. Gray exhi- 
bited a specimen of the Em. Caspica t Schw., recently obtained from 
the Mediterranean. 

Mr. Gray also exhibited a specimen of the animal (Ocythoe) found 
in the shells of the genus Argonauta, in illustration of some obser- 
vations on the disputed question of its parasitic or non-parasitic 
nature. v He stated that he had lately examined ten specimens, four 
of them referable to Ocythoe Cranchii, and the remainder to Ocy- 
thoe antiquorum ; there being, however, little to distinguish them 
except the size. All these specimens, as well as all those which 
have been figured, were females, and had eggs inclosed in the hin- 
der part of the shell, in the cavity which is uniformly found behind 
the body of the animal. In all, the posterior siphon was placed more 
or less exactly in the keel of the shell, but the body did not always 
occupy a symmetrical position with regard to it, the eye of one side 
being sometimes nearer to the spire than that of the opposite side. 
Only one or two of these individuals had their bodies marked with 
the ridges of the shells, the impressions of which were, however, 
mostly observable upon the arms. The animals all appeared to be 
retained in the shells by the inflection of the anterior pair of arms. 
Mr. Gray added that he had also lately seen several specimens pre- 
served without shells, and having their bodies shaped exactly like 
that of the common Octopus, without the slightest appearance of 
their having been inclosed in shells : the history of these specimens 
he was unable to trace, and he could not therefore affirm that they 
were found in the state in which he observed them. 

From these facts Mr. Gray stated that he was inclined to regard 
it as probable that the Ocythoe is only parasitic in the shell of Ar- 
gonauta ; that the shells are only resorted to by females during the 
breeding season for the protection of their eggs ; and that the chief 
purpose of the dilated portion of the anterior arms is to retain the 



108 

animal in the shell. He remarked, that no author, so far as he-was 
aware, had distinctly stated of his own observation that these parts 
are expanded in the form of sails before the wind, a service which 
they seem to be incapable of performing, except in poetic fiction. 



July 26, 1831. 

Dr. Marshall Hall in the Chair. 

Specimens were exhibited of two Mammalia, presented to the So- 
ciety by J. Boyle, Esq., Colonial Surgeon, Sierra Leone. They were 
the remains of animals which died on their passage homewards, and 
had unfortunately been put after death into brine too weak for their 
perfect preservation. Since their arrival in the Museum they had 
been transferred to strong spirit, with the view of preserving as com- 
pletely as their then state would permit, specimens of so much in- 
terest. One of them was stated by Mr. Bennett to be a fully grown 
Aulacodus Swinderianus, Temm.j the other a Lemuridous species, 
which is probably the animal noticed and imperfectly represented 
by Bosman under the name of Potto. The latter was shown to be 
the type of a new genus, which Mr. Bennett characterized as follows : 

Perodicticus. 

Fades subproducta. Artus subcequales. Cauda mediocris. Index bre- 
vissimus, phalange ungueali solum exserto. Denies primores su- 
perne 4, subcequales ; it feme 6, graciles, declives : canini, -f -f , co- 
nici, compressi, marginibus antico posticoque acutis: molarium 
in maxilla superior e primus minimus ; secundus major; ambo 
conici; tertius acute tuberculatus, tuberculis duobus externis alte- 
roque interno; quartus prcecedenti similis tuberculo internomajore; 
sequentes {in specimine junior e desunt); in maxilld inferior e, duo 
conici cequales; tertius acute externe 2-, interne I -tuberculatus, 
sequentes (desunt). 
Perodicticus Geoffroyi. Per. castaneus, infra pallidior, pilis 

raris cinereis interjectis : vellere lanato. 
Potto, Bosman, Guin. ii. 35. No. 4 ? 
Lemur Potto, Gmel. 9 Linn. Syst. Nat. 42 ? 
Nycticebus Potto, Geoff., Ann. Mus. xix. 1 65 ? 
Galago Guineensis, Desm. Mamm. 1 04, No. 1 27 ? 
Hab. in Sierra Leone. 

The head is rounded, with a projecting muzzle : the nostrils are 
lateral, small, sinuous, with an intermediate groove extending to the 
upper lip : the tongue is rough with minute papilla, rather large, 
thin and rounded at the tip, and furnished beneath with a tongue- 
like appendage, which is shorter than the tongue itself and terminates 
in about six rather long lanceolate processes, forming a pectinated 
tip ; the eyes are small, round, somewhat lateral, and oblique : the 
ears moderate, open, slightly hairy, both within and without. The 
body is rather slender. The limbs are nearly equal, long, and slender: 
the fingers moderately long. On the fore-hands the index is exces- 
sively short, the first phalanx being concealed, and the ungueal pha- 
[No. IX.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



110 

lanx (the only phalanx free) being barely large enough to support a 
rounded nail, which does not exist on the specimen, but of which 
there is an apparent cicatrix ; the nails of all the other fingers are 
flat and rounded. Those of the hinder hands are similar, except that 
of the fore-finger, which, as in the Lemurs generally, is long, subulate, 
and curved. The tail is of moderate length, and covered with hairs 
resembling those of the body. The hairs generally are long, soft, 
and woolly ; each of them being mouse-coloured at the base ; rufous 
in the middle, and paler at the tip ; some few are tipped with white. 
Hence results on the upper surface and on the outsides of the limb a 
chestnut colour with a slight mixture of grey : the under surface is 
much paler. The muzzle and chin are almost naked, having only a 
few scattered whitish hairs. 

The measurements of the specimen are : length of the head, 2 
inches 2 tenths -, of the body, 6 inches j of the tail, 1 inch 6 tenths, 
or including the hair, 2 inches 3 tenths. The breadth of the head in 
front of the ears is 1 inch 4 tenths : the distance between the eyes, 
4 tenths ; from the anterior angle of the eye to the end of the nose, 
7 tenths j from the eye to the ear, 7\ tenths : length of ears be- 
hind, 5, of their aperture 8, breadth 5 tenths of an inch. 

Anterior Limbs. Posterior Limbs. 

in. 

femur 1*8 

tibia 1*9 

from os calcis to end of 4th 

(longest) finger ... 2'3 
thumb with metatarsal bone 1*1 
fore-finger (including nail 2*5) *8 

3rd finger '9 

4th finger 1'2 

5th finger *9 

span 27 



in. 



humerus . 1*7 

ulna 2*1 

carpus to end of 4th (longest) 

finger 1*8 

thumb with metacarpal bone 1*0 

fore-finger *4 

— last joint (all that is free) • 1 

3rd finger . . . . „ -9 

4th finger 1*1 

5th finger *9 

span 2*4 

By the comparative length of the tail the genus Perodicticus is 
readily distinguishable from the other Lemuridce. In this, in the mo- 
derate elongation of the face, in the moderate size of the ears, in the 
equality of the limbs, and especially in the extreme shortness of the 
index of the anterior hands, reside its essential characters. The 
latter character is especially important, and may be regarded as indi- 
cating its typical station in a family, all of which are distinguished 
from the neighbouring groups by a variation in the form of the index 
or of its appendages. In the Lemuridce generally the nail of the 
index of the hinder hands is elongated and claw-shaped, and unlike 
those of the other fingers, which are flat as in the Monkeys. This is 
frequently accompanied by an abbreviation of the index of the fore- 
hands, which becomes in Loris, Geoff., very considerable, and is in 
Perodicticus carried to its maximum, that organ being here almost 
obsolete. 

The habits of the animal are described by Mr. Boyle as " slothful 



Ill 

and retiring. It seldom makes its appearance but in the night time, 
when it feeds upon vegetables, chiefly," he believes, " the Cassada. 
It is known to the colonists as the Bush-Dog." 

The specimen of Aulacodus, being fully adult, was shown to add 
much to the knowledge previously possessed of an animal, only one 
individual of which had hitherto been seen by naturalists, and that 
individual so young as not to have attained its perfect characters. 
Mr. Bennett pointed out the deviations, in the specimen exhibited, 
from the description published by M. Temminck in his ' Monogra- 
phies de Mammalogie', and proposed the following amended generic 
character : 

Aulacodus, Van Swind. 

Dentes incisores £, anticZ plani, scalpro cuneato, superiores profundi 
bisulcati : molares ■£- 4, lamellares : sacculi buccales : pedes an- 
tici digitis 4, cum rudimento pollicis ; posiici digitis 4 : ungues, 
prater pollicis subplanum, falculares, fortes, superne rotundati, 
infrd, dilatati sulcdti: cauda pitosa, mediocris, atienuata. 

The deep sulci on the anterior surface of the incisor teeth of the 
upper jaw are situated nearer to the inner than to the outer edge of 
the tooth, and divide its face into three ridges, the inner of which is 
half the breadth of the middle, and the middle less than half the 
breadth of the outer. The molar teeth of the upper jaw have two re- 
entering folds of enamel on the outer, and one on the inner side ; the 
outer passing beyond the middle of the crown, the inner central and 
less deeply entering : all the teeth are nearly equal in size : the an- 
terior three are nearly square j the posterior somewhat rounded : 
there is no notching on the outer edge, but a distinct notch exists 
where the enamel folds in on the inner side, especially of the three 
posterior teeth. In the lower jaw the first molar has three folds of 
enamel on the inner side passing beyond the middle of the crown, 
and one small fold slightly notched on the outer : the second and 
third have two inner folds and one outer, all notched at the edge : 
the posterior is nearly similar, but more rounded behind. This system 
of dentition bears a greater resemblance to that of Erethizon, F. Cuv., 
than to that of any other genus of the Rodentia. 

The covering of the Aulacodus Swinderianus is peculiar, consisting 
entirely, except on the tail, of flattened somewhat spine-like bristles, 
from 1 to 1-J- inch in length, the tips only of which are flexible and 
hair-like : the dark space which occupies the greater portion of each 
of the bristles exhibits a changeable metallic lustre, varying in differ- 
ent positions from deep steel blue to bright copper red. 

The length of the body and head is 17 inches, or measured along 
the convexity of the back, 20 : of the tail, 9 : of the bead, 4-j- : of the 
fore-leg, 34- 5 tarsus and toes, I4- : of the femur, 4-J-j tibia, 4-J-; tarsus 
and toes, 3-£- : the ear, nearly concealed by the bristly covering, is 
l£ long, and 1 inch broad. 

Mr. Boyle states that this animal " is called by some the Ground- 
Pig, by others, the Ground- Rat. It feeds upon ground nuts, Cassada, 
and other roots. On the passage homewards it ate potatoes, and was 
becoming very docile." 



112 

It is very probably the "wild Rat, bigger than a Cat" mentioned 
by Bosman. 

A small collection of Fishes, formed during the voyage of H. M. S. 
Chanticleer, and presented to the Society by the Lords Commission- 
ers of the Admiralty, together with numerous other Zoological spe- 
cimens obtained during the same voyage, was laid upon the table. 
It contained among others a young individual of the Scyllium cirra- 
tum, in the state in which it is described by Schneider as the Squalus 
punctatus : a specimen of the Blennius pilicornis, Cuv., described ori- 
ginally by Marcgrave, and remarkable for the long acicular tooth at 
the back of the lower jaw on each side, a peculiarity which may here- 
after cause it to be regarded as the type of a distinct genus : a spe- 
cimen of the Antennarius scaber, Chironectes scaber, Cuv., also de- 
scribed by Marcgrave : and two species which appeared to be new to 
science, and which were thus characterized by Mr. Bennett : 

Chromis TasNiA. Chrom. brunneo-nigrescens : pinnis nigrescentibusj 
caudali subrotundatd nigro fasciatim punctatissimd: macula ro- 
tunda infraoculari, alterd ad basin pinnce caudalis superne, tee- 
nidque ab oculo per medium latus ad pinnam caudalem ductd, 
nigris, 
D.-H, A.£. P. 13. C. 16. 
Hab. apud Trinidad. 

Affinis Chrom. punctato, Cuv., (Labrus punctatus, L.). Differt a 
figura Blochiana taenia laterali, pinnisque haud lineatis : differt etiam 
numero radiorum pinnarum. 

Monacanthus setifeb. Mon. cauda hispidd : cirris brevibus mul- 
tifidis raris conspersus : pinnce dorsalis radio %do longissimo : 
pallide brunneus, lateribus mediis nigro undulatim longitudinaliter 
lineatis : pinnce caudalis rotundatcefascid angustd submedid. 
D. 1, 28. A. 29. C. 12. P. 12. 

A description, by the Rev. Robert Holdsworth, of a fish taken in the 
seine, at Start Bay, on the south coast of Devon, in August 1825, 
was read. Mr. Holdsworth regards the fish in question as the Urn- 
brina, Scicena Aquila, Cuv. ; with which species, occasionally taken in 
the English Channel, his description agrees. 



N 



Augusts 1831. 

Dr. Horsfield in the Chair. 

A letter from George Swinton, Esq., of Calcutta, Corr. Memb, 
Z. S., addressed to the Secretary, was read, announcing the trans- 
mission to England, as a present to the Society, of an entire Dugong, 
preserved in spirit and brine, which he hoped would arrive in a suffi- 
ciently perfect state to admit of its dissection. 

Specimens of two species of Bats, presented to the Society with 
a numerous and valuable collection of birds formed at Madras by 
Josiah Marshall Heath, Esq., F.L. & Z.S., were exhibited, and Dr. 
Horsfield identified them as the Megaderma Lyra, Geoff., and a new 
species of the genus Nycticejus, Rafin. He pointed out in the 
former some discrepancies in the colouring from that described by 
M. GeofFroy Saint-Hilaire, apparently from a specimen preserved in 
spirit ; the individual before the Meeting agreeing much more nearly 
with the colours as recently described by M. Isidore GeofFroy Saint- 
Hilaire, from whose description it scarcely differed, except in the 
less intensity of the rufous tinge of the tips of the hairs of the upper 
surface. 

Of the Nycticejus two specimens were exhibited, on which Dr. 
Horsfield pointed out the characters by which that group had been 
generically distinguished from Vespertilio as circumscribed by modern 
authors. He remarked on the geographical distribution of the genus, 
which might be regarded altogether as an American form, were it not 
for the existence of a species in Java described by him in his ' Zoo- 
logical Researches' as the Vespertilio Temminckii, and of the present 
species obtained on the Continent of India. As the second Indian 
species of this group, he regarded the present acquisition as peculiarly 
interesting. It is considerablylarger than the Javanese species, from 
which it differs also remarkably in its colouring. 

Dr. Horsfield thus characterized and described the species : 
Nycticejus Heathii. Nyct. capite cuneato supra lateribusque 
planis, auriculis capite brevioribus oblongis'rotundatis margine ex- 
teriore parum excisis trago elongate- falcato, vellere pilis sericatis 
brevissimis, notceofusco, gastrceo fulvo. 
Long, corporis (cauda inclusa), 6 unc. : expansio extremitatuni 
anteriorum, 18 unc. 

The head is of moderate length, nearly even above and compressed 
at the sides. The muzzle is broad and abruptly terminated. The 
nose is slightly emarginate. The eyes . The mouth is propor- 
tionally small. The lips are not rugose, and are nearly covered with 
delicate hairs. The ears are shorter than the head ; the auricle ob- 
long, erect, rounded, naked and slightly indented posteriorly, termi- 
[No. X.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



1J4- 

nating below in a small lobule $ the tragus linear, erect, falciform, 
and shorter than the auricle. 

The animal is uniformly and thickly covered by a short, very soft, 
delicate silky hair, closely applied to the skin : this hair is about a 
line in length on the back, but shorter and more delicate on the head ; 
on the breast it is somewhat longer and downy. The colour of the 
body and hair above is brown with a tawny hue j underneath fulvous 
with a slight tendency to gray 5 the tint being uniformly distributed 
over the throat, breast, abdomen and sides. The transparent mem- 
brane is uniformly brown. 

The collection of Birds formed by Major James Franklin, F.R.S. 
&c, on the banks of the Ganges and in the mountain chain of Upper 
Hindcostan, and presented to the Society by the Physical Committee 
of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta, (which had been laid on the table 
on the 23rd November last,) was again exhibited. The exhibition 
had been commenced at the previous Meeting of the Committee, 
when the Raptorial and Insessorial Birds were brought under the 
notice of the Members present 5 and it was now- concluded by the 
Rasorial, Wading, and Swimming Birds. On the former occasion, Mr. 
Vigors, and on the latter, Mr. Yarrell, availed themselves of the op- 
portunity to remark on the geographical distribution of many of the 
species contained in the collection, and on other points connected 
with their history. They were exhibited in the order of the following 

Catalogue of Birds (systematically arranged) which were collected on 
the Ganges between Calcutta and Benares, and in theVindhyian 
hills between the latter place and Gurrah Mundela, on the Ner- 
budda, by Major James Franklin, F.R.S. &c. 

Or do I. RAPTORES. 

Fam. Falconid^e. 

Sub-Fam. Aquilina. — Genus Aquila. 

1. Aquila Vindhiana. Aq. pallide brunneo variegata ; capite, pec- 

tore, remigibus secundariis, cauddque saturatioribus, hujus apice 
albido graciliter marginato ; remigibus primariis nigris; capitis col- 
lique plumis pallido-rufo lanceolatis, 
Longitudo 26 unc. 
Caumpoor Eagle, Lath. ) 

Sub-Fam. Falconina. — Genus Falco. 

2. Falco Subbuteo, Linn. Hobby, Penn. he Hobereau, BufF. 

3. Falco Chicquera, Daud. Chkquera Falcon, Lath. Le Chicquera, 

Le Vaill. 
if. Falco Tinnunculus, Linn. Kestril, Penn. La Cresserelle, BufF. 

Sub-Fam. Buteonina. — Genus Buteo. 
5. Buteo Bacha. Falco Bacha, Daud. Bacha Falcon, Lath. Le 
Bacha, Le Vaill. 



215 

Genus Circus. 

6. Circus Teesa. Circ. capite corporeque rufo-brunneis, plumarum 

rhachibus fuscis ; dorso imo, rectricibusque ferrugineis, hisfasciis 
subobsoletis fuscis septem circiter notatis ; remigum tectricibus 
abdomineque albescenti notatis; femorum tectricibus crissoque 
rufescenti-albis ; f route, guld, nuchceque fascid gracili albis ; ros- 
tro pedibusque flavis, illius apice nigro. 
Longitudo \7±. 
Zuggun Falcon, Lath. ? 

7. Circus cyaneus. Falco cyaneus, Linn. Hen Harrier, Penn. 

8. Circus melanoleucus. Falco melanoleucus, Gmel. Black and white 

Indian Falcon, Penn. Le Tchoug, LeVaill. 

9. Circus rufus, Briss. Moor Buzzard, Penn. Le Busard, Buff. 

Sub-Fam. Milvina. — Genus Elanus,j$avigny. 

10. Elanus Melanopterus, Leach. Le Blac, Le Vaill. 

Fam. Strigida. — Genus Otus. 

11. Otus Bengalensis. Ot. pallide rufescens, fusco alboque undu- 

latim variegatus ; nuchas pectorisque plumis in medio striga 
lata brunneo-nigrd notatis ; abdomine fusco graciliter fascia to ; 
remigibus rectricibusque lateralibus prope apicem brunneo fas- 
ciatis, his mediis per totam longitudinem similiter notatis. 
Longitudo 20. 
Dr. Latham alludes to this as a variety of the great-eared Owl. 

Genus Noctua* 

12. Noctua Indica. Noet. cinereo-brunnea ; capite guttis parvis 

albis, alis grandioribus notatis; abdomine albo,maculis brunneis 

lunulatis notato ; remigibus rectricibusque albo fasciatis ; re- 

gione circumoculari, gula, fasciaque subgulari ad aures exien- 

dente albis. 

Foem. magis rufescens, abdomine magis fasciatim maculaio. 

Longitudo 9. 

Indian Spotted Owl, Lath. ? 

ObdoII. INSESSORES. 

Tribus Fissirostres. 
Fam. MeropicUr. — Genus Merops. 

13. Merops Philippinus, Linn. Philippine Bee-eater, Lath. Grand 

GuSpier des Philippines, Buff. 

14. Merops viridis, Linn. Indian Bee-eater, Lath. GuSpier a collier 

de Madagascar, Buff. 

Fam. Hirundinidce. — Genus Hirundo. 

15. Hirundo Klecho, Horsf. Klecho Swallow, Lath. Hirondelle Ion- 

gipenne, Temm. 

16. Hirundo filicaudata. Hir. supra purpurascenti-atra, remigi- 

bus fuscis; corpore subtus maculisque rectricum omnium late- 



116 

ralium albis ; capitis vertice rufo ; rectrice utrinque laterali elon- 
gate, ad apicem gracillimo. 
Statura Hir. riparia. 
Wire-tailed Swallow, Lath. 

17. Hirundo riparia, Linn. Sand Martin, Penn. VHirondelle de 

rivage, Buff. 

Genus Cypselus. 

18. Cypselus affinis, Hardw. Allied Swift, Hardw. 

1 9. Cypselus Palmarum, Hardw. Balassian Swift, Lath. 

Fam. Caprimulgidce. — Genus Caprimulgus. 

20. Caprimulgus monticolus. Cap. pallide cinereo-brunneo, rufo, 

fuscoque sparsim variegatus; abdomine rufescenti-fusco fasci- 
ato ; remigibus secundariis rufo nigroque fasciatis, primariis 
brunnescenti-nigris, quatuor externis fascid lata alba in medio 
notatis ; rectricibus sex mediis fasciis gracilibus nigris undu- 
latis, duabus utrinque lateralibus albis apicibus brunneis. 
Fcem. fascia alarum rufa; cauda concolori (sine albo). 
Longitudo 10. 
Great Bombay Goatsucker, Lath.? 

21. Caprimulgus Asiaticus, Lath., Ind. Orn. Bombay Goatsucker, 

Lath. 

Fam. HalcyonidcB. — Genus Alcedo. 

22. Alcedo Bengalensis, Gmel. Little Indian Kingsfisher, Edw. 

23. Alcedo rudis, Linn. Black and white Kingsfisher, Edw. 

Genus Halcyon. 

24. Halcyon Smyrnensis. Alcedo Smyrnensis, Linn. Smyrna Kings- 

fisher, Lath. Martin pecheur de la cote de Malabar, Buff. 

Tribus Dentirostres. 
Fam. Muscicapida. — Genus Muscicapa. 

25. Muscicapa Banyumas, Horsf. Banyumas Flycatcher, Lath. Gobe- 

mouche Chanteur, Temm. 

26. Muscicapa nitida, Lath., Ind. Orn. Nitid Flycatcher, Lath. 

Genus Muscipeta. 

27. Muscipeta Paradisi. Muscicapa Paradisi, Linn. Paradise Fly- 

catcher, Lath. Gobe-mouche Tchitrec-be, roux et blanc, LeVaill. 

28. Muscipeta peregrina. Parus peregrinus, Gmel. Crimson-rumped 

Flycatcher, Lath. Gobe-mouche Oranor, Le Vaill. 

Genus Rhipidura. 

29. Rhipidura albofrontata. Rhip. capite colloque nigris; dorso 

cinereo-nigro ; alis caudaque fusco-nigris ; fascia subgracili 
frontali super oculos ad nucham extendente, pectore, abdo- 
mine, maculis tectricum alarum, apicibusque rectricum, duabus 
mediis exceptis, albis. 
Longitudo 6. 
White-browed Flycatcher, Lath. ? 



117 

30. Rhipidura fuscoventris. Hhip. capite nigra; dorso abdomine- 
que cinereo-nigris ; alls caudaque fusco-nigris ; striga brevi su- 
perciliari colloque in fronte albis; rectricum trium lateraliurn 
apicibus albescentibus. 
Longitudo 7\. 
Broad-tailed Flycatcher, Lath. ? 

Fam. Laniadce.— Genus Ocypterus. 

31. Ocypterus leucorhynchus. Lanius leucorhynchus, Linn. White- 
billed Shrike, Lath. Pie-grit che de Manille, Buff. 

Genus Edolius. 

32. Edolius ccerulescens. Lanius ccerulescens, Linn. Fork-tailed 
Indian Butcher-bird, Edw. 

Genus Lanius. 

33. Lanius muscicapo'i'des. Lan. brunnescenti-cinereus subtus albes- 
cens ; striga superciliari rufescenti-alba ; alls rectricibusque 

fusco-brunneis, his duabus later alibus albis basi notdque ad api~ 
cemfusco-brunneis. 

Fcem. aut Mas jun. capite corporeque supra albido maculatis. 
Longitudo 65. 
Keroula Shrike, Lath. ? 

Genus Collurio, 

34. Collurio Excubitor. Lanius Excubitor, var. Linn. Cinereous 
Shrike, var. C. Lath. 

35. Collurio erythronotus, Proceed. Zool, Soc. p. 42. Grey -backed 
Shrike, Lath. ? 

36. Collurio nigriceps. Col. capite supra, nucha, alis, caudaque 
nigris; guld, pectore, abdomine medio, maculdque in medio 
alarum, albis ; dorso cinereo ; scapularibus, uropygio, abdo- 
minis later ibus, crissoque rufis. 
Longitudo 8|. 
Indian Shrike, Lath. ? 

37. Collurio Hardwickii, Proceed. Zool. Soc. p. 42. Bay-backed 
Shrike, Lath. ? 

Genus Graucalus. 

38. Graucalus Papuensis, Cuv. Corvus Papuensis, Gmel. Papuan 
Crow, Lath. 

Genus Ceblepyris. 

39. Ceblepyris cana, Temm. Muscicapa cana, Gmel. Ash-coloured 
Flycatcher, Lath. 

40. Ceblepyris fimbriatus, Temm. Echenilleur frange, Temm. 

Fam. Merulidce. — Genus Pitta t 

41. Pitta brachyura. Corvus brachyurus, Linn. Short-tailed Crow, 
var. B. Lath. Short-tailed Pie, Edw. 

Genus Oriolus. 

42. Oriolus Galbula, Linn. Golden Oriole, Lath. Le Loriot, Buff. 

43. Oriolus melanocephalus, Linn, Black-headed Oriole, Lath. Loriot 
de la Chine, Buff. 



118 

44. Oriolus Maderaspatanus. Or. fronte, corpore supra, tectrici- 

bus alarum, abdomineque luteis ; capite supra, genis, remigibus, 
notdquemediandrectricumfusco-atris; guld albd striis fusco- 
atris. 

Longitudo 9. 

Oriolus Galbula, var. y. Lath. Yellow Indian Starling, Edw. 
Yellow Starling from Bengal, Albin. 
Genus Turdus. 

45. Turdus macrourus, Gmel. Long-tailed Thrush, Lath. 

46. Turdus Saularis. Gracula Saularis, Linn. Pastor Saularis, 

Temm. Little Indian Pie, Edw. 
Genus Timalia. 

47. Timalia Chatarasa. Tim. suprh pallide brunnescenti- , subtus rufes- 

centi-cinerea ; capite corporeque supra lineis fuscis striatis ; 
rectricibus fusco obsolete fasciatis ; rostro pallido. 
Longitudo 9|. 
Gogoye Thrush, Lath. ? 

48. Timalia pileata, Horsf. Pileated Thrush, Lath. 

49. Timalia hypoleuca. Tim. supra rufescenti-brunnea, subtus alba ; 

alis rufis ; his cauddque subtus cinereis, rectricibus fusco obsolete 
fasciatis; rostro nigro. 
Longitudo 6|. 

50. Timalia hyperythra. Tim. supra olivascenti-brunnea ; capite in 

fronte corporeque toto subtus rufis ; cauda supernefusco obsolete 
fasciatd ; rostro pallido. 
Longitudo 5. 

Genus Jxos. 

51. Ixosjocosus. Lanius jocosus, Linn. Jocose Shrike, Lath. 

52. Ixos Cafer. Turdus Cafer, Linn. Cape Thrush, Lath. Le Cou- 

rouge, LeVaill. 

53. Ixos fulicata. Motacilla fulicata, Linn. Sooty Warbler, var. Lath. 

Traquet noir des Philippines, Buff. 

Fam. Sylviadce. — Genus lora. 

54. Iora scapularis, Horsf. Scapular Wagtail, Lath. 

Genus Sylvia. 

55. Sylvia Hippolais, Lath. Ind. Orn. Lesser Pettichaps, Lath. Reed 

Wren, Lath. 
This is the bird alluded to under Dr. Latham's Reed Wren, as an 
Indian variety called Tickra and Ticktickee. 

Genus Prinia. 

56. Prinia cursitans. Prin. corpore suprh pallide brunneo, fusco 

striato; guld juguloque albis ; abdomine rufescente ; rectricibus 
mediis fuscis, omnibus subtus ad apicem fascia nigra albo termi- 
natd notatis. 
Longitudo 4. 

57. Prinia macroura. Prin. suprh grisescenti-brunnea ; capite, alis, 

uropygioque subrufescenti tinctis; subtus ferrugineo - albida ; rec- 
tricibus quatuor mediis saturatioribus fusco obsolete fasciatis, 
subtus ad apicem fusco leviter notatis, 
Longitudo 5$. 






119 

58. Prinia gracilis. Prin. cinereo-grisea ; dorso, alls, caudaque 

olivascenlibus; gula, pectore, abdomineque subtus albidis; rec~ 
tricibus subtus griseis fascia nigra albo terminatd notatis. 
Longitudo 4-rV 
Foodkey Warbler, Lath. ? 

Genus Motacilla. 

59. Motacilla picata. Mot. capite t collo, corporeque suprh nigris ; 

strigd utrinque superciliari alterdque longitudinali alarum, cor- 
pore subtus, rectricibusque duabus later alibus albis. 
Longitudo 9. 
Pied Wagtail, Lath. pi. 104. 

60. Motacilla /lava, Linn. Bergeronnettejaune, Buff^, & Bergeronnette 

de printemps, Buff. Yellow Wagtail, Lath. 
This is the Indian bird alluded to by Dr. Latham under the head of 
Yellow Wagtail, called Peeluck, which is its Indian name. 
Genus Saxicola. 

61. Saxicola rubicola, Temm. Stone Chat Warbler, Lath. 

Genus Phainicura. 

62. Phainicura atrata, Jard. & Selb. Indian Redstart, lid. 

Fam. Pipridce. — Genus Parus. 

63. Parus atriceps, Horsf. Mesange cap-negre, Temm. 

Tribus Conirostres. 
Fam. FringillidcB. — Genus Alauda. 

64. Alauda Chendoola. Al. supra pallide grisescenti-brunnea, 

plumisfusco in medio notatis ; corpore subtus strigdque superci- 
liari albis ; rectricibus brunneis, duarum utrinque lateralium po- 
goniis externis albis ; pectore brunneo maculato, capiie cristato, 
Statura Al. arvensis, Linn. 

65. Alauda Gulgula. Al. pallide rufescenti-brunnea, plumis in 

medio late et intense brunneo lineatis; subtus albescens, pectore 
brunneo lineato ; femoribus rufescentibus ; rectricibus brunneis, 
externa utrinque fere toiti, secundce pogonio externo, albis. 
Statura fere prsecedentis. 

Genus Mirafra. 

66. Mirafra Javanica, Horsf. Alouette mirafre, Temm. 

67. Mirafra phgenicura. Mir* pallide cinereo-brunnea ; corpore sub- 

tus, remigum pogoniis internis, rectricumque bast rufis ; rostro 
albo, culmine apiceque fuscis. 
Longitudo 5. 

Genus Emberiza. 

68. Emberiza Baghaira. Baag-geyra Lark, Lath. 

This bird is the common Ortolan of India, called Baghairi. 
79. Emberiza Gingica, Gmel. Duree Finch, Lath. 

70. Emberiza cristata, Gould's Century of Himalayan Birds. 

71. Emberiza Bengalensis. Baya Berbera, Asiat. Res. Loxia Benga- 

lensis, Linn. 
The Hindu name of this bird is Baya • its Sanscrit name Berbera. 
Genus Fringilla. 

72. Fringilla Amandava, Linn, he Bengali Piquvte, Buff. 



120 

73. Fringilla f or mosa, Lath. Lovely Finch, Lath. 

74. Fringilla Malabaria, . Loxia Malabaria, Linn. Malabar 

Grosbeak, Lath. 

75. Fringilla flavicollis. Fring. suprh cinereo-grisea, subtus 

albida; jugulo maculdfiavd notato; humeris ferrugineis ; alls 
maculis albisfascias duas exhibentibus notatis. * 
Longitudo 5 T V. 
This bird, though placed amongst the Finches, differs in the form 
of its bill, and it may perhaps hereafter be found expedient to re- 
move it. 

Genus Ploceus. 

76. Ploceus Philippinus, Cuv. Philippine Grosbeak, Lath. 

Fam. Sturnidce. — Genus Pastor. 

77. Pastor roseus, Temm. Rose-coloured Thrush, Lath, he Roselin, 

Le Vaill. 

78. Pastor tristis, Temm. Merle des Philippines, Buff. 

79. Pastor griseus, Horsf. Le Martin gris defer, Le Vaill. 

80. Pastor Contra vel Capensis, Temm. Etourneau Pie, Buff. 

81. Pastor Pagodarum, Temm. Le Martin Brame, Le Vaill. 

Fam. Corvidce. — Genus Corvus. 

82. Corvus Corone, Linn. Carrion Crow, Lath. 

This bird appears to be the common Carrion Crow of India j it 
differs only in size from the European Crow, and in the greater 
elevation of the bill. 

Genus Coracias. 

83. Coracias Bengalensis, Linn. Blue Jay from the East Indies, Edw. 

Genus Pica. 

84. Pica vagabunda, Wagler. Rufous Magpie, Hardw. 

Fam. Buceridce. — Genus Buceros. 

85. Buceros Gingianus, Lath. Indian Hornbill, Lath. 

There is some confusion with regard to this bird in Dr. Latham's 
General History, under the heads of Gingi and Indian Horn- 
bill: it is the Dhanesa of India. 

86. Buceros Malabaricus, Gmel. Unicorn Hornbill, Lath. 

There is also much confusion with regard to this bird under the 
heads of pied Hornbill and Unicorn Hornbill of Latham : it is 
the Dhanesa of the latter, var. B. 

Tribus Scansores. 
Fam. Psittacidce. — Genus Palceornis. 

87. Palceornis torquatus, Vig. Psittaca Borbonica torquata, Briss. La 

Perruche a double collier, Buff. 

88. Palceornis Bengalensis, Vig. Psittacus Bengalensis, Gmel. Blos- 

som-headed Parakeet, Lath. sp. 74. var. A. 

89. Palceornis flavicollaris. Pal. viridis ; capite lilacino-cano, 

flavo marginato ; rectricibus mediis cozruleis apice albo. 
Longitudo 12. 
According to the description, this would appear to be Dr. Latham's 
yellow-collared Parrakeet ; but he refers to figures which do not 
correspond. 






121 

Fam. Picida. — Genus Bucco. 

90. Bucco canicep8. Buc. gramineo-viridis ; capite, nucha, collo, 

pectoreque griseis ; illius plumis in medio albido lineatis ; rostro 
rubro ; pedibus jiavis ; regione circumoculari nudd Jlavescenti- 
rubra. 

Longitudo 10. 
HchteVs Barbet, Lath. ? 
This bird is the Bura- Bussunta of India, and appears to be the 
same as var. A. of Dr. Latham's FichteVs Barbet. 

91. Bucco Philippinensis, Gmel. Barbu des Philippines, Buff. 

Genus Picus. 

92. Picus Bengalensis, Linn. Bengal Woodpecker, Lath. 

93. Picus Mahrattensis, Lath., Ind. Orn. Mahratta Woodpecker, Lath. 

Fam. Certhiadce.— Genus Sitta. 

94. Sitta castaneoventris. Sit. superne griseo-plumbea ; peclore 

abdomineque castaneis; strigd a rictuper oculos ad nucham ex- 

tendente, remigibus, rectricumque pogoniis internis nigris ; guld 

maculaque rectricum later aliumalbis. 

Longitudo 5. 

Ferruginous-bellied Nuthatch, Lath. ? 

Genus Certhia. 

95. Certhia spilonota. Certh. supra griseo-fusca, albo maculata ; 

capite albo graciliter striato; guld abdomineque albidis, hoc 
fusco fasciato ; cauda albo fuscoque fasciatd. 
Longitudo bh. 
The tail of this bird is soft and flexible, in which respect it differs 
from the type of the genus, but it agrees in all others. 
Genus Upupa. 

96. Upupa minor, Shaw. La Huppe d'A/rique, Le Vaill. 

Fam. Cuculidce. — Genus Leptosomus. 

97. Leptosomus Ajer. Cuculus Afer, Gmel. Edolian Cuckow, Shaw. 

Genus Cuculus. 

98. Cuculus canorus, Linn. Common Cuckow, Lath. 

This bird, on comparison with the common Cuckow, differs so little 
that it can scarcely be called a variety ; it is the common Cuckow 
of India, and its habits and note resemble those of the European 
bird. 

99. Cuculusfugax, Horsf. Bychan Cuckow, Lath. 

The common Indian name of this bird is Pipiha or Pipeeha, from 
its note ; in Sanscrit Chataca. Dr. Buchanan named it Cuculus 
radiatus. 

1 00. Cuculus Sonneratii, Ind. Orn. } Le petit Coucou des hides, Sonn. ? 

SonneraVs Cuckow, Lath. ? 
Not having either specimen or figures to refer to, I conclude, from 
description alone, that this bird is SonneraVs Cuckow. 
Genus Centropus. 

101. Centropus Philippensis, Cuv. Coucou des Philippines, Buff. 

Chestnut Coucal, Lath. 



122 

This bird is the Mahooka of India, so named from its note ; it is 
called also, by the English, Pheasant Crow. Dr. Latham's 
chestnut Coucal very accurately describes it, but his figure is 
bad j having apparently been taken from a drawing of Gen. 
Hardwicke's, which stated it to be a young bird. Dr. Buchanan 
named it Cuculus castaneus. 

Genus Eudynamys. 

102. Eudynamys Orientalis. Cuculus Orientalis, Linn. Eastern black 

Cuckow, Lath. Coucou noir des hides & Coukeel, Buff. 
This bird is the Coel of India, and the Coukeel of Buffon. 

103. Eudynamys Sirkee. Centropus Sirkee, Hardw. Sirkeer Cuckow, 

Lath. 

Tribus Tenuirostres. 
Fam. Meliphagidce. — Genus Chloropsis. 

104. Chloropsis aurifrons, J ard. & Selby. Malabar Chloropsis, Jard. 

& Selby. 
This bird is the Hurewa of India, and is well described by Dr. 
Latham as the Hurruwa Bee-eater. 

Fam. Cinnyridce. — Genus Cinnyris. 

105. Cinnyris Orientalis. Cinn. capite, collo, dorsoque splendide 

virescenti-purpureis ; abdomine purpureo-atro ; alis caudaque 
atris; fasciculo utrinque sub alis aurantiaco. 
Longitudo 4. 
Eastern Creeper , Lath. 

Ordo III. RASORES. 

Fam. CoLUMBiDiE. 

Genus Vinago. 

106. Vinago militaris. Columba militaris, Temm. Columbar Cowj- 

mandeur, Temm. Hurrial Pigeon, Lath. 
Genus Columba. 
107- Columba iigrina, Temm. Colombe a nuqueperUe, Temm. 

108. Columba Cambayensis, Gmel. Colombe maillee, Temm. 

109. Columba risoria, Linn. Colombe Blonde, Temm. La Tour- 

terelle Blonde, Le Vaill. 
Le Vaillant mentions a larger bird of this species which is common 
in Africa j the same thing occurs also in India, where there are 
two birds differing only in size. 

110. Columba humilis, Temm. Colombe terrestre, Temm. 

Fam. PHASIAN1D.E. 

Genus Pavo. 

111. Pavo cristatusy Linn. Le Paon, Buff. Crested Peacock, Lath. 

Genus Tragopan. 

1 1 2. Tragopan Satyrus, Cuv. Meleagris Satyrus, Linn. Horned 

Pheasant, Lath. 

Fam. Tetraonid,e. 
Genus Pterocles. 

1 13. Pterocles exustus, Temm. Ganga venlre-brule, Temm. 

Genus Francolinus. 

1 14. Francolinus Ponticerianus, Temm. Francolin a rabat, Temm. 



123 

115. Francolinus vulgaris, Steph. Le Francolin, Buff. Frahcolin, 
Edw. 

Genus Perdix, 

1 1 6- Perdix picta, Jard. & Selby. Painted Partridge, lid. Beauti- 
ful Partridge, Lath. 

1 1 7. Perdix Hardwickii, Gray. Curria Partridge, Lath. 

1 18. Perdix Cambayensis, Temm. Perdrix rousse-gorge, Temra. 

Genus Coturnix. 

119. Coturnix dactylisonans, Meyer. Common Quail, Lath. 

This bird is named Ghagul ; it corresponds with the European spe- 
cies, and is not very common in India. 

120. Coturnix Cor omandelica. Perdix Coromandelica, Lath. Perdix 

textilis, Temm. Caille nattee, Temm. 
This is the most common Quail of India called Bhuteir. Dr. Bucha- 
nan named it Perdix olivacea. 

Genus Hemipodius. 

121 . Hemipodius Dussumier, Temm. Turnix Dussumier, Temm. 

Mottled Quail, Lath. 

Fam. Struthionid^. 
Genus Otis. 

122. Otis Indica, Ind. Orn. } White-chinned Bustard, Lath. ? 

This bird has usually been considered as the female of the Otis 
aurita, and has been so figured and described ; but it is well 
known to be a distinct bird. It is the common Leek of India, 
called by the English Bastard Florican. I am not quite certain 
that Dr. Latham's White-chinned Bustard is the bird, but his 
description is so near, that I have not thought it proper to make 
new species. 

Ordo IV. GRALLATORES. 

Fam. Gruid^e. 

Genus Grus. 

123. Grus Orientalis, Briss. Ardea Antigone, Linn. Indian Crane, 

Lath. 

Fam. Ardeid;e. 
Genus Mycteria. 

124. Mycteria Australis. Ciconia Mycteria Ausiralis, Hardw. Tetaar 

Jabiru, Lath. 

Genus Ardea. 

1 25. Ardea purpurea, Linn. Le Heron pourpre huppi, Buff. Crested 

Purple Heron, Lath. 

126. Ardea speciosa, Horsf. Darter Heron, Lath. 

This bird is without doubt the Darter Heron of Dr. Latham ; and 
the Ardea speciosa of Dr. Horsfield is, I think, merely the Ja- 
vanese type of the same bird. 

127. Ardea Torra, Buch. Ardea Egretta, Lath. Ind. Orn. var. Ar- 

dea alba, Linn. var. Great Egret, Lath. Indian variety Torra 
or Bughletar. 
This is the Indian White Egret, and it differs only in size from the 



124 

European species, being somewhat smaller. Dr. Buchanan 
named it Ard. Torra, and when without its filiform appendages 
on the back, Ard. Putea ; so that these Indian terms appear 
to correspond with Ard. Egretta and Ard. alba. 

1 28. Ardea Caboga, Penn. Caboga Heron, Penn. Gibraltar Heron, 

Lath. var. A. 
The term Caboga is a corruption of the Indian term Gao-buga, Cow 
or Cattle Heron, in allusion to its frequently being seen amongst 
cattle, like the Gibraltar Heron. 

Genus Botaurus. 

129. Botaurus cinnamoneus. Ardea cinnamonea, Gmel. Cinnamon 

Heron, Lath. 

Genus Nycticorax. 

130. Nycticorax Europceus. Ardea Nycticorax, Linn. Night Heron, 

Lath. 

Genus Tantalus. 

131. Tantalus papillosa. Ibis papillosa, Temm. Bald Ibis, Lath. 

Fam. Scolopacid.e. 
• Genus Rhynchcea. 

132. Rhynchcea Orientalis, Horsf. Cape Snipe, Lath. Becassine de 

Madagascar, Buff. 

Genus Tringa. 

133. Tringa ochropus, Linn. Green Sandpiper, Penn. 

134. Tringa Glareola, Linn. Wood Sandpiper , Penn. 

135. Tringa pusilla, Linn. Little Sandpiper, Lath. 

136. Tringa hypoleucos, Linn. Common Sandpiper, Lath. 

Fam. Rallidje. 
Genus Parra. 

137 . Parra phcenicura. Gallinula phcenicura, Lath., I nd. Orn. Red- 

tailed Gallinule, Lath. Poule-Sultane de la Chine, Buff. 

138. Parra Sinensis, Gmel. Chinese Jacana, Lath. 

139. Parra Indica, Lath., Ind. Orn. Indian Jacana, Lath. 

Genus Rallus. 

140. Rallus niger, Gmel. Black Rail, Lath. 

Genus Porphyrio. 

141. Porphyrio hyacinthinus, Fulica Porphyrio, Linn. Purple Water- 

hen, Edw. 

Fam. CHARADRIADiE. 

Genus Vanellus. 

142. Vanellus Goensis. Tringa Goensis, Lath. Vanneau arme de Goa, 

Buff. 

143. Vanellus ventralis. Charadrius ventralis, Wagl. Spur-winged 

Plover, Hardw. 

144. Vanellus bilobus. Charadrius bilobus, Gmel. Bilobate Sand- 

piper, Lath. 

Genus Cursorius. 

145. Cursorius Asiaticus, Gmel. &Lath. Courvilede la C6te de Co- 

romandel, Buff. 



125 

Genus Himantopus, 

146. Himantopus melanopterus. Charadrius Himantopus, Linn. L' 

Echasse, Buff. 

Genus Charadrius. 

147. Charadrius hiaticuloides. Char, supra griseo-fuscus ; fascid 

frontati alter aque vertically corpore subtus, collarique nuchali 
albis; lined sub oculis ad aures extendente, fascid ad frontem, 
torqueque pectorali subgracili ad nucham extendente nigris ; 
rectricibus, duabus mediis exceptis, albis, in medio nigro et 
griseo-brunneo notatis, fasciam semilunarem exhibentibus. 
This bird differs chiefly from the European species in size, being 

at least one third smaller, and in the narrowness of the pectoral' 

band. 

OrdoV. NATATORES. 
Fam.ANATiDiE. 

Genus Anser. 

148. Anser Indicus, Lath., Ind. Orn. Barred-headed Goose, Lath. 

149. Anser melanotos, Gmel. Black-backed Goose, Lath. 

150. Anser Coromandeliana, Gmel. Sarcelle de la Cote de Coroman- 

del, Buff. Anas Girra, Hardw. Girra Teal, Lath. 

Genus Anas. 

151. Anas arcuata, Cuv. Siley Teal, Lath. 

The name of this bird in India is Siley or Silhei, from its whistling 
note ; the English call it whistling Teal ; it scarcely differs from 
the Javanese species as figured by Dr. Horsfield. 

152. Anas Crecca, Linn. Common Teal, Lath. 

This bird is the common Teal of India, and agrees exactly with 
the British species. 

Fam. Colymbidjb. 
Genus Podiceps. 

153. Podiceps minor, Lath., Ind. Orn. Little Grebe, Lath. 

Fam. pELECANIDiE. 

Genus Carbo. 

154. Carbo fuscicollis. Phalacrocoraxfuscicollis, Shaw. Brown-necked 

Shag, Lath. 

Genus Plotus. 

155. Plotus melanogaster, Gmel. Black-bellied Darter, Lath. 

Genus Sterna. 

156. Sterna melanogastra, Temm. Hirondelle de mer h ventre noir, 

Temm. 



126 



August 23, 1831. 

Joseph Smith, Esq. in the Chair. 

Two letters from Mr. J. B. Arnold of Guernsey were read, con* 
taining particulars of his experiments in the naturalization of Sea 
Fishes in a lake chiefly supplied with fresh water. The area of the 
lake is about five acres ; its depth various j and its bottom also va- 
rious, being muddy, gravelly, and rocky. The water is during 
nine months of the year drinkable for cattle, but in consequence of 
a supply which it receives through a tunnel communicating with the 
sea, is rather salt in summer, at which season the freshes do not 
come down so plentifully as at other times. The fishes introduced 
into the lake have been the grey Mullet , Sole, Turbot, Brill, Plaice, 
Basse, Smelt, and grey Loach. All of these have thriven well, and 
are believed to have increased in numbers : the grey Mullet espe- 
cially is known to have bred as freely as in the sea itself. A single 
Whiting having been caught for three successive years, was found 
to have grown considerably : a Pilchard also throve well. All the 
above-mentioned fishes were placed in the lake, except perhaps the 
Brill; but others, as the silver Bream, appear to have introduced 
themselves. It is even suspected that hybrid fishes have been pro- 
duced, as several have been caught which were unknown to persons 
well acquainted with the species usually met with on the coast of 
Guernsey. Mr. Arnold adds that Sea Fishes, after having been 
naturalized in his lake, have been transferred to ponds of spring 
water, where they have not only lived, but done well ; and that such 
naturalized fishes have been carried to a long distance, being much 
more tenacious of life than those caught in the sea. 

Numerous specimens of Hylurgus Piniperda, Latr., presented to 
the Society by Barlow Hoy, Esq., were exhibited, together with 
specimens of the shoots of Pines perforated by these insects. The 
mode in which the young branches are destroyed by these perfora- 
tions has been illustrated by Mr. Lindley in Mr. Curtis's * British 
Entomology/. Its effect was regarded by Linnaeus as analogous to 
that of pruning. 

The exhibition of the collection of Fishes formed at the Mauritius 
by Mr. Telfair, portions of which had been brought before the Com- 
mittee at the Meetings in April, was resumed. From among them 
Mr. Bennett pointed out more particularly the following species 
which he believed to have been previously undescribed. 

Serranus Delissii. Serr. maxillis squamosis ; lobis pinnae, cau- 

dalis elongatis, cequalibus ; radio tertiopinnce dorsalis producto : 

superne stramineus, rubro cancellatim rivulatus, inferne Ulacino- 

ruber ; pinnis ventralibus aurantiaco-jlavis. 

D ' fei A 3 



127 

Affinis, ut videtur, Serr. Borbonio, Cuv. et Val. Corpus altum, al- 
titudo longitudinis (exclusa pinna caudali) dimidium aequans. Pinnae 
pectorales ventrales longitudine aequantes. Praeoperculi angulus 
spina unica magna armatus. 

Serr anus mitis. Serr,maxillis alepidotis; radio ultimo pinna* 
rum dorsalis analisque elongato : corpore elongato : argenteus, 
dorso obscure jlavo-brunneo ; pinnis Jlavo tinctis ; dorsali nigro 
tenuiter submarginatd. 
D.-H-. A. 4. 
Serr.Jilamentoso, Cuv. et Val., longior : corpus, praesertim adhu- 
meros, crassius : oculus major : vertex rugosus (in Serr.Jilamentoso 
granulosus tantum): dentes antici superiores conici utrinque qua- 
tuor debiliores (in Serr.Jilamentoso majores utrinque duo): color 
pallidior, flavescens. 

Serranus Telfairit. Serr. maxillis alepidotis; radio ultimo 
pinnce dorsalis analisque elongatis : saturate roseus, dorso late 
citrino maculato, postice albidus ; lateribus argenteo vittatis, gut- 
tatimque conspersis ; pinna dorsali antice citrind, basi roseo-, apice 
niveo-maculatd. 
D..J+. A. 4-. 
Affinis, ut videtur, Serr. zonato, Cuv. et Val., quem numero ra- 
diorum aequat, cuj usque for mam, etiam pinnarum, aemulat. Differt 
pictura, et praesertim lateribus argenteo vittatis guttatisque. 

The latter two species form an interesting addition to a section of 
the genus Serranus distinguished by the elongation of the last ray 
of both the dorsal and the anal fin. Two other species of this sec- 
tion have been described by MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes, to whom 
they have only very recently become known. Of one of these, Serr. 
fflamentosus, as well as of the two new species above described, spe- 
cimens are contained in the Mauritius collection. 

Dtacope Angulus. Diac. stramineo-jlavescens > infra pallidior ; 
vittis corporis utrinque septem lilacinis, superioribus obliquis, infe- 
rioribus longitudinalibus, 4?td 5tdque antice connexis unguium 
acutum postopercularem formantibus ; pinnce dorsalis parte molli 
superne tenuiter nigro marginatd. 
D.-B- A.*. 
Affinis, ut videtur, Diac. duodecimlineatce, Cuv. et Val. : numerus 
radiorum idem, vittaeque haud operculum signant. Dentes maxillae 
superioris externi conici, distantes, subaequales, duo anteriores an- 
gulares solum majores; maxillae inferioris minores, tres laterales 
medii utrinque majores. 

Dentex lycogenis. Dent, maxillis transversim dentato-cristaiis ; 
dentibus conicis anticis sex, maxilla inferioris lateralibus majori- 
bus : plumbeus, vittis dorsalibus plurimis argenteis, ventralibus 
distantibusjuscojlavis ; macula elongatd argenteo-albd sub basi 
posticd pinnce dorsalis ; pinnis ventralibus, pectoralibus, dorsali 
analique antice rubris, caudali Jlavidd. 

D t O A 3 

. Try. /*• s-. 

Dascyllus unicolor. Dasc. corpore alto unicolore nigricante. 
D.if. A. T v 
Forma Dasc. marginal, Cuv. et Val. 



128 

Heliases axillaris. Hel. pallida cceruleo -fuscus? ; axilld nigra; 
pinnis, prcesertim caudali analique, cceruleo-nigrescentibus. 
D.n. A.-.V. 
Affinis, ut videtur, Hel. anali, Cuv. et Val. Radius secundus pinna; 
analis fortior, sequentes longitudine aliquantulura superans. Cor- 
pus ovatum. 

Jul is Cuvieri. Julis cauda subquadratd: pinnce dorsalis radio 
primo longissimo (quam tertius triplo longiore): riifescenti-brun- 
neits cceruleo punctulatus ; capite virescente, vittis tribus latis 
rufis ; pinnis dorsali analique luteis, sangnineo oblique linearis, 
nigro late marginatis, cceruleoque fimbriatis ; hujusjascid margi- 
nali lined cceruleo, longitudinali media alter dque ad basin notatd. 
D.-A-. A.-A-. P. 12. C. 13. 
This new species of Julis is one of those fishes, now becoming nu- 
merous, which might be confounded with the Julis Aygula, ( Coris 
Aygula, LaC6p.). The latter appears to have hitherto rested solely 
on the figure and description preserved by Commerson, no specimen 
of it having been referred to as existing in collections. A specimen 
of that species has, however, recently been added to the Society's 
Museum from a collection of fishes formed in India, and agrees well 
with the figure published by LaCepede, in the truncation or even 
sublunation of its caudal fin, and in its general form ; in its dried state 
its colour is uniformly dull blackish brown. This specimen was ex- 
hibited in illustration of the distinction between Julis Cuvieri and 
Julis Aygula, and also to show that the fish figured under the latter 
name by Dr. Riippel differed in various particulars, especially in the 
rounded form of its caudal fin, from the species indicated by LaCe- 
pede. To M. Ruppel's fish, it was remarked, the name of Julis 
Ruppelii might properly be applied. 

Anguilla Mauritiana. Ang. maxilla superior e breviore, obtusd; 
rostro complanato ; pinnce dorsalis initio pectoralibus quam anali 
propiore; lined laterali conspicua : dorsojusco pallidoque gutta- 
tint marmorato, lineolisque nigrescent ibus intertextis notato ; pin~ 
nisfusco nebulosis. 
P. 18? 
Mr. Bennett availed himself of the opportunity afforded by the 
exhibition of the several species of Pterois contained in the Mauri- 
tius collection, to bring before the Committee a fish which he had 
formerly regarded as the Pterois volitans, under which name it was 
included in the catalogue of Sumatran fishes appended to the me- 
moir of Sir T. Stamford Raffles. It formed part of the collection 
presented to the Society by its founder and first President. It was 
thus characterized : 

Pterois Russelii. Pter. genis spinosim late lineato- serratis ; osse 
infra- orbitali antico prceoperculoque inferne spinosissimis : cirris 
parvis sex, nasali utrinque duobusque infra -opcrcularibus : pinnis 
pectoralibus caudalis basin attingenlibus. 
D. 14. A. 1, P. 13. 
Kodipungi. Russel, Coromandel Fishes, No. 133. 



September 13, 1831. 
W. Yarrell, Esq. in the Chair. 

At the request of the Chairman the following notes of a dissection 
of the Alligator Tortoise (Chelydra serpentina, Schweig.) were read 
by Mr. Martin. They were illustrated by preparations of the sto- 
mach -j of the ilium and colon ; and of the cloaca, with the jpenis and 
urinary bladders : a drawing of the latter was also exhibited j and 
a drawing of the throat, representing the oesophagus and trachea in 
their natural positions. 

" The animal was a male, and most probably young : its length 
from the nose to the anus being 1 foot 1 1 inches, and from the anus 
to the end of the tail 6 inches. The length of the carapace was 1 1-j- 
inches, and its breadth, following the curve, 1 foot 1 inch. 

" On theplastron being removed, and the scapulce (which are united 
to it by intervening muscles) being turned back, the heart, inclosed 
in a peritoneal sac, was exposed ; the scapula in their natural posi- 
tion extending over it like an arch : next, and in the same cavity, 
(for there was no division either by muscle or membrane,) the liver 
was seen, divided into two distinct portions, and stretching com- 
pletely across from side to side : below the liver and occupying what 
may be called the pelvic portion of the cavity, lay the intestines, 
among which on the right side was seen the colon or commencement 
of the large intestines enfolding the spleen. 

" The heart consisted of one ventricle and two auricles, the right 
of which was the largest. The figure of the auricles was rounded, 
each in magnitude equalled the ventricle : both auricles contained 
coagulated blood. The ventricle was in shape acuminate, of a red 
colour, and firm and fleshy in structure. Its carnece columnce were 
strong, distinct, and numerous, but did not separate it into cells or 
chambers. 

" The liver consisted of two lobes. The right lobe was divided 
into two parts. On its inferior surface was situated the gall-bladder 
buried in its substance and containing dull green bile : the duct 
barely half an inch long. The edge of the left lobe of the liver co- 
vered the stomach, which passing under it fitted an elongated furrow 
in the thick part of the lobe, and was closely united to il by the peri- 
toneum. The outer curvature of the stomach was placed in contact 
with the parietes of the carapace. The texture of the liver was 
soft and spongy, easily broken down, and pouring out an abundance 
of dark green fluid, with which it was saturated. The gall duct en- 
tered the duodenum 6 inches below the pylorus. The under surface 
of the liver on the right side was connected to the duodenum, and 
partially to the lung on the same side, by peritoneal attachments. 

" On the liver being removed the course of the intestines was more 
fully exposed. Beginning with the oesophagus, which immediately 
on proceeding from the pharynx becomes firm and- muscular (the 
[No. XI.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



130 

fibres being longitudinal), we find it dipping down on the right side 
of the neck, keeping a straight course, passing under the right cla- 
vicle, then crossing below the great arch of the neck within the shell, 
and passing under the right laryngeal branch to the cardiac portion 
of the stomach ; its length being 7 inches. The cardium passes over 
the left laryngeal branch. The length of the stomach is 7-*- inches ; 
the circumference of the thickest part 3 inches ; gently narrowing 
to the pylorus. Its texture was firm and muscular, especially at the 
pyloric portion; and between the peritoneal and muscular coats 
numerous small white points were observed, which on being cut into 
were found to arise from the presence of minute worms, of three or 
four lines in length, coiled up under the peritoneum. 

" The small intestines were strong and thick : their length 3 feet 
1 1 inches. Their internal surface presented longitudinal rugce. At 
their termination in the large intestines there appeared the rudiment 
of a caecum. 

"Encircled by a fold of the colon was situated the spleen, of a dark 
red colour, and soft spongy structure, almost round in shape, and of 
the size of a small egg : several tortuous veins proceeded from it, 
and the veins and arteries of the mesentery in general were of the 
same character. 

" The length of the large intestines was 1 foot 7 inches ; the mus- 
cular coat was particularly distinct; the villous smooth ; and several 
black patches were observed on its surface, which exhibited great 
vascularity. 

" The urinary bladder was double, or rather it might be said that 
there were two bladders, lying on opposite sides of the rectum, and 
adhering to the sides of the pelvis, each communicating by a distinct, 
opening into the commencement of the cloaca. Their size and shape 
was that of a small pear: their texture very thin and fibrous, the 
fibres being irregularly disposed. 

" The penis, 2± inches long, lay concealed entirely within the 
cloaca. It was grooved along its upper surface with the furrow usual 
in the Tortoises, but instead of being free or disengaged, was 
attached by a close union throughout its whole length on the under 
side to the cloaca. The glans was acuminate, and full an inch from 
the anus. From this union of the penis to the cloaca it is difficult to 
conceive that it can ever be protruded externally, especially when 
its distance from the external orifice of the cloaca is considered. The 
duct of the right bladder, in length half an inch, was found to 
terminate just above the furrow of the penis, while that of the left 
opened an inch on one side of it. 

" The testes were about the size of a pigeon's egg, elongated, of a 
bright ochre colour, and situated in the pelvic portion of the abdo- 
minal cavity, one on each side of the vertebral column ; their struc- 
ture was soft and somewhat granular. There were no suprarenal 
capsules. Beneath the testes lay the kidneys, large, irregular in 
figure, glandular in structure, consisting of brain-like reduplications, 
and dipping between the interstices of the three lowest ribs, (or 
rudiments of ribs,) on each side of the vertebral column. 



131 

" The palate was smooth, with slight transverse ruga ; the pha- 
rynx wide, simply membranous, and capable of great extension; 
the tongue a smooth cartilaginous point, at the base of which the 
larynx opened by a very small simple rima. There was no epiglottis; 
but around the rima a slight fold of the membrane was just percep- 
tible. The larynx crossing before the pharynx dipped down on the 
left side of the neck, and passing under the left clavicle, divided into 
two great branches, at about afoot from the rima : the right branch 
passed before the oesophagus, and immediately entered the right lobe 
of the lungs -, the left passed under the cardiac portion of the sto- 
mach to the left lobe. 

" The lungs consisted of two large and equal lobes, distinct, flat, 
and dark red, extending from the upper edge of the carapace as far 
as the pelvis, but not as in the Land Tortoises (the Indian and Greek, 
for example) attached to the whole inner surface of the shell ; their 
attachment was by one of their edges only to the vertebral column, 
and slightly to the liver. Their texture was firm, and their cells, 
though large, were not so irregular as in the Testudo Grctca. 

" Between the lungs passed two singular muscles, retractors of 
the head, long and slender, which arising one on each side by a ten- 
dinous origin from the base of the cranium passed on each side of 
the neck, and coming in contact below its great curve, ran together 
down the vertebral column, and were inserted into its sides in the 
spaces between the 6th and 7th and 7th and 8th ribs, each by two 
distinct fleshy terminations. 

'* The difference exhibited by this animal in the attachments and 
conformation of the lungs from the family of Tortoises in general 
indicates an approach, not merely in external configuration, but in 
internal structure, to the Alligators. Nor, although it must be con- 
fessed in a degree less striking, is this approach unevideneed by the 
structure of the urinary organs ; the bladder in this species although 
double is yet small, while its enormous volume in the Tortoises in 
general is a singular feature in their construction : the diminution 
of volume in this organ seems to afford another indication, not to be 
overlooked, of an approach to the Saurian Reptiles. 

" The posterior nares opened by two distinct orifices one quarter 
of an inch from the commencement of the palate and three quarters 
from the point of the beak : their course was obliquely upwards, 
and the length of each canal to the external orifice just 1 inch. 

" The oshyoides consisted of an irregularly shaped body and four 
arched bones or processes united to it by cartilage ; from the ante- 
rior part of the body a spinous process partly cartilaginous proceeded 
to support the rudiment of a tongue. The anterior pair of arched 
bones were connected to the base of the skull by muscles only ; 
the second pair terminated in a broad and flat extremity, and were 
more abruptly curved j their use seems especially to support the 
pharynx, and they were not connected to the skull. The first pair 
were each 4 inches in length ; the second little more than 3 inches. 
The rings of the larynx were perfect ; the length of the laryngeal 
branches 3 inches." 



132 

September 27, 1831. 

Dr. Marshall Hall in the Chair. 

An extensive collection of skins of Birds from the northern re- 
gions of North America was exhibited. It was presented to the 
Society by Viscount Goderich, Secretary of State for Colonial 
Affairs, and comprehended specimens of all the rarer species ob- 
tained during the last Arctic land expedition under the command 
of Captain Sir John Franklin. Among the one hundred and ten 
species thus presented to the Society (nearly the whole of which 
were exhibited) the following are regarded by Dr. Richardson and 
Mr. Swainson as new to science : 

Bubo arcticus. Pyrgita arctica. 

Lanius excubitorides. * Linaria tephrocotis. 

* ■ borealis. Garrulus brachyrhynchus. 

Tyrannula pusilla. Tetrao leucurus. 

■ Richardsonii. * Scolopax Drummondii. 

Cinclus Americanus. Larus zonorhynckus. 

Merida minor. * brachyrhynchus. 

solitaria. ■ Franklinii. 



Orpheus meruloides. • Bonapartii. 

Erythaca arctica. * Lestris Richardsonii. 

* Emberiza picta. * Clangula Barrovii. 

# pallida. 

The species to which an asterisk is prefixed were not exhibited, 
the specimens not having been yet transmitted to the Society. 

The whole of the above-mentioned species are described by 
Dr. Richardson and Mr. Swainson in the forthcoming part of the 
' Fauna Boreali- Americana.' 

In addition to the Birds, specimens of several Mammalia, col- 
lected during the same expedition, and similarly presented to the 
Society, were exhibited. Among them was a skin of the Lagomys 
Princeps, Richardson. 

Mr. Yarrell exhibited a preparation of part of the intestine of an 
Eel, which was perforated by numerous examples of the Echino- 
rhynchus tereticollis, described by Rudolphi in his ' Synopsis Ento- 
zoorum' as one of the many species of intestinal worms infesting 
the fresh-water eel. Most of these worms had penetrated both the 
villous and muscular coats, and their globular heads were visible 
under the transparent peritoneal covering. A considerable number 
of a species of Filaria were also exhibited, which had recently been 
taken from the abdominal cavity of an Eel. 

Mr. Yarrell stated his belief that the opinion of some writers that 
the Eel is viviparous (an opinion which has been often expressed 
but never proved), was probably founded on the frequent occurrence 



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133 

of Filaria in the abdomen of these fishes ; the Filaria being those 
which of all the species of worms occurring in serous cavities most 
closely resemble the Eel in form. Mr. Yarrell was inclined to doubt 
that Eels are viviparous from several circumstances. The species 
are known to be most prolific: viviparous fishes, on the contrary, 
produce but few young at a time, and these are of considerable size 
when first excluded. In illustration of this latter fact, British spe- 
cimens of the viviparous Blenny {Zoarces viviparus, Cuv.,) and of its 
young as expelled from the parent fish by pressure, were exhibited. 
In some Eels examined in September the ova in countless thousands 
were distinctly apparent under a lens of very moderate power, 
although these ova would not be matured till January : the sexual 
organ, moreover, of an Eel taken in February exhibited the ap- 
pearances common to that part in female fishes that had recently 
deposited their ova, Mr. Yarrell stated that comparative exami- 
nations made at this time of the year upon the two most common 
species of Eels of our rivers and lakes, showed the sexual organs of 
the sharp-nosed sort (Anguilla acutirostris) to be in a much more 
forward state than those of the broad-nosed Eels (Anguilla lati- 
rostris). Skeletons of both species were exhibited, showing the 
most obvious differences in the size and character of the bones of 
the head and vertebrce ; those of the broad-nosed Eel being nearly as 
large again as the same parts of the other species in examples of 
the same length. 

By some authorities both Eels and Lampreys have been stated to 
be hermaphrodites. 

Mr. Yarrell exhibited preparations of the two sexes distinct both 
in the Lamprey and Lampern, at the time they were about to de- 
posit their ova and milt ; and gave the following account of his in- 
vestigation of this subject. 

" The common river Lampern (Petromyzonjluviatilis, L.) was ob- 
tained and examined every week from March to the middle of May. 
Up to the 1 9th of April more females than males were taken ; but 
after this period, the females being nearly ready to deposit their 
roe, the males were most numerous, in the proportion of two to one. 
All the females taken about the 26th of April were in a state to de- 
posit their roe ; and the milt of the males, now become fluid, passed 
in a stream from the sheath behind the anal aperture on making 
slight pressure upon the abdomen. By the 10th of May nearly the 
whole of those examined had deposited their spawn. The males 
were entirely void of any appearance of milt, and the females at this 
time might be mistaken for males that had not spawned. The gela- 
tinous matrix of the ova appeared swollen and of large size; and 
close examination showed the ruptured membrane and extravasated 
blood produced by the separation of the ova, with here and there 
an occasional ovum still adhering. The kidneys (which have been 
mistaken for the male sexual organs) were not observed to undergo 
any alteration either in size or appearance during a long series of 
examinations. The males could be distinguished from the females 
externally by their larger respiratory apparatus and lips. 



131 

M Seven examples of the Lamprey, {Petr. marinus, L.,) were re- 
ceived on the 3rd of May from the Severn, about which time they 
ascend that river for the purpose of spawning. Of these seven, 
four were males and three females : the appearance of milt and ova 
being most distinct. The kidneys, lying in the cavity of the abdo- 
men, were of equal size in both sexes, elongated and narrow in form, 
with the ureter running the whole length of the outer edge. The 
anal opening is situated anterior to a small sheath, which when slit 
up exposes four apertures, the two innermost of which lead to the 
ureters ; the outer two open into the abdominal cavity. 

" In the Eels no part of the kidneys is visible within the cavity 
of the abdomen, and the vent includes but four apertures, — the most 
anterior of which leads to the intestine ; the posterior to the urinary 
bladder; and two elongated lateral openings into the cavity of the 
abdomen, as in other true bony fishes." 

Specimens were exhibited of several Fishes, lately received from 
Dr. Bancroft of Kingston, Jamaica, Corr. Memb. Z. S. They were 
accompanied by a Letter from Dr. Bancroft, in which various de- 
tails were given with respect to their distinctions from allied species: 
particular attention was also directed to the anatomical structure 
of the disc of the Sucker -fishes, {Echeneis, L.,) a new species of which 
genus formed part of the collection. This has the elongated form 
and general aspect of Ech. Naucrates,L., but is at once distinguished 
by the forked termination of its caudal fin. It may be thus charac- 
terized : 

Echeneis lunata. Ech. corpore elongato, squamoso; disci striis 
22 — 25 ; pinna caudali lunata ; pectoralibus acutis. 
D. 30. vel 32. A. 30. vel 33. C. 16. P. 21. V. 6. 

Long, circa 3-ped. 

Its colour is described as a full black on the upper and anterior 
portion of the back, and dark grey over the rest of the body, with 
a lighter grey stripe from near the eye to near the vent : all the 
fins are of a dark grey, passing into black at the anterior and outer 
portions : the lateral line consists of very small black points : and 
the iris is of a pure white. The dorsal fin is sometimes destroyed 
in the middle, and is thus made to appear like two distinct fins. 

A specimen of a Cephalopterus, Dum., included in the collection, 
is regarded by Dr. Bancroft as the type of a new species, amply 
distinguished from the Cephalopterus Mania described by him in the 
« Zoological Journal' by the form of the anterior margin of its pec- 
toral fins; the position of its mouth on the ventral surface; and the 
rounded form of its spiracula, which are not on the dorsal surface 
(as in the Rays generally)* but are situated in a groove immediately 
under the anterior edge of the base of the pectoral fin. It may be 
thus characterized : 

Cephalopterus hypostomus. Ceph. Icevis ; ore infero ; pin- 
narum pectoralium margine antico delivi recto ; spiraculis injbssd 
sub basin anticam pinnarum pectoralium sitis. 

The entire length of the specimen from the apex of the frontal 



135 

flappers to that of the ventral fins is 17 inches : that of the tail 21 *< 
extreme breadth of body 28. These dimensions were respectively 
32, 27, and 44 inches in another individual formerly examined by 
Dr. Bancroft, which he considered to be adult. 

A third species is the common Sea-Eel or Conger of Jamaica. 
It is perhaps identical with the Savanne of Martinique (Murcena 
Savanna, Cuv.), a fish of which no distinguishing mark has yet been 
published, except that derived from the forward position of the com- 
mencement of its dorsal tin. Its teeth are peculiar. Its characters 
may be thus expressed : 

Conger Savanna? Cong, pinnd dorsali ante basin pinnarum 
pectoralium incipiente : dentibus anterioribus conicis ; later alibus 
pluri-seriatis, seriei medice majoribus, parallelopipedis, cuneatis, 
serierum externarum internarumque minoribus granulatis rotun- 
datisque, omnibus confertis ; vomerinis mediis majoribus triangu- 
laribus, subrecurvis, compressis, lateralibus rotundato- granulatis. 

A specimen was exhibited of a species of Phalangista, Geoff., 
which had been lately presented to the Society's Museum by 

Talbot, Esq. Mr. Ogilby stated that he regarded it as forming 

a new species, to which he gave the name of Phal. xanthopus. He 
also called the attention of the Committee to a second undescribed 
species of the same genus, which is now living in the Society's 
Gardens. 

Mr. Ogilby characterized and described these two animals as 
follows : 

Phalangista fuliginosa. Phal. vellere subcrispo, supra et 

subtusfusco-fuliginoso ; caudd longd, villosd, dorso concolore. 
The size and proportions are those of the Phal. vulpina ; the ears 
are also of similar shape and size, hairy on the outsides, but naked 
within. The colour is a uniform dark sooty-brown over all parts of 
the head and body, not even excepting the belly and inner surface 
of the thighs. The hair has a frizzled appearance, but is not so 
close nor so fine as in Phal. vulpina. The tail is long, black, and 
rather bushy ; the naked slip underneath, as well as the nose and 
soles of the feet, which are also naked, is of a bright flesh colour. 
The moustaches are long, stiff^ and black. 

Described from a specimen at present living in the Society's 
Gardens, and said to have been brought from Sydney. 

Phalangista xanthopus. Phal. vellere densissimo, supra 

cano-Jiisco, infra canescente ; pedibus Jidvis ; Cauda villosd, 

radice dorso concolore, apice alba. 

The upper parts of the body are of a blueish ash colour, with a 

dash of black, which prevails chiefly about the head and eyes ; the 

under parts yellowish-white. The base of the ears is of the same 

colour as the upper parts of the body, but their tips are white, as 

in the Phal. vulpina. The tail is ash-coloured at the root, dark 

brown in the middle, and pure white on the last two inches. The 

limbs on their external surfaces are of the same colour as the body, 

but the feet are of a dun-yellow. 



136 

This species resembles the Phal. Cookii in having the tail marked 
with white ; but in all other respects it is most closely allied to the 
Phal. vulpina. Its size, proportions, and general appearance, cor- 
respond with those of the latter species ; and the ears in particular 
are long and elliptical, whilst they are short and semicircular in the 
Phal. Cookii. The tail also is comparatively much shorter than in 
that animal, and instead of being covered with very short close hair 
is rough and bushy, as in the Phal. vulpina and Phal. Juliginosa. 

Described from a specimen in the Society's Museum. 

Mr. Ogilby availed himself of the same opportunity to describe a 
new species of Indian Deer, belonging to the section of which the 
Axis, (Cervus Axis, Linn.,) may be regarded as the type. He thus 
characterized and described it : 

Cervus nudipalpebra. Cerv. corpore toto s?ib-nigro, lucido- 
maculato ; cornibus irifurcis; palpebris regionibusque ocularibus 
nudis, nigris. 

About the size of a Fallow-deer, but of a more corpulent form ; 
of a uniform dark brown colour, almost black, particularly on the 
head, neck, and median line of the back ; even about the tail not 
a single white hair is to be seen, nor on the belly, nor inside of the 
thighs. The body is obscurely spotted with white, which is only 
apparent on attentive examination, and in particular lights. The 
hair is rude and coarse, longer on the body than on the head, neck 
and extremities, which are jet black, and without spots. The horns 
are very long, and bear only two antlers, one near the brow, and 
the other about-two thirds of the length of the shaft from its root. 
The muzzle is large, black, and naked ; the tear-pits particularly 
apparent ; the eyes large and prominent, and the ears broad, and 
shaped like those of the Ox. The eye-lashes and a considerable 
circular space about each eye are naked and black. 

It inhabits the banks of the Ganges. 

Described from a specimen at the Tower. 



13- 



October, 11, 1831. 
Joseph Cox Cox, Esq. in the Chair. 

At the request of the Chairman Mr. Martin read the following 
notes of some particulars observed on the dissection of a Monitor, 
which died a short time since at the Society's Gardens. They were 
illustrated by a drawing, in which was represented the distribution 
of the principal blood-vessels. 

" Proceeding from the ventricle by a trunk which appears single, 
but which in reality is divided internally, five arteries are seen, 
which may be characterized as two aortce, two pulmonary, and one 
cervical. 

" The cervical runs between, and somewhat anterior to, the two 
aortce, and, continuing single for upwards of three inches, divides 
into two branches at the root of the neck, under the arch formed 
by the scapulce ; these two branches pass along on each side of the 
neck, a short distance from the oesophagus. 

" The right aorta proceeds upwards for about an inch and a half, 
and then suddenly turns round the right bronchial tube of the larynx, 
as that tube is about to enter the lungs by two subdivisions, the 
superior of which is reflected up like a hook, to link with the artery 
turning round it, the inferior passing downwards. Having made 
this turn the artery proceeds downwards, but at half an inch from 
its turn sends off a branch at a singularly acute angle, which runs 
upwards just under the main cervical artery for about an inch, and 
then divides into two, which running obliquely upwards pass one 
on each side under the bronchial tubes, and then over the first rib 
to the humerus; these are the subclavian arteries. It is to be ob- 
served that before passing over the ribs they send off an artery to 
the under surface of the scapula and muscles of the neck. The 
right aorta having thus given off the subclavian, passes down behind 
the heart, and just below this organ anastomoses with the left aorta, 
which arising on the left of the cervical branch from the common 
stem, turns over the bronchial division on the left, exactly as hap- 
pens on the right side, only a little higher up, runs down behind 
the heart, and after its anastomosis ends in two large branches, which 
take their course along the mesentery; so that it maybe considered 
as analogous to the mesenteric arteries. The true or right aorta, 
taking a straight course onwards to the tail, gives oft" two branches 
just below the anastomosis, one of which is the splenic, the other is 
small, and goes to the mesentery; considerably lower another small 
mesenteric artery is also given off. 

" The pulmonary arteries arise one on each side from the common 
stem, and taking a short course upwards enter the lungs, subdi- 
viding into several branches. 

u The blood from the upper parts of the body is brought to the 
[No. XII.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



138 

auricle by two large veins. The blood from the lower parts and 
viscera is brought by a large vein or vena portce into the liver, from 
which organ a sinus emerges, of considerable circumference, and 
half an inch long, which enters, or rather seems to form a part of, 
the right auricle. 

" The trachea is long, and divides at six inches from the rima 
into two branches, as already noticed, which are about an inch and 
a half long, and are again subdivided; round the upper of which 
subdivisions, as has been stated above, the aortce are turned. The 
rings of the trachea are entire ; the rima small and simple. 

" The cesojjhagus is wide and membranous. The stomach is firm 
and muscular : its circumference does not much exceed that of the 
intestines, and its increase at the cardiac, and diminution at the 
pyloric portion is gradual. The intestines are, as in all these ani- 
mals, very firm. The spleen is small, dark-coloured, and oval. 

" The liver is large, and consists of two lobes, in the right of 
which, on its under surface, the gall-bladder lies deeply imbedded. 

" The lungs consist of two lobes, extending along the cavity of 
the chest, and attached to its dorsal aspect. They are composed of 
an aggregation of minute delicate membranous cells. 

" The chest is divided from the abdomen by a partial membranous 
diaphragm attached to the parietes of the abdomen by numerous 
strings or filaments. 

" As compared with that of the chest, the cavity of the abdomen 
is very small j the former occupying fully two-thirds of the length 
of the body. 

" The liver lies in the abdominal cavity, and just below the dia- 
phragm ; and through this, covered by a reflexion of it, passes the 
sinus emerging from the liver to the auricle. 

" The individual examined was a female, and the ovaries were seen 
following two veins along the mesentery for the length of nearly 
two inches." 



1 39 



October 25, 1831. 
Joseph Cox Cox, Esq. in the Chair. 

Mr. Owen read a portion of his notes on the anatomy of a Cro- 
codile (Croc. acvtus,Cuv.), made during the dissection of a young 
individual which had lately died at the gardens of the Society. 

Before speaking of the internal anatomy, he alluded to the pecu- 
liar structure of the tongue andjauces, which he described as es- 
sentially agreeing with that of the same parts in the Egyptian Cro- 
codile. He explained the uses of the apparent closure of thejauces, 
in which, on looking into the mouth, no orifice or passage for the 
food is perceptible j and remarked on the necessity for so com- 
plete a safeguard of the larynx in an animal breathing air, but de- 
stroying its living prey by submersion in water. 

He then proceeded to the description of the viscera, and com- 
menced by remarking on the singular disposition of the serous 
membranes of the body in the Crocodiles ; a disposition which he has 
observed in no other animal, and which is such as to resemble the 
effects of a general inflammatory action. It is, however, normal, 
and has been observed by him in three individuals of the Croco- 
dilus Lucius and Croc, acidus. 

"The serous membrane analogous to 'peritoneum is reflected 
from the abdominal parietes upon the under surface of the sto- 
mach, to the right of which it partially surrounds the gall-bladder, 
and is continued upon the inferior surface of the right lobe of 
the liver j from these parts it descends, enveloping the spleen and 
covering the anterior part of the kidneys and testes, and being con- 
tinued from the middle line of the abdomen, surrounds the intes- 
tines in the usual manner, forming a rather loose mesentery: thus 
the abdomen appears to contain only the intestines, gall-bladder, 
spleen, kidneys, and genital glands. The serous membrane which 
covers the upper surface of the stomach is reflected upon the under 
surface of the left lobe of the liver, and forms a distinct cavity con- 
fined to these parts. Along the line of the stomach, where the 
superior and inferior serous membranes are contiguous, a quantity 
of fat is interposed, together with the principal vessels of the sto- 
mach, analogous to the omentum. The serous membranes analo- 
gous to the pleurae, after lining the sides of the chest, entirely sur- 
round the lungs, and are reflected on each side upon the superior 
and lateral aspects of the liver, a process dipping down between 
the lung and the liver, but forming only a partial septum, and ter- 
minating in a concave edge towards the back. On each side 
of the pericardium there is also a distinct serous membrane, which 
is reflected from the lower part of that bag upon the mesial aspect 
of the liver: so that, including the pericardium itself, there are no 
less than seven distinct serous membranes in the trunk of the Cro- 



140 

codile; and of these, one has the additional peculiarity of being 
continuous with the common integument. 

" The only part of the intestinal canal that presented anything 
worthy of notice, in addition to previous descriptions, was the sto- 
mach. This viscus, from its shining lateral tendons and muscular 
structure, has generally been considered as a gizzard ; but the pro- 
priety of this denomination has been questioned by M. Geoffroy- 
Saint-Hilaire, on the ground of its wanting a cuticular lining. In 
this individual, however, the interior of the stomach presented two 
smooth round patches about the size of a crown-piece, situated on 
opposite sides of the cavity ; they were not, indeed, detachable as a 
membrane distinct from the villous coat, and appeared to differ only 
in having a smoother surface : this appearance, however, adds to 
the analogy that this viscus bears to the gizzards of birds. Another 
circumstance in favour of this analogy is the fact of pebbles 
being commonly found in the stomach. M. Geoffroy-Saint- 
Hilaire met with them in the Egyptian Crocodile, and observed that 
they were rendered smooth by the action of triturating the ali- 
mentary substances. In the present instance, there were five small 
pebbles in the stomach, the largest of which was about 8 lines in 
the longest diameter. 

" The valve at the orifice by which the small pyloric cavity 
communicates with the duodenum appears rather to oppose the 
passage of matter into that intestine ; and both orifices are remark- 
ably small as compared with the size of the stomach, and especi- 
ally with the size of the cardiac aperture : the diameter of each did 
not exceed 3 lines. 

" The duodenum formed the same double fold as described by 
M. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire in the Egyptian species. As he makes 
no mention of a pancreas, but describes the outer spaces of this 
part as occupied only by fat, I was induced to examine it minutely, 
and discovered the gland between the first and last portions of the 
gut ; and having laid open the duct, an eye-probe passed readily 
through it into the upper end of the last portion of the duodenum, 
a quarter of an inch beyond the orifice of the biliary duct. 

" The rest of the small intestines varied only in diameter where 
Jiatus had accumulated, and at these parts the zigzag rugce were 
almost obliterated. Mr. Hunter has remarked in his Anatomy of 
Whales (Phil. Trans, lxxvii. p. 410), that he has ' never found any 
air in the intestines of this tribe : nor indeed in any of the aquatic 
animals.' But this remark does not appear to apply to those ani- 
mals whose habits are only partially aquatic. 

" The rectum opens directly into the genito-urinary cavity, and 
does not pass beyond it, as in Tortoises, to terminate in the outer 
cavity or vestibule (vestibulum commune, Geoff.) The termination 
in this instance was denoted by a valve not circular, but rather 
spirally disposed ; and the character of the lining membrane of the 
genito-urinary cavity was very distinct from that of the rectum, 
being more coarsely villous, and of a redder colour: this cavity 
was an inch in length; the ureters opened at the lower part, just 



141 

above or within the valve that separates it from the outer cavity. 
The lower or ventral margin of the valve is grooved, and the groove 
is continued on into that of the penis* 

** The peritoneal canals opened externally on two small papillae 
placed one on either side the root of the penis; they also commu- 
nicated at about a line distant from their external aperture, with 
the cavernous structure of the penis. From the minute size of 
these orifices, which barely allow of the passage of an eye-probe, 
and their disposition on a papilla, equivalent to a valvular structure 
on pressure from without, it is difficult to imagine that any water 
can be admitted from without into the peritoneal cavity ; yet M. 
GeofFroy-Saint-Hilaire hazards the hypothesis that water is so ad- 
mitted by means of a similar mechanism to that by which air passes 
through the trachea into the pulmonary cavity, the peritoneum being 
thus rendered an accessory organ of respiration. ' Le voila,' he 
says, (speaking of the Crocodile, in bis ' Description des Reptiles de 
l'Egypte,' page 237,) * veritable amphibie, dans ce sens qu'il est 
animal aerien par sa poitrine et animal aquatique par une modifi- 
cation de l'etat de son abdomen.' Yet, notwithstanding the op- 
portunities this author enjoyed of examining the Crocodile under 
circumstances most favourable for such an observation, he does 
not appear to have ever detected water in the abdominal ca- 
vity j nor any peculiarity in the contents of that cavity, which 
would give support to his hypothesis. 

f! The appearances in this dissection precisely accorded with the 
description given by M. GeofFroy-Saint-Hilaire of the diaphragm 
and its connection with the liver in the Egyptian Crocodile. 

" The spleen lies on the right side of the abdomen, beneath the 
right lobe of the liver ; it was two inches and a half in length, and 
about half an inch across at the broader part. It is entirely sur- 
rounded by peritoneum, and lies very loose, being connected only 
by a very small process of that membrane accompanying the vessels 
to the upper part of the duodenal fold. It is here, therefore, that 
the structure most favourable for the detection of an excretory duct 
obtains, if the spleen really possessed such an appendage, its pas- 
sage from the gland, in that case, being limited to a very small space, 
and this space circumscribed by a diaphanous membrane. But it 
was easy to see that this membrane contained only a small artery de- 
rived from the branch that supplied the pancreas, (having none 
analogous to the vasa brevia in man) ; a vein of disproportionate 
size, which terminated in the venaportce; two small nervous fila- 
ments ; and a delicate connecting tissue. 

** There is a lacteal gland at the root of the mesentery as large 
as the spleen." 

Mr. Owen stated his intention of bringing before the Committee 
at an early meeting the remaining portion of his notes on this sub- 
ject. 

Mr. Owen also read to the Meeting the following Notes on the 
Anatomy of the Nine-banded Armadillo, (Dasypus Peba, Desm.) 



142 

" This animal was the female specimen lately presented to the 
Society, which died almost immediately after its arrival. Its ad- 
measurements were as follows : 

ft. in. lines. 
From the end of the nose to the setting on of the tail 110 

From ditto to the vertex 4? 

From the vertex to the first band 4 

From the last band to the skirt of the armour ... 3 10 

Breadth of the head across the eyes 16 

The ears were contracted and tubular at the base, but the rest of 
the conch expanded, with the apex rounded -, their length 1 inch 
10 lines ; their extreme breadth 10 lines. The openings of the eye- 
lids were 3 lines in length, and oblique from behind upwards and 
forwards ; their margins tumid, and the cilice chiefly on the lower 
eyelid towards the nose. The membrana nictitans could be drawn 
over the nasal half of the cornea. The globe of the eye was about 
the size of a peppercorn, the cornea occupying almost the whole of 
the anterior half. The pupil was dilated and round. The anterior 
extremities being formed for digging, the animal has strong clavi- 
cles, which are concave anteriorly. There were four small nipples, 
two in the pectoral and two in the inguinal regions : the number of 
young produced at the Gardens of the Society by the Weasel -headed 
species, (Dasypus 6-cinctus, Linn.,) have not exceeded two. 

" The contents of the abdomen were partly concealed by a thin epi- 
ploon devoid of fat, as indeed was the case with all the viscera. The 
oesophagus runs an inch below the diaphragm before it terminates. 
The stomach is almost of a globular form ; but suddenly contracted 
in its dimensions for about an inch at the pyloric end. The azsopha- 
gus enters at the distance of an inch and a half from the left extre- 
mity, the cuticular lining terminating at the cardia. The villous 
membrane presented two distinct appearances, two-thirds of the 
cavity at the cardiac end being lined by a membrane of a redder 
colour with coarser villi, and elevated into a few solitary but well 
defined ruga ; while the rest of the cavity was lined by a smoother 
membrane, only puckered near the pylorus. There was a slight 
contraction between these parts, which disappeared on distending 
the stomach ; it is probably increased during the digestive process 
so as to produce a greater degree of separation between the two 
parts of the cavity, for the pyloric end is evidently adapted for 
powerfully triturating the alimentary matter, and the pylorus is pro- 
vided with a valvular apparatus to prevent the propulsion of the 
contents of the stomach, until they have undergone the necessary 
comminution. The muscular coat is here thrice the thickness of any 
other part of the cavity ; and the exterior of the stomach has at this 
part a tendinous appearance on each side. A semilunar ridge de- 
fines the lower part of the pyloric aperture, and above this ridge 
there is a protuberance about the size of a hazel-nut, upon which 
the villous membrane is puckered ; this protuberance is equally ob- 
vious externally. It is not glandular, but is chiefly occasioned by 
an accumulation of condensed cellular membrane between the mus- 



143 

cular and mucous membranes. A precisely similar structure guards 
the pyloric aperture of the stomach of the Seal and that of the Llama. 
From the position of this projection with respect to the semilunar 
fold below, the pylorus has the form of a semicircular aperture with 
the concavity upwards. This valvular structure is not alluded 
to by Sir Edward Home in his description of the stomach of the 
Nine-banded Armadillo, but he describes a zone of glands surround- 
ing the orifice of the pylorus. 

" The duodenum is enlarged at its commencement, and is con- 
nected by a loose process of peritoneum, which becomes narrower as 
the gut descends, and is continued from its lowest part upon the 
right kidney 5 the duodenum then crosses the spine and becomes a 
loose intestine. The small intestines contained a little dark-coloured 
matter ; they were smooth on the inside : their whole length was 
1 8 feet. They enter the colon in the same way as in the Crocodile : 
that gut suddenly expanding. There is a small circular production 
of the inner membrane, where the small intestine is inserted, but it 
seems incapable of forming an effectual valve. The inner membrane 
of the colon was raised into a few small longitudinal rugce. The 
faces were of an oval form, about 9 lines in length, and tolerably 
coherent. Two follicles open exteriorly near the verge of the anus. 

" The liver is divided into four lobes and a lobulus Spigelii. The 
third from the right is the largest, and in this are lodged the gall- 
bladder, and the remains of the umbilical chord. The ductus choledo- 
chus enters the duodenum two inches from the pylorus. The pancreas 
is a thick mass, 4 inches in length, and extended as usual behind the 
stomach from the spleen to the duodenum. The spleen is a simple 
elongated trihedral body, c l\ inches in length. 

" The kidneys are conglobate and simple, *. e. terminating in a 
single papilla. The supra-renal glands are half an inch in length, 
of a yellow colour, loosely connected with the kidneys, but closely 
attached to the coats of the contiguous large veins. 

" In the heart the right ventricle terminated one third from the 
apex, and stood out from the left like an appendage to it ; an appear- 
ance, however, that was chiefly owing to its being distended with 
blood, while the other cavity was contracted. The arteries are given 
off from the arch of the aorta, precisely as in the human subject. 
The lungs also have a similar correspondence in the number and 
proportions of their lobes. 

" The tongue is of a trihedral elongated form 5 it is half an inch 
broad at the root, and from thence gradually tapers to the extre- 
mity : its superior surface is convex, transversely wrinkled and finely 
papillose; at about an inch from the root are two fossulate papilla 
on the same transverse line, and behind these a mesial furrow extend- 
ing to the epiglottis. There is a fold of membrane on each side of 
the frcenum Ungucz, which is continued forwards to the symphysis 
menti; and external to these folds are twenty filamentary processes, 
ten on each side, about 2 lines in length, which appear to be elon- 
gated follicles. The soft palate extends to the base of the tongue ; 
on its anterior surface are two little cavities containing the tonsils. 



144- 

" There is a peculiar structure connected with the salivary system, 
which appears to have been hitherto unnoticed in this or any other 
mammiferous animal. The secretion of the submaxillary gland, a 
gland of very large size, is received prior to its expulsion into a 
sac, in which it becomes very tenacious ; the sac is about the size 
of a french-bean, and receives the saliva by four or five short ducts 
entering at its posterior part and having valves at their orifices, by 
which a retrograde course of fluids is prevented from the sac to the 
gland. A long duct is continued from the anterior extremity of the 
sac, and terminates by a minute orifice immediately behind the sym- 
physis menti. 

" The epiglottis rises behind the soft palate into the posterior naves, 
nor does the structure appear to admit of its ever passing beneath 
that part j it is deeply notched at the apex. The muscular parietes 
of the pharynx and esophagus are very thick, for from the nature of 
the teeth, small, conical and wide apart, the food can undergo but 
little comminution in the mouth, and hence the necessity of addi- 
tional power for propelling imperfectly divided substances into the 
stomach, and of a structure analogous to the gizzards of birds for 
completing their trituration in that cavity. The rings of the tra- 
chea overlap each other behind, but do not coalesce : they are irre- 
gular in their size. 

" The thyroid glands are of the size of french-beans, and united 
by a very thin transverse band, like a connecting vessel. 

**. No morbid appearances were met with in either of the preced- 
ing dissections." 



145 

November 8, 1831. 

William Yarrell, Esq. in the Chair. - 

An extract of a letter from Captain Fayrer, Corr. Memb. Z.S., 
was read. It was dated on board H. M.'s Packet Arrow, Port Pa- 
trick, October 23, 1831, and referred to the migrations of certain 
birds from that neighbourhood. That of the Larks commenced 
about Oct. 1 2. " Their numbers," says Captain Fayrer, " are be- 
yond anything I would venture to state, but millions. They start 
at daylight, steer directly across to the Capelona Islands off Belfast 
Loch ; and seem to prefer the wind directly against them. Very 
large flocks of Statlings have arrived within the last few days: 
they start before sun-rise, but steer to the southward. The Lap- 
wings have also arrived : but these birds do not take their flight till 
day has set well in : they appear to go directly across. I see all 
these birds at each end of their passage (21 miles), and few, I think, 
perish." 

A letter was read from E. W. A. Drummond Hay, Esq. H. M.'s 
Consul for Marocco, dated Tangier, Oct. 6, 1831. It accom- 
panied a present to the Society from that gentleman, consisting of 
two Ichneumons, (Herpestes Pharaonis, Desm.,) and a pair of striped 
Barbary Mice,(Mus Barbarus, Linn.) The former were caught in 
the neighbourhood of Tangier, where they are called by the na- 
tives, in the dialect of the Arabic used there, Serro. The Mice 
are not rare: the name given to them by the natives is Phdr-Azeffy 
the Palmetto Mouse. 

Mr. Drummond Hay also referred to four Ostriches sent in the 
same transport as a present to His Majesty from the Sultan of Ma- 
rocco, which have since been graciously presented by His Majesty 
to the Society. They were obtained in a region of the Desert 
called Hamadah, situated about eight or ten days journey from Tafi- 
leht in the direction to which the Modsselmin address their prayers. 
Though yet so young as not to have assumed their adult plu- 
mage, (no external distinction being at present observable in them,) 
two of them were seen in the act of treading while they remained 
at Tangier. — The same precocity, it may be remarked, has been 
previously noticed in other birds. 

The letter concludes by promising a continuance of Mr. Drum- 
mond Hay's exertions on behalf of the Society, and by referring 
particularly to his endeavours and those of Mr. Willshire, H. M.'s 
Consul at Mogadore, to procure skins and living specimens of seve- 
ral interesting Mammalia and Birds, and especially the quadruped 
known to the Arabs as the Mhorr. 

A collection of Fishes was exhibited, consisting of nearly thirty 
species. It was presented to the Society by Captain Belcher, R.N., 
by whom it was formed during his recent survey of part of the At- 



146 

lantic coast of Northern Africa. The following apparently new spe- 
cies contained in it were pointed out by Mr. Bennett. 

Polynemus Artedii. Pol. digitis quinque corpore longioribus ; 
pinna anali elongatd : pinnis dorsalibus, caudali, pectoralique 
nigro-irr oralis. 
D.7,-^. P. 15. A.W- 
Pol. quinquarius? Linn. — Seba, Thes. torn. iii. pi. xxvii.^f. 2. 
Longitudo corporis, 6^-; pinnae caudalis, 1\\ digitorum 3tii 

4-tique, 16 ; latitudo corporis l£ unc. 
Except in the elevation and triangular form of the first dorsal fin, 
in which it agrees with the other Polynemi, this species differs in no 
respect from the fish figured by Seba, and described by Artedi in the 
text of the ' Thesaurus * under the name of Pentanemus. On this 
Linnaeus established his Pol. quinquarius. MM. Cuvier and Va- 
lenciennes have recently united the latter with Pol. paradisceus, 
Linn., to form their Pol. longifilis : a union to which they were 
induced by a belief that Pol. quinquarius was founded on a mutilated 
specimen, in which two of the free rays on each side had been re- 
moved, — their extensive inquiries having failed in procuring for 
them any Polynemus possessing free rays exceeding the body in 
length and only five in number. There is, however, another marked 
distinction in Seba's figure in the length of the anal fin, which is 
nearly twice that usual in the genus, containing almost double the 
usual number of rays. In this respect and in the number and length 
of the free rays beneath the pectoral fin, Pol, Artedii agrees with 
the figure and description of Pol. quinquarius, with which, but for 
the difference in the form of the first dorsal fin, it must have been 
regarded as specifically identical. Its distinction from the other 
known species is easy, on account of the very remarkable charac- 
ters just noticed. 

Fam. ScombridjE. 
Genus Apolectus. 
Corpus elongatum, subalepidotum. 
Linea lateralis aequaliter squamata. 
Pinnce dorsales approximate, subcontinuae. 
Denies maxillares fortes, conici, distantes. 

Genus Cybio, Cuv., maxime affine: vix differt nisi dentibus coni- 
cis dissitis. 

Adjungendus videtur Scomber maculatus, Mitchill, Trans. New 
York, vol. i. p. 248. pi. vi. f. 8. 

Apolectus immunis. Ap. immaculatus, supra pallide cccruleus, 
ad later a et infra argenteus; pinna dor sali prior e antice air a. 
D. 18, 24 (8 spur.). A. 23 (8 spur.). P. 19. 
Nomeus maculosus. Norn, argenteus, dorso late, lateribus, pin- 
nisque nigro maculatis : pinnis ventralibus nigris. 
D. 10, 28. A. 27. P. 20. V. £. C. 19. 
Picturaabunde differt a figura Scombri maculati, Mitch., qui, rao- 
nente cl. Cuvierio, idem ac Nomeus Mauritii, Cuv., (Gobius Grono- 
vii, Gmel.). 

Exoccetus pinnatibarbatus. Exoc. pinnis pectoralibus analem, 
ventralibus caudalcm attingentibus ; dorsali altd (dcpressA cauda- 



147 

lis medium attingente); cirro lato mentali prqfunde 15 — 20 ra- 
diatim secto. 
D. 13. A. 10. P. 13. 
Affinis, ut videtur, Exocceto Nuttallii, Mitch., forma et propor- 
tione pinnarum. Differt cirro mentali unico, multi-secto, numeroque 
radiorum pinnarum. Specimen 2-unciale. Pinnae ventralis dorsalis- 
que ultra medium nigrae j pectorales nigro fasciatae. 

Alosa Senega lensis. Al. maxillis edentulis; pinna anali parum 
elevatd : suprti chalybea, infract ad latera alba argenteo vittatim 
varians. 

D. 16. A. 20. V. 9. P. 19. 
Cluped Fintd, Cuv., latior : latitudo altitudinis dimidium aequat ; 
altitude- minor est longitudinis parte quarta. 
Fam. Pleuronectid^:. 
Genus Psettodes. 
Os aequilaterale. 

Dentes maxillares prselongi, distantes: palatini breves, acuti, uni- 
seriati : vomerini pauci, acuti, parvi : pharyngei, linguales, bran- 
chialesque numerosi, conferti, setaceo-acuti. 
Pinnce pectorales requales. 
Pinna dorsalis longe pone oculum incipiens. 
Oculus superior subverticalis. 
Nares utrinque positi. 

Genus Pleuronectidarum adhuc cognitarum maxime aberrans. 
Hippoglosso, Cuv., affine, sed difFert dentibus, situ ocuJi superioris, 
initioque pinnae dorsalis. 

Adjungenda videntur Nooree Nalaka, Russel, Coromandel Fishes, 
lxxvii, et Pleuronectes Erumei, Schn. Adelah, Russel, Ibid. Ixix. 
Psettodes Belcheri. Psett. oblongus : latere sinistro nigres- 
centi, dextro albido; pinnarum pectoralium brevium rotundatarum 
sinistro pinndque caudali quadrat a in medio subproductiore nigro 
guttatis : dentibus maxillaribus semi-sagittatis : lined laterali 
declivi. 
Rhombus heterophthalmus. Rhomb, late ovalis, antice superne 
gibbus ; oculis maxime distantibus, superiore prope gibbum posito y 
interstitio subplano paullum excavato; maxilla orbit dque inferiorc 
\-spinosis-, pinna caudali rotundato-lanceolatd; pinnarum pecto- 
ralium radiorum extremitatibus vix liberis : latere sinistro Jiisco , 
ocellis numerosis notato. 
Affinis, ut videtur, Rhombo manco, Cuv., (Pleuronectes mancus, 
Brouss.): difFert gibbo capitis et radiis pinnarum pectoralium mem- 
brana per totam longitudinem connexis. 

Solea hexoph.thalma. Sol. oblongo-ovalis ; pinnis dorsali ana- 
lique a caudali discretis: supra pallide brunnea, Jasciis latis 
saturatioribus pallidiori rivulatis septem, quarum ^td 5td et 6td 
oculo magno nigro iride albd prope pinnam dorsalem alterdque 
prope pinnam analem notaiis ; pinnis dorsali analique nigrescen- 
tibus, pectorali nigra, caudali brunned nigro-punctatd ; infrh 
pinndque pectorali rubescenti-albidd. 
Solea impar. Sol. elongata, dorso semi-ovali, venire subrecto ,- 



148 

pinnk dorsali analique a caudali discrete : latere dextro Jlaves- 
cente^fuscescente vario ; pinna pectorali dextrd ad apicem macula 
parva nigrd notatd. 

Tetrodon guttifer. Tetr. oblongus, Icevis ; ventre aculeato- 
hispido ; pinnis pectoralibus postice subrotundatis ; dorsali ana- 
lique rotundato-acutis ; caudali lunatd; dentibus superioribus 
antice parum elevatis : supra olivaceo-brunneus albo guttatus; 
infra lacteus. 
D. 11. A. 10. P. 21. 

Carcharias fissidens. CarcJi. dentibus triangularibus, singulis 
versus angulum oris prqfunde emarginatis, incisurd acutd ; pinnd 
dorsali 2dd supra analis medium incipiente. 

Figura dentium apud LaCepede, Hist. Nat. des Poiss., torn. i.pl. viii. 

The single notch on each tooth on the side directed towards the 
angle of the mouth is so deep and acute as to give to the teeth, 
when viewed from the side, a close resemblance to so many arrow- 
heads. 

Raia bispecularis. Raia superne aspera, aculeis dorsalibus in 
unicd serie per caudam excurrente: Jusca, macula pinnce pectora- 
lis rotunda hyalina nigro-cincta. 

Affinis, ut videtur, Rata Miralete, Risso : differt corpore toto 
superne aspero, caudaeque aculeis uni-seriatis. Specimen minimum, 
2-unciale. 

Among the previously described species contained in the collec- 
tion was a specimen of Scyllium marmoratum , Benn., (Memoirs of 
Sir T. Stamford Raffles, Appendix) hitherto only known as an in- 
habitant of the Indian seas. 



14-9 



November 22, 1831. 
Dr. Horsfield in the Chair. 

A letter from Sir R. Ker Porter, Corr. Memb. Z.S., dated City of 
Caracas, Sept. 10, 1831, was read. It contained a detailed descrip- 
tion of the Myrmecophaga jubata, Linn., under the name of Orso Hor- 
meguero or Ant-Bear, together with an account of the habits of that 
animal ; and was accompanied by a drawing of the fully grown indi- 
vidual from which the description was taken. Sir R. Ker Porter was 
particularly struck with the difference in structure which exists be- 
tween the fore and the hinder feet, and with the curious disposition 
of the parts of the former in the act of progression, which has been 
slightly referred to by D'Azara. In the figure (in which the animal 
is represented in a standing position) the claws of the fore feet do not 
project in front, but are doubled backwards under the wrist ; eviden- 
cing a mode of progression in the Myrmecophagce similar to that 
recently described by Col. Sykes as existing in the species of Manis. 
"To receive the additional length and point of the middle toe," ob- 
serves Sir R. Ker Porter, "a protruding mass of hard flesh stood out 
from the wrist, wherein was a cavity destined for the reception of the 
ungulated elongation when the animal was in a standing position." 
He adds, " From the awkward formation of the fore feet, quickness 
of motion becomes impossible j hence they may be caught in the 
smallest open space (when seen) with little difficulty." 

Sir R. Ker Porter adds a list of the Mammalia known to exist in 
the Province of Caracas, and describes the arrangements which he has 
made for preserving such of them as he may succeed in procuring for 
the Society until an opportunity occurs of transmitting them to En- 
gland. He also refers to several Birds which he hopes to procure, 
including the common and galeated Curassows. 

The skins were exhibited of two animals forming part of a small 
collection of Mammalia and Birds brought from the neighbourhood 
of Swan River by Lieut. Matthew Friend, R. N., Corr. Memb. Z. S., 
and presented by him to the Society. Mr. Ogilby expressed his 
belief that both these animals had been hitherto unnoticed by 
systematic writers, and read the following descriptions of them. 

Hypsiprymnus setosus. Hyps, pilis supra setosis,Jiisco-cine- 
reis, infrh canescentibus ; auriculis latis, nudis, nigris; cauda me- 
diocri, gracili, squamata, pilis brevissimis rigidis vestita. 

" Of the different species of Hypsiprymni inhabiting the continent 
and dependencies of Australia, and of which the characters are 
but little known, many have been hitherto confounded with the 
Kangaroos. That to which I have given the name of Hyps, setosus 
is known in the colony of New South Wales by the native name of 
Bettong Kangaroo. The specimen now described is believed to 
[No. XIII,] Zooh. Soc. Proceedings or the Comm. of Science. 



150 

have been brought from the Swan River ; an interesting circum- 
stance, since it shows that some, at least, of the species common to 
the eastern shores are found equally upon the opposite coast. 

" This species is about the size of a small Rabbit, with a larger 
head, and comparatively shorter tail and legs, than are generally 
found among other Saltigrade Marsupial animals. It has a small 
muzzle ; round naked ears like those of a Rat, but almost concealed 
in the long shaggy fur which surrounds them; a tail not quite two 
thirds the length of the body, of a dark scaly appearance, spa- 
ringly provided with a few coarse black hairs. The legs and feet 
are also dark, and covered with very short coarse hair. All the 
upper parts, the head, neck, shoulders, back and loins, are co- 
vered with long shaggy hair, of a rude bristly quality and a dark 
ashy-brown colour, thinly interspersed with single hairs of a light 
bay or sandy gray colour. Beneath, on the chin, breast, and belly, 
the fur is of a very fine close quality, and of a uniform light ashy- 
brown colour ; and it is to be observed, that a thick coat of the 
same fine fur is found beneath the coarse hair upon the upper sur- 
face of the body." 

ORNiTHOiiHirNCHUS brevirostris. Om. rostro brevi ; vellere 
densissimo, supra fusco-rufo, infra albescente. ( 

"At first sight this animal might be regarded as identical with 
Om. rufus, which it closely resembles in the quality and fineness 
of the fur, as well as in the general colour of the body ; but a 
careful comparison of these circumstances, and particularly of the 
proportions of the bill and other parts, is sufficient to establish the 
specific difference of these two animals. The fur of the new spe- 
cies is thickly furnished, rather longer, and of a softer quality than 
in the other Omithorhynchi, and presents something of a shining or 
metallic lustre when rubbed smoothly down with the hand. It is 
of a uniform dark vinous red colour on the upper parts of the body, 
and of a silvery white beneath ; the head is dark brown ; and the feet 
are light gray. But the peculiar character of Om. brevirostris is 
found in the bill, which is very nearly as broad as it is long, whilst 
in the other species the length of this organ is at least double its 
breadth. .In other respects its characters, as far as they can be 
ascertained at present, agree with those of its congeners. The bill 
is of a very dark colour, approaching almost to black ; the skin 
remarkably thick for so small an animal. The following are its 
principal dimensions : — 

ft. in. 
Length from the base of the bill to the origin of the tail. . 1 

of the tail 3 \ 

of the bill 1 1 

Breadth of the bill \\r 

Stuffed specimens of Om. rufus and Orn.fuscus having been placed 
on the table, the distinctions between these and Om. brevirostris 
Were pointed out by Mr. Ogilby. 

About thirty Bird-skins, collected during the last summer in Shet- 



151 

land by Mr. William Lord, and presented by him to the Society, were 
exhibited. The most worthy of particular notice were a specimen of the 
long-tailed Duck, Anas glacialis, Linn., in its summer plumage ; and 
an example of the brown- headed Gull, Larus capistratus, Temm. As 
this Gull has received but little notice as a British bird, Mr. Yarrell 
added the following description of the specimen, also in its summer 
plumage. 

"This bird is at once distinguished from Larus atricilla, Linn., and 
Larus ridibundus, Leisl., (both also British Gulls, and with both of 
which it has been confounded,) by its more slender as well as shorter 
beak, shorter tarst, and smaller feet. The whole length of this speci- 
men from the point of the beak to the end of the tail feathers is 15 
inches; from the point of the beak to the first feathers, 1 inch and 
half a line ; from the point of the beak to the rictus, 1 inch 10 lines; 
from the carpus to the end of the first primary (which is the longest), 
11 inches 8 lines; length of the tarsus 1 inch 7 lines; of the middle 
toe and nail 1 inch 6 lines. The beak brownish red ; the head and 
upper part of the neck brocoli-brown, bounded by blackish brown, 
descending lowest at the fore part, some of the dark feathers at the 
margin in front tipped with white ; the remaining portion of the neck, 
the breast, abdomen, vent and tail, pure white; upper surface of the 
wings pale ash-gray, under surface grayish white; primaries white, 
edged and tipped with black, broadest on the inner web, shafts white ; 
legs and toes brownish red, webs of the feet chocolate-brown. 

" Inhabits the Shetland and Orkney islands." 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Gould exhibited about thirty 
recent specimens of the. Stormy Petrel, Thalassidroma pelagica, Vig., 
received by him from the eastern coast of England; and a recent spe- 
cimen of the Pomarhine Gull, Lestris Po?narhinus, Temm., obtained 
from the same locality. A living pair of the latter bird have since 
been added to the Society's Menagerie by the kindness of James 
Cornish.. Esq. who obtained them on the coast of Devonshire. 

The following Notes by Mr. Owen, taken at the dissection of two 
Seals (Phoca vitulina, Linn.), which died at the Society's Gardens, 
were read. 

" All the parts bore the deep venous tint which appears to be pe- 
culiar to those Mammalia whose aquatic habits tend to impede their 
respiration. The cellular texture was extremely tough, with a gra- 
nular appearance, somewhat resembling the structure of the corpus 
cavernosum: it is the same in the Porpoise. It was also gorged with 
bloody serum, a great quantity of which was contained in the cavity 
of the abdomen. The omentum was very thin and without fat, (of 
which indeed there was a deficiency over the whole body): it extended 
over half the contents of the abdomen. 

" The stomach was situated in the left hypochondrium : its pyloric 
end was bent acutely upon the cardiac : the cesophagus entered at the 
left extremity, leaving no saccus ccecus beyond it. The pyloric aper- 
ture was extremely small as compared with the size of the stomach ; 



152 

it was provided with a valvular apparatus similar to that described in 
the stomach of the Armadillo (p. 142.), consisting of a tubercle com- 
posed of condensed cellular structure, which projected above the ori- 
fice, and gave it a semilunar form. This valve, together with the 
small size of the orifice, must contribute to retain the food in the 
stomach until it has undergone complete digestion* It is difficult to 
imagine that the cranial bones or vertebrae of fishes can pass through 
this aperture, unless they are previously dissolved. Are they regur- 
gitated, like the castings of Owls ? The transverse diameter of the 
pylorus was half an inch, its vertical diameter not more than 2 lines ; 
the diameter of the cardiac aperture was 1 inch and a half. 

'• The duodenum descends abruptly from the pylorus, and is con- 
nected by a continuation of peritoneum with the pyloric end of the 
stomach. It is contracted at its origin, but soon dilates, and a sac- 
cuius is formed between its muscular and mucous coats for the recep- 
tion of the biliary and pancreatic secretions, which afterwards are 
conducted through a narrow passage into the intestine. Having de- 
scended as far as the right kidney, the duodenum turns to the left in 
the usual manner, but has a complete investment of peritoneum through 
its whole course : at the left side of the abdomen it carries forward 
this process of peritoneum, which forms the mesentery in the usual 
manner. The small intestines do not exceed 1 inch and a half in 
circumference, but their deficiency in this article of their dimensions 
is compensated for by their great length. The large intestines com- 
mence by a short round caecum, which in both instances was situated 
close to the pyloric end of the stomach : the greatest circumference 
of the colon was 4 inches. 

"The interior of the stomach was smooth and without rugae; the in- 
testines had the same character. 

" The liver consisted of five lobes, which were remarkably elongated, 
somewhat triedral, and pointed at the extremity. The gall-bladder, 
2 inches and a half long, was lodged in the third lobe, counting 
from the right -, the suspensory ligament entered another division of 
this lobe. The gall-bladder received two small ducts directly from the 
liver, or hepato-cystic ducts. The cystic duct was joined by a small 
hepatic duct about half an inch from the gall-bladder -, and a little 
lower down was joined by a larger hepatic duct, which was formed by 
the junction of two other ducts, each of which was also formed by the 
union of two ducts, coming distinctly from the four smaller lobes of 
the liver. The ductus communis was 1 inch and a half long ; it was 
joined by the pancreatic duct, as it terminated in the dilated sacculus 
before mentioned. 

n The pancreas was composed of a large and a small portion of the 
usual structure and in the usual situation. The spleen, a flattened 
body with an irregular notched margin, measured 5 inches and a 
half in length. It was attached to the epiploon in such a manner that 
it could be drawn away for some distance from the stomach, and in 
the intervening membrane were situated a number of small dark glan- 
dular bodies from the size of a horse-bean to that of a pea, which, if 
they had been met with in a Porpoise, I should have considered as 



153 

accessory spleens. This circumstance was noted in the dissection of 
the first Seal, but was not attended to in the second. 

u The kidneys were conglomerate and of large size. The veins 
ramify on the exterior, but are different both in the manner of ramifi- 
cation and in proportionate size from those of the feline tribe. In the 
latter animals about one fourth only of the venous blood is thus re- 
turned, and the veins put on an arborescent appearance j but in the 
Seal the whole of the blood is carried back along the exterior of the 
kidney, and the veins form a network around the gland, filling up the 
interstices of the lobules. 

" The viscera of the chest were disposed in the usual manner. 

" The pericardium was attached by cellular membrane both to the 
sternum and to the diaphragm. The inferior cava was consequently 
shorter than in most quadrupeds ; it was also smaller above than be- 
low the diaphragm, where it appeared to form a capacious sinus by 
the union of the large hepatic veins. The heart was flat and broad, 
much resembling in figure the ventricular part of the Turtle's heart ; 
its apex obtuse. The appendix of the right auricle had two processes, 
one covering in the usual manner the origin of the pulmonic artery, 
the other lying upon the right ventricle. In the interior of this cavity 
are seen in a striking manner the original relations of the inferior cava ; 
the septum of the auricles appears to be formed by a continuation of 
the left parietes of the superior cava, and terminates in an arched form 
to the right of the orifice of the inferior cava. This vein in consequence 
appears to open directly into the left auricle. In the younger of the 
two Seals the valve which cuts off this original communication (val- 
vula foraminis ovalis) was incomplete, and a large foramen ovale was 
the consequence : in the other Seal it was complete as to its forma- 
tion, but not with respect to its adhesion, — an oblique aperture, suffi- 
cient to admit a goose-quill, still remaining at its upper margin. I 
should not imagine an open foramen ovale to be an essential condition 
in the structure of the adult Seal. 

" In the younger Seal the ductus arteriosus had still a smooth cavity, 
but was closed at the extremities, so as to prevent any admixture of 
pulmonic and systemic blood through this passage. In the older ani- 
mal the cavity was totally obliterated. 

"The lungs were of large size, and had the same livid, gorged ap- 
pearance as in the Porpoise. They were partially divided into two 
lobes on each side j the upper being half the size of the lower lobes, 
and the left lung somewhat larger than the right. The cartilages of 
the trachea were complete circles, as in the Porpoise. The epiglottis 
was of a triangular form, its point projecting above the velum palati, 
and slightly indicating the structure which is carried through the 
Dugong to such a peculiar extent in the true Cetacea. The thyroid 
glands were detached bodies, each of the size of an almond, and 
exactly resembling the absorbent glands in this animal, which were 
generally of large size. 

"The tongue was thin, narrow, and bifid at the extremity. The os 
hyoides was attached to the styloid process by ligament. The only 
salivary glands found, were the submaxillary, which were about the 
size or nutmegs. 



154< 

" With respect to the organs of generation in the male, the testes 
lay obliquely upon the body of the pubis outside the abdomen, but, as 
is common to the aquatic Mammalia, without making any projection 
externally ; the communication between the tunica vaginalis and ab- 
domen was large enough to allow these glands to be pushed back into 
the latter cavity. There were no vesicuke seminales, and only a very 
small prostate. The penis has a pointed glans, and a bone about 
half an inch long, of a flattened form with thicker extremities ; into 
this bone are inserted two retractor and depressor muscles, which arise 
from the common anterior tendon of the sphincter ani. From the 
prepuce to the anus measured 5 inches, the penis being inclosed in a 
sheath and making no projection externally. 

"The muscles of the fore and hind-flippers were dissected: in the 
latter are two peculiar muscles for expanding the web of the foot, 
which have been described in detail by Cams. The extent of origin 
of the pectoralis major is increased by a cartilaginous process, 3 
inches long, continued from the manubrium, or first bone of the sternum. 
This circumstance involuntarily reminds one of the Mole, where a 
similar structure exists, also in connexion with vigorous rotatory 
movement of the anterior extremity : but in that animal the structure 
is by so much the more marked, as progressive motion is attended 
with the displacement of denser and more resisting matter ; it may 
be said, indeed, to swim in the earth. 

" The following admeasurements are from the larger of the two 
animals. 

ft. in. lines. 

From the snout to the end of the hind-flippers 3 

tail ... 2 7 6 



commencement of the fore- 



flippers 10 

Circumference of the body, taken behind the fore- 
flippers 1 10 

of the tail, behind the hind-flippers .030 

Length of the stomach 1 5 

Circumference of widest part, when distended, .... 1 2 

Length of intestinal canal. . . < 42 10 

of ccecum 10 

of large intestines 2 0.' 



Mr. Owen also read the following ", Notes on the anatomy of a 
young Weasel-headed Armadillo, Dasypus 6-cinctus, Linn., which was 
brought forth at the Society's Gardens on the 3rd of September, and 
died on the 16th of November. It had nearly acquired its full growth, 
and had increased in weight during that short period 52oz. 2dr. 
" Its admeasurements were as follows : — 

in. lines. 
From the end of the nose to the setting on of the tail 1 1 3 

— — — — — — to the vertex 3 6 

From the vertex to the first band 2 6 

Breadth of the head across the eyes 2 3 

"This species is of a darker colour and more hirsute character than 



155 

the nine-banded Armadillo, the anatomy of which has been recently 
given (p. 141.). Its head is shorter and broader, and the coronal 
plate of a triangular, instead of an oval, form. The middle bands also 
become more gradually blended with the last portion of the armour, 
and the tail is much shorter, measuring only 4| inches in the present 
species, while in the nine-banded it is nearly 9 inches in length. The 
ears, though of the same form, are also proportionally shorter, being 
but 1 inch in length and half an inch in breadth. The most important 
differences, however, are in the additional toe on the fore-foot of the 
Weasel-headed species, and the additional teeth implanted in the in- 
termaxillary bones. Of these this young animal had already acquired 
its full complement, having 9 — 9 in the upper jaw, and 10 — 10 in the 
lower, all of one character, simple, cylindrical, and separated by in- 
terspaces. There are also remarkable differences in the forms and 
proportions of the scales in different parts of the armour of the two 
species. 

"On laying open the abdomen the viscera presented much the same 
appearance as in the nine-banded species, except that the gall-bladder, 
being more deeply imbedded in the liver, appeared on the convex side 
of that viscus. 

"The stomach had the same general form j but a greater proportion 
of the cavity was situated to the left of the oesophagus, the whole of 
the dilated globular part or reservoir being so placed. The length of 
the stomach when distended was 3| inches, its greatest perpendicular 
diameter or depth 2^ inches : the oesophagus entered 2 inches from 
the left extremity. The lining membrane was uniformly villous ; ruga 
were seen abo\it the middle of the cavity -, these were few in number, 
longitudinally disposed, and converging towards the pyloric end. The 
parietes of the stomach, which are thin at the greater end, become 
increased (as in the species formerly described) by the accession of 
muscular fibres, and at the pylorus attain a thickness of 2 lines. This 
part is unprovided with the valvular protuberance observed in the 
stomach of the nine-banded species, but the pyloric orifice was so small 
that it was with some difficulty that 1 could discover it : from its 
oblique situation and the thickness of the surrounding parietes, I have 
no doubt that the same purpose is attained of opposing the egress of 
the alimentary matter during the time it is undergoing the requisite 
comminution. The stomach externally has the same tendinous appear- 
ance on each side at the smaller end. 

91 The duodenum receives the biliary and pancreatic secretions at 
the distance of I inch from the pylorus; its dispositions and connec- 
tions, together with those of the rest of the small intestines, were the 
same as in the nine-banded species; but their length was in this speci- 
men much less, being only 9 feet 6 inches. With respect to the large 
intestines a remarkable difference presented itself in the presence of 
two short but wide cceca, between which the small intestine entered 
the colon, and terminated. The largest of these pouches was very thin 
in its coats, and its length was an inch j the parietes of the smaller 
pouch were thicker, and exhibited patches of glands on the inside ; its 
length was half an inch. The terminal orifice of the 'Hum is in the 



156 

form of a slit with tumid margins situated on the middle of the ridge 
which separates the two pouches, and therefore liable to be closed by 
the lateral pressure of the faecal matter distending those pouches. 

" Should this structure be confirmed by subsequent examinations 
of other individuals of the six-banded species, the absence of a ccecum 
can no longer be admitted among the generic characteristics of Dasy- 
pus. And it is interesting to observe, that the absence or presence 
of a ccecum as a generic distinction holds with as little force in the 
allied genus Myrmecophaga : for according to Daubenton there exist 
in one species {Myrm. didactyla, Linn.) two small cceca; while the 
Tamandua (Myrm. Tamandua, Cuv.), we are assured by M. Cuvier, 
has not any. In these apparently capricious variations of structure 
among the Edentata, it is impossible not to observe a tendency or an 
approximation to the structure of another class; which I am inclined 
to think is that of Birds. For in addition to the double ccecum, a 
peculiarity so remarkable in that class, we have also a gizzard-like 
structure exhibited in the tendinous external appearance and thickened 
muscular coat of the stomachs of the Dasypodce, and a still nearer 
approximation to that form of stomach in the Manis, where the muscular 
coat at the pyloric end is 5 lines in thickness, and the inner surface is 
defended by a strong cuticle, roughened with papillce . A similar struc- 
ture exists also in the Myrmecophagce , which moreover supply the want 
of grinders in the mouth by swallowing, in the same manner as the 
Gallinaceous Birds, small pebbles for the purpose of bruising and de- 
stroying the vitality of the insects which constitute their food. [See 
Burt in Asiatic Researches, vol. ii. p. 354?, with respect to the fact of 
small stones and gravel being swallowed j and Lawrence's Blumen- 
bach, Comp. Anat. 2nd edit. p. 89. for the true physiology of the fact.] 
In this genus also we find mucous glands about the os hyoides of the 
nature of those follicles which in Birds take the place of the conglo- 
merate salivary glands of the Mammalia, and the secretion of which 
serves in the Ant-eaters, as in the Woodpeckers, to lubricate a pro- 
jectile tongue. In another group of the Edentata, viz. the Bradypoda, 
we are presented with a still more marked affinity to the structure of 
birds, in the abnormal number of cervical vertebra: exhibited in the 
three-toed Sloth, a peculiarity which it is difficult to refer to any other 
circumstance than the disposition of nature to pass by means of this 
anomalous order from the Mammalia to the Birds. The transition is 
indeed nearly completed by the Monotremata ; for of the two genera 
contained in this order, Echidna presents us with the quills, and 
Ornithorhynchus with the beak, of a bird ; and it is far from being 
proved that the mode of generation is not the same. 

" With respect to the Armadillo: The commencement of the colon, 
which is formed by the union of the two cceca above described, is 
nearly 2 inches in diameter, but quickly diminishes to half an inch : 
near its termination it is again slightly dilated. A well marked chain 
of lacteal glands accompanies the mesenteric artery. 

" The lungs were divided into three lobes on both sides, the addi- 
tional lobe having reference probably to the greater breadth of the 
chest in this species. The larynx, pharynx, fauces and tongue pre- 



157 

sen ted the same appearances as in Das. Peba; but the latter part is 
proportionally shorter, corresponding to the difference in the length 
of the jaws. 

"The liver and pancreas resembled those of Das. Peba. The spleen 
was broader and flatter, and a small supernumerary spleen was lodged 
in the head of the pancreas : probably an accidental variety. 

"The submaxillary glands are of the same proportionate magnitude, 
and have a similar bag appended to them as in the species before de- 
scribed. The cyst is situated on the inner side of the anterior extre- 
mity of the gland ; a similar provision exists to prevent regurgitation 
of the saliva by the ductus inferentes, or those which pass from the 
gland to the bag ; and the ductus efferens terminates as in Das. Peba 
close behind the symphysis of the lower jaw. 

"The organs of generation presented many circumstances worthy 
of notice ; but I shall defer giving an account of them, until I have an 
opportunity of examining them in the adult animal. There was, how- 
ever, a peculiarity in the urinary bladder which may be noticed here. 
The urachus, instead of coming off as is usual from the summit of the 
fundus, is continued from the middle of the anterior part of the bladder, 
to which point the remains of the umbilical arteries also converged. 
A process of peritoneum is continued from this part and down the 
middle line of the bladder below to the abdominal parietes in front of 
the bladder. It is my intention to investigate this peculiarity in other 
Edentata." 



ms 



December 13, 1831. 

The Honourable Tvriselton Fiennes in the Chair. 

The Chairman exhibited a specimen of a hybrid Duck bred be- 
tween a male Pintail and a common Duck. It was one of a brood 
of six, several of which were subsequently confined with the male 
Pintail from which they sprung, and produced young. A specimen 
of a female of this second brood was also exhibited. 

A specimen was exhibited of a young Puma, Felis concolor, Linn., 
which had recently been brought forth at the Society's Gardens, 
but had immediately died. Like the young of the other species 
of Felis it was variously spotted and striped, the depth of its mark- 
ings approaching nearly to black, and being more intense than that 
observed in the Lion. The muzzle was nearly black, as was also the 
greater part of the tail. The young specimen was strongly con- 
trasted with a specimen of the adult, which was placed on the table 
for comparison. , 

Preparations were exhibited of the swimming-bladder and of a 
portion of the roe of a female Conger Eel of considerable size (Con- 
ger vulgaris), presented to the Society by William Gladdish, Esq. j 
and Mr. Yarrell read the following notes of his examination of the 
individual from which the preparations were obtained. 

" The specimen, weighing 36lbs., was of the usual uniform hair 
brown colour above, passing into dirty white beneath ; the dorsal 
and anal fins white at the base and black on the edge throughout 
their whole length ; the body distended by its contents; from the 
anal aperture the tail tapered off rapidly, ending almost in a point. 
It proved to be a female. 

"The abdomen, when opened, was found to contain two very large 
lobes of roe, extending the whole length of the body, and passing 
several inches beyond the vent to the extreme end of the internal 
cavity j these lobes were composed of ova of a size to be distinctly 
apparent to the unassisted eye, particularly when directed towards 
the margins of the numerous lamince. The liver was formed of one 
single elongated lobe, which was broadest at the upper part, and, 
gradually diminishing both in width and thickness, ended acutely ; 
the gall-bladder was rounded in form, and filled with bile of a 
fine olive-green colour. 

" Behind its peritoneal covering the bright silver-coloured mem- 
brane which forms the elongated swimming-bladder was beautifully 
contrasted by the dark purplish-red colour of its gland, which in 
two expanded portions occupied a lateral but central situation be- 
tween the two extremities ; and from the swimming-bladder a canal 



159 

directed forwards reached the upper part of the stomach, opening 
into it by a very minute orifice. 

" The differences, internal as well as external, between the salt- 
water Conger and the sharp-nosed fresh-water Eel will be made more 
apparent by a short description of the appearances taken from a 
small specimen of each of equal size and length. 

" The head of the Conger is larger; the mouth wider and deeper; 
the lips fleshy ; the upper jaw the longest ; the teeth occupying a 
narrow linear space on both maxillary bones, forming three rows, 
of which those in the middle line are much the largest; numerous 
smaller teeth, more uniform in size, occupy the line of the vo- 
mer, but do not extend far backwards. The eye is as large again 
as in the Anguilla ; the pectoral fins arise in this small specimen 3 
inches and 3 lines from the point of the nose, long, narrow and 
white ; the dorsal fin arises 4- inches 10 lines from the nose, and but 
9 lines behind the end of the pectoral fin rays. The head of the 
Anguilla is narrow ; the nose pointed ; the mouth small, lips thin, 
lower jaw the longest ; the teeth occupying a broader surface in 
both jaws, and extending backwards over a considerable portion of 
the vomer ; the eye much smaller, and placed nearer the nose than 
in the Conger, and over the angle of the gape in both ; the pectoral 
fin, round in shape and dark in colour, arises 2 inches 4 lines from 
the nose j the dorsal fin commences 6 inches from the end of the 
nose and 2 inches 8 lines behind the end of the pectoral fin rays. 

" The whole of the inferior surface in both specimens being re- 
moved to expose all the viscera, the heart in the Conger is seen to 
occupy a lower situation than in the other Eel, the aorta issuing 
from the ventricle in both examples on a line with the origin of the 
pectoral fins. The stomach of the Conger is as long as the abdomi- 
nal cavity, of nearly equal breadth throughout, and finishes by a 
broad rounded end ; the calibre of the intestine is greater ; and the 
parietes of both stomach and intestines very thin. The stomach of 
the fresh-water Eel is widest at the cardiac portion, and diminishes 
gradually, ending 1 inch 3 lines short of the anus in a narrow point, 
which is attached to the peritoneal covering of the swimming-blad- 
der ; the intestinal canal is narrow ; and the parietes of that and the 
stomach thick and muscular. 

"The broad-nosed fresh-water Eel is equally distinct from the 
Conger, having more numerous teeth, which occupy a much broader 
surface on both maxillary bones, and the dorsal fin commencing still 
lower down the back than in the sharp-nosed £eZ." 

A preparation was exhibited of the organs of generation of a 
female Kangaroo; and Mr. Owen explained many of their peculia- 
rities. He referred particularly to the supposed existence of peri- 
toneal canals, and pointed out on the preparation the appearances 
which seemed to him to have deceived the only observers by whom 
the presumed canals had hitherto been noticed. 

In illustration of the subject he read the following Notes : 

" The interest which attaches to everything relating to the gene- 



160 

ration of the Marsupial animals, induces me to offer the following 
observations on the anatomy of the Kangaroo, although they do little 
more than record a negative fact. 

M Having had opportunities of verifying the discoveries of M. Geof- 
froy-Saint-Hilaire of the peritoneal canals in the Crocodile and Tor- 
toise, I felt desirous of putting also to the test of observation his 
more recently recorded discovery of similar canals in the Kangaroo. 
The accidental death at the Society's Gardens of a fine female of 
the common species (Macropus major, Shaw,) afforded a favourable 
opportunity of making the investigation, and the following results 
were obtained. 

"The disposition of the peritoneum at the pelvic region of the ab- 
domen is as follows : an anterior fold of the membrane is reflected 
from the mesial line of the abdominal parietes upon the anterior part 
of the urinary bladder j two lateral folds are continued from the 
sides of the bladder to the posterior part of the middle uterus, from 
whence they are reflected to the iliac and lumbar regions of the 
abdomen, representing the broad ligaments, and including the uterine 
vessels, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries. In the pouch thus formed be- 
hind the bladder, the lateral uterine tubes and body of the uterus 
are contained. From the posterior part of the neck of the uterus 
the peritoneum is reflected upon the rectum, and as it is in this situa- 
tion that the peritoneal outlets exist in the Crocodile, the membrane 
was here first examined, but without the slightest appearance of an 
aperture being detected. The peritoneal cavity between the uterus 
and bladder was next examined, and particularly where the mem- 
brane is reflected from the lower part of the lateral tubes {ad ute- 
rums, Geoff.), this being the situation where the description of 
M. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire would lead us to expect them. There 
was, indeed, in the angle between the lateral and middle uterus a 
narrow peritoneal pouch, which seen from above appeared like the 
orifice of a canal; but on sounding this with an eye-probe, uniform 
resistance was met with, and on laying the cavity carefully open the 
membrane was found to be entire and imperforate at the bottom. 
The remainder of the peritoneum in this neighbourhood was searched 
over, but with the same want of success. 

" The female was adult, but was believed never to have been with 
young. 

"I repeated the examination on the female parts of an adult 
Kangaroo (also without young), which had been preserved in spirits 
from a former dissection, and in which the peritoneal connexions 
between the bladder, uterus and rectum were entire. The same 
small blind pouches were found in the situation indicated above, 
but not any trace of the orifices of canals. M. Geoffroy-Saint-Hi- 
laire acknowledges he was unable to find analogous canals in a male 
Kangaroo that he examined subsequently to the female; and as the 
dissection on which his supposed discovery is founded appears not 
to have been performed by himself, these canals, unless confirmed 
by further observation, must be considered as at least of doubtful 
existence. 



161 

" While on the subject of the Kangaroo, I take the opportunity 
to add a few remarks on the disposition of the stomach of this ani- 
mal. From the account of this part by Sir Everard Home it would 
appear that the cesophagus is encompassed by the stomach in a re- 
markable manner [Phil. Trans, vol. xcvii. p. 152. J : but this dispo- 
sition I have not been able to observe in four dissections of the Kan- 
garoo ; nor, from the peritoneal connexions of the viscus, can it ever 
occur in the living animal. The stomach, indeed, is situated in a 
manner very analogous to what is ordinarily found in the Mam- 
malia, excepting that from its great size it occupies a larger space 
in the abdomen. 

" On laying open that cavity the sacculated character of the sto- 
mach sufficiently distinguishes it from every other part of the intes- 
tinal canal, and it generally extends as low down as the left lumbar 
region. The left extremity lies in the epigastric and left hypochon- 
driac region, folded upon itself and sternad of the cesophagus. This 
part must be turned to the left, and a little dissection performed, 
before the oesophagus can be brought into view, when it will be seen 
long and narrow, running 4 or 5 inches within the abdomen before 
it terminates. The extent of the stomach to the left of the cardiac 
orifice is about 5 inches, and the termination of the cavity at that 
end is bifid, as represented by Mr. Clift. From the cardiac orifice 
the stomach enlarges in bulk, and descends to the left lumbar region ; 
it then turns obliquely upwards, crossing the abdomen to the right 
hypochondrium, where the pyloric end makes a sudden turn down- 
wards and backwards, and terminates in the duodenum just above 
the right kidney. From this part and the duodenum a process of 
peritoneum is continued to the right iliac region, firmly binding them 
down in that situation. 

" On inflating the stomach before any of its connexions are 
destroyed, the only alteration in its position is to raise it, and 
throw its lower boundary forwards : but on dividing the peri- 
toneal band which ties down the pylorus and cutting across the 
duodenum beyond the ligature, and then continuing the inflation, 
the pyloric end of the stomach immediately rises and winds round 
behind the oesophagus to the left side of the abdomen. It is there- 
fore most probable, that the description alluded to was taken after 
the stomach had been removed from the body and blown up j as 
the beautiful drawing certainly was, which illustrates the descrip- 
tion. 

"The account given in the Paper referred to of the cuticle, villous 
surface, and glands on the interior of the stomach, perfectly accords 
with nature: but the sacculi resemble more nearly those appended 
to the first cavity of the stomach of the L/awa than the human colon; 
and I should think the former a more natural analogy." 

Mr. Owen also read the following Notes on the anatomy of the 
American Tapir, Tapir Americanus, Gmel. 

"The death of the male American Tapir having afforded an oppor- 
tunity of examining its anatomical structure, I proceed to lay before 



162 

the Committee a portion of the notes taken on that occasion, confi- 
ning myself to such additional circumstances as have not appeared in 
previous accounts. Of this species the latest anatomical description 
is that which is given by Mr. Yarrell in the 4th volume of the ' Zoolo- 
gicalJournal ' to the accuracy of which this dissection bore ample testi- 
mony. 

" The disposition of the viscera of the abdomen was as follows. The 
liver occupied the epigastric region and a part of both hypochondria : 
the stomach lay transversely below the liver : two large transverse 
folds of the colon stretched across the umbilical region : and iti the 
lowest part of the abdomen the ccecum alone was visible. These viscera 
were partially covered by a thin epiploon, in which was very little fat. 

"The oesophagus enters the stomach about one third from the left 
extremity. The cuticular membrane is continued from it into the 
stomach, for the extent of l 6 inches towards the left end, and for 
7 inches towards the pylorus; the rest of the cavity had a smooth 
or compact villous surface, with a few narrow but well defined rugae; 
the villous coat became thicker and apparently more glandular towards 
the pylorus. The pyloric end of the stomach had a tendinous lustre 
on each side. The colour of the villous coat of the stomach was dif- 
ferent from that of the duodenum. In this intestine the villous mem- 
brane was raised in transverse folds or valvule conniventes for the 
extent of 4 or 5 inches ; but the inner surface of the rest of the 
small intestines was without any folds. The diameter of the small 
intestines was 1 inch and a half, their length 45 feet. Near the 
termination of the ilium there were some small ulcerations. The 
mesenteric arteries form only a single series of arches in the mesentery 
close to the intestine. The principal mass of the mesenteric glands 
was situated at the termination of the ilium, and appeared to be dis- 
eased, being hard and scirrhous, and containing gritty or calcareous 
particles. The large intestines commenced by a capacious ccecum of 
the form described and represented by Mr. Yarrell j after this the 
colon forms the transverse folds before mentioned, which are connected 
together; and then becomes free, or has a loose mesocolon; and it is 
here that the faces appear to be first formed or separated. 

"The liver consists of four lobes, the two external being connected 
by a transverse band passing along the under surface of the liver. The 
largest lobe, the third from the right, had two deep notches, into the 
left of which the coronary ligament and remains of the umbilical chord 
passed. The gall-bladder is deficient, and the gall-duct emerges from 
the transverse connecting band mentioned above ; it is about 2 lines 
in diameter, and terminates in the duodenum '6 inches from the pylo~ 
rus. From this point it was traced backwards for 7 inches without 
varying its diameter. The pancreas extended from the spleen to the 
duodenum, and measured 9 inches in length j at the duodenum a pro- 
cess descended at a right angle in the process of the peritoneum con- 
necting the duodenum to the ccecum, which process measured 5 inches 
in length. The spleen is a flattened elongated body, measuring in 
length 1 foot 8 inches, and in breadth 4 inches. 

" The kidneys were conglobate, 6 inches long, 3| inches broad : 






163 

the cortical substance from 1 inch to % 1 inch and a half in extent : 
the tubular part terminating in a very small pelvis, but not projecting 
in the form of mammilla. The ureters contained opake fluid like pus, 
but the kidneys did not appear diseased. The suprarenal capsules 
were 3 inches in length, and 1 in width j along the middle of these 
bodies there was a line of substance differing in colour from the rest: 
the cortical part was striated, the strice converging to the central line. 

" The whole of the lungs had a mottled appearance, arising from 
the deposition of numerous large masses of tubercular matter similar 
to that observed in the mesenteric glands. 

"The heart is large in proportion to the animal, and of a rounded 
form with an obtuse apex ; the length of this organ was 7 inches, its 
breadth across the base 6 inches. The trachea was small in its dia- 
meter, but the cartilages are thick and strong, and incomplete behind. 

"The os hyoides is articulated to the base, not the apex, of the sty- 
loid processes. 

" The proboscis is provided with two strong round levatores arising 
from the ossa nasi ; there are also depressores arising from the inter- 
maxillary bones, and fasciculi of muscular fibres in its substance, 
forming a texture similar to the proboscis of the Elephant; the strong 
levatores are well adapted to enable this part to turn up the soil, when 
the animal is in search of roots, &c. 

" The testes are elongated glands, 4 inches in length, situated ex- 
ternally in a slightly indicated scrotum at the distance of 6 inches 
from the anus. The cremaster was remarkably powerful, being com- 
posed of a strong/asc7CM/«s of fibres continued from the lower margin 
of the internal oblique muscle, of upwards of 1 inch in breadth. The 
tunica vaginalis had a free communication as usual with the cavity of 
the abdomen. The penis, of great length, terminates in an enlarged 
truncate extremity, the orifice of the urethra being near the lower 
margin of the disc. There are no levatores muscles j but a quantity 
of elastic cellular membrane extends from the abdominal muscles along 
the dorsum penis. 

" On comparing my notes with those taken by Mr. Clift at the dis- 
section of the Sumatran Tapir, I find the differences in the admeasure- 
ments of the alimentary canal, especially of the caecum, not so con- 
siderable as are stated by Mr. Yarrell. Jt must, however, be remem- 
bered that the individual dissected by the latter gentleman was much 
younger than that»from which my notes are derived. 

" Thus in the Account published by Sir Everard Home in the 
Philosophical Transactions for 1821, the dimensions of the ccecum 
of the Sumatran Tapir are stated to be 1 foot in length, and 1 foot 
in breadth : in the American Tapir the length of the ccecum was I 
foot 3 inches, its greatest breadth 1 foot. 

ft. in. 

The length of the small intestines in the Sumatran Tapir 69 

in the American Tapir 45 



of the large intestines in the Sumatran Tapir 19 6 
in the American Tapir 9 



The comparative shortness of the intestinal canal in the American 



164 

Tapir is a specific difference difficult to be accounted for in the present 
state of knowledge respecting the natural habits of the two species, 
but further examination of the Sumatran Tapir seems wanting to 
prove that it is compensated for by an increased size of ccecum in the 
American species." 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Spooner adverted to the case 
of a Leopard lately living at the Society's Gardens. It had been 
suspected to be labouring under ascites, but on its death its bulk 
was found to have been occasioned by an excessive deposition of fat 
both in the abdomen and thorax. A conversation ensued among the 
Members present ; and Mr. Spooner having stated his belief, corro- 
borated by his having observed similar results in Dogs, that distant 
periods of feeding with full meals occasioned corpulence and disease 
of skin, while frequent and more sparing meals led to the recovery 
of health and activity, it appeared to the Committee desirable that 
this proposition should be submitted to the test of direct experiment. 

It was therefore ordered, 

That it be suggested to the Council to select, for the purpose of 
experimenting as to the best mode of feeding them, at least two 
feline animals : that one be fed in the manner now practised at the 
Society's Gardens, viz. with one full meal daily, and that the other 
be fed twice a day with one half the quantity of flesh now given for 
a meal ; that notes be made of the circumstances of the animals at 
the time of commencing the experiment, of the quantity of food 
taken daily by each, of the times of feeding, and of the results; 
and that reports thereon be made monthly during the continuance 
of the experiment : that to render the results of the experiment 
more conclusive it be tried on the greatest number of any one spe- 
cies that the state of the Society's collection will permit : and that, 
so far as the collection will allow, similar experiments, varying only 
according to circumstances, be tried on animals of other carnivorous 
genera. 



1G5 



December 27, 1831. 

William Clift, Esq. in the Chair. 

Mr. Vigors reported that the Resolution agreed to at the last Meet- 
ing of the Committee had been communicated to the Council : that 
the Council, fully concurring in the propriety of instituting the experi- 
ments suggested therein, had directed that they should be tried on 
two Leopards, two Ocelots, and two Hyaenas : and that instructions 
had been accordingly given to the Head-keeper to carry them into 
effect. 

A collection of animals preserved in spirit, and recently presented 
to the Society by Charles Barclay, Esq., was exhibited. It was col- 
lected by Charles Telfair, Esq., of the Mauritius, Corr. Memb. Z. S., 
and contained specimens of Mammalia, Fishes, Reptiles, and Insects. 
Among the former were individuals of two species of Tenrec, Centenes, 
Illig., which were pointed out as the Cent, setosus and Cent, semispi- 
nosusy and reference was made to the habits of the animals of this 
genus as described by Mr. Telfair in a communication read to the 
Committee on June 1*4 (p. 89). The apparently good state of preser- 
vation of the specimens authorized the hope that their anatomical 
structure might be properly investigated. 

, The remaining portion of the collection of Fishes formed at the 
Mauritius by Charles Telfair, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z. S., and presented 
by him to the Society, was exhibited. The species contained in it 
were brought in succession under the notice of the Committee by Mr. 
Bennett, who pointed out more particularly those which he believed 
to be new to science. As such he named and characterized the fol- 
lowing : 

Scolopsides pileops. Scol.lobis pinna? caudalisfilam entosis : rostro 
superciliisque alepidotis, nigrescentibus, Mo vittd argentea infra 
oculum productd inferne marginato ; lined obliqud pallide argen- 
ted ub oculo ad prceoperculi angulum decurrente ; operculo toto 
squamato ; vitta dorsali utrinque argentea supra lineam lateralem ,• 
caudd superne maculd nigrescenti notatd. 
D. V°. A. f &c. 
Scol.fr<enato, Cuv. & Val., videtur maxime affinis. DifFert vittd 
dorsali argentea et operculo toto squamato. 

Amphiprion fusciventer. Amph. niger, ventre parum paUidiori; 
fascia angustd operculari, altera laterali media, tertidque obsoletd 
caudali albis ; pinna caudali postice pinnarumque dorsalis analis~ 
que parte molli alio fimbriate ; pinnis ventralibus interne dimi- 
diatimjlavis. 
D. -hg-. A. T V &c. 
[No. XIV.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



16*6 

Amph. chrysogastri, Cuv. & Val., simillimus. Differt ventre, pinnis 
pectoralibus, ventraliumque dimidio externo corpori concoloribus. 

Obs. In Amph. chrysogastre radii spinosi pinnae dorsalis variant 10 
vel II. 

Fam. MuGiLiDiE. 

Genus Agonostomus. 

Rostrum subproductum. 

Os inferum. 

Dentes in utraque maxilla minimi, acuti, pluriseriati. 

Maxilla inferior rot un data. 

Genus Mugili, Linn., maxime affine. Forma et pinnis simillimum. 
Differt tantummodo figura et situ oris, dentibusque pluriseriatis. 

Agonostomus Telfairii. Ag. supra nigrescens, infra fusco-argeti' 
teus. 
D. 4, 4-. A. f, P. 14. 

Atherina affinis. Ath. pinnis pectoralibus caudalique apicem 
versus nigro irroratis. 
D. 5, 11. A. 15. 

Affinis, ut videtur, Ath. Neso-Gallica>, Cuv. Differt numero radio- 
rnm a figura Cepediana. 

Gobius coalitus. Gob. pinnis dorsalibus subcontinuis, 2dd priore 
puullo altiore: brunneus, nigrescenti maculatus caruleoque punc- 
tatus, punctis ventralibus caudalibusque longitudinaliter seriatis ; 
pinnis cinereis, radiis nigrescenti punctatis. 
D. 6, 10. A. 8. P. 16. 

Gob. Giuri, Ham., ut videtur, affinis. 

Eleotris Mauritianus. El. niger ; pinna caudali rotundatd ; 
dor sali 2dd priore altiore. 
D. 6, 9. A. 9. P. 14. 

An ver& distinctus ab El. nigricante, Quoy et Gaim.? Membrana 
branchiostega maxima, infra operculum longe lateque producta, mem- 
branes lateris oppositi marginem internum tegente. 

Labrus axillaris. Labr. rostro subproducto ; pinnce dorsalis (per 
partem spinosam) membrana profunde excisd ; pinna caudali 
rotundatd : antice et ad dorsum brunneus, infra posticeque pallide 
fuscus ; macula rotundd ad basin pinnarum pectoralium, secundd 
irregulari ad initium pinnce dorsalis, tertid ad apicem radiorum 
quatuor priorum mollium ejusdem pinnce, quartdque ad apicem 
radiorum sex priorum mollium pinna analis a iris ; hdc (pinna) 
prceterea pinnisque ventralibus nigrescenti guttatis ; caudali pec- 
toralibusque Jlavescentibus immaculatis, ilia nigrescenti superne 
inferneque marginatd: dentibus quatuor anterioribus in utrdque 
maxilla majoribus, alteroque magno ad commissuram utrinque. 
D.-U. A. X V. 

Forma, incisura membranae pinnae dorsalis, numero radiorum, den- 
tibusque Labr. Dianam, LaCtip., refert: coloribus omnino differt. 

Labrus leucosticticus. Labr. pinna caudali sublunatd : auran- 
tiacus? ; maculis dorsalibus parvis albis utrinque quatuor ; axilld 
punctisque numerosis subseriatis humeralibus nigris. 
D. -K-. A. tV 



167 

Prsecedenti affinis ; cui similis forma (prater caudalis pinnae), den- 
tibus, numero radiorum, &c. 

Ciieilinus punctatus. Cheil. fuscus, antice virescens ; capite 
superne rubro lituratim vario ; genis pectoreque fulvo-guttatis ; 
corpore miniaceo lineatim punctato ; pinnis pectoralibus rotundatis 
Jlavidis,axillis miniaceis ; dorsali fusca, purpurea sparsim punc- 
tata, ad marginem, posticeque late, rubra, vittd intra marginem 
punctisque plurimis camdeis ; ventralibus elongatis purpureis ; 
anali saturate miniaced, intra marginem cceruleo vittata ; caudali 
rotundatd versus apicem rubrd ibique ocetlis minutioribus cceruleis 
numerosis ornatd: dentibus viridibus, duobus inter mediis maxilla in- 
ferioris unoque laterali antice utrinque maxillae superioris maximis. 
D. v°. A. £. P. il. C. Jl. 
Affinis, ut videtur, Cheil. lunulalo, Cuv., (Labrus lunulatus, Forsk.). 
Differt egregie coloribus. 

Far. Pinnis anali caudali parteque dorsalis molli postice viridibus. 
Pictura Sparo chloruro, Bl. haud absimilis j sed forma pinnse caudalis 
maxime diversa. 

Ciieilinus Commersonii. Cheil. pinna caudali rotundatd: fusees- 
centi-brunneus ; pinnis anali caudali dorsalisque parte molli viri- 
dibus; capite pone et ante oculos vittato ; operculo prccoperculoque 
castaneo oblique lineatis ; dentibus duobus anterioribus in utrdque 
maxilla maximis, maxilla superioris exterioribus. 

D.tV A. 4. 

Maxime affinis videtur Cheil. Digramma, Cuv., (Labrus Digramma, 
LaCdp.) : Differt prsecipuk numero radiorum. 

Julis scapularis. J ulis pinna caudali rotundatd : capitis rivulis, 
corporis lunulis, taenia pectorali pone pinnas oblique ad ventrem 
ducta, vittdque pinnce analis roseis ; pinnis dorsali caudalique 
roseis, hue cceruled transversim rivulatd, ilia lunulis baseos, vittd 
media, apiceque partis mollis cceruleis ; pinnd pectorali hyalind, 
ad basin flavd ; vittd, lata huinerali, ad apicem pinnce pectoralis 
truncata, nigra. 
D.-A. A. -A, 

Julis bicatenatus. Julis pinna caudali quadratd : capite dorso. 
que viridibus? ; lateribus rubris, tceniis utrinque duabus e serie 
macularum grisearum oblongarum transversa Hum constantibus 
ornatis ; pinnis dorsali analique flavo ad apicem late viitatis ; 
caudalis apice flavo ; pectorali nigrd, macula magna basali mar- 
ginem inferiorem attingente aurantiaca ; ventralibus Jiavidis. 

D.-rV A. -A-. 

Crenilaurus Anthio'ides. Cren. capite brevi, fronte subdeclivi ; 
pinna caudali hirundinaced : capite nigro ; corpore aurantiaco ; 
caudd flavd, suprh infraque vittd laid nigra per caudalis pinnce 
margines excurrente notatd ; pinna darsali macula anticd plaga- 
que lata posticd partis spinosce antiedque partis mollis nigris in- 
signitd. 

Di » As 
• TCT' H' "XT' 

Cyprinus Mauritianus. Cypr. ore haud barbato; pinnd caudali 
lunata ; anali breviore ; corpore subalto, subcompresso ; squamis 



168 

majoribus: suprZ plumbeus, infra argenteus; pinnis, prcesertim 

versus apices, nigricantibus. 

D.tV A. $. C. 19. P. 19. V. 9. 

Clupea delicatula. Chip, elongata, lata ; pinna dorsali in equi- 
libria posita ; ventralibus sub basin posticam dorsalis. 
D. 11. A. 9. 

Numero radiorum parvo a congeneribus differt. Corporis longitudo 
in specimine parvo (3-poll.) sextuplo altitudinem superat. 

Engbaulis Neso-Gallicus. Engr. elongatus, compressus, ventre 
serrato : supra plumbeus, infra et ad latera argenteus. 
D. 14. A. 32. V. 7. P. 14. 

Belone platyura. Bel. dorso subplano ; cauda depressd, (altitu- 
dine latitudinis dimidio subcequali) ; pinnd caudali bifurcd ; pinnis 
dorsali analique subelongatis, antice falcatis , anali longiore: supra 
plumbeo-virescens, infra dimidiatim argenteo-Jlavicans. 
D. 14. A. 18. P/l2. 

Long, rictus, 4 poll, j a rictu ad orbitnm, 4 lin.; orbitae, 8 lin.; 
operculi, 1 poll, ; pinnae pectoralis, 1 poll. 5 lin. ; pinna? dorsalis, 1 poll. 
9 lin. j alt. ejusdem pinnae, 1 poll, j long, pinnae analis, 2 poll. 2 lin. ; 
alt. ejusdem, 1 poll. 2 lin.; long. tot. 20 poll. 

Rhombus pabvimanus. Rhomb, oculis sinistris parum distantibus, 
interstitio excavato : fusco ?iigresce?itique marmoratim varius, gut- 
tisque pallidis parvis adspersus. 
P. 10. 

Formal et pictura Rhomb, mancum, Cuv., (Pleuronectes mancus, 
Brouss.,) refert, sed os inerme oculique approximate 

Conger flavipinnatus. Cong, dentibus maxillce superioris ante- 
rioribus tantum, vomeris ossiumque palatinorum minimis in areis 
tribus latis asperis dispositis ; pinnd dorsali supra, medium pectora- 
lium incipiente; lined laterali conspicua, impressd: pinnis omnibus 
Jlavis, anali postice dorsalique nigro marginatis, hue insuper ad 
basin fuscescente. 
P. 15. 

Mubjena fimbriata. Mur. dentibus maxillaribus acutis uniseriatis, 
anterioribus longioribus ,• vomerinis anticis duobus elongatis acutis : 
castaneus; nigro subseriatim crebre guttatus, pinnarum guttis ali- 
quando infascias conjluentibus ; pinnis flavojimbriatis. 

Balistes aubomabginatus. Bal. ovalis ; squamis omnibus, prceler 
capitis dorsique anterioris, tuberculo parvo subspinoso armatis; 
pinnd caudali subquadratd, superne inferneque paullum productd : 
nigrescens, pinnarum dorsalis 2dce analisque antice falcataru'm 
marginibus, caudalisquemarginibus apice guttdque subbasali,Jlavis. 
D. 3, 28. A. 25. P. 13. C. 12. 

Coloribus Bal. Jlavimarginato, Rupp., similis : differt armatura 
caudae. Lateribus corporeflue toto postice spinoso-scabris convenit 
cum Bal. Willughbeii, Benn., (Guaperua longa, Will., Ichth., tab. I. 
20) j cui tamen forma corporis pinnarumque valde dissimilis. 

Balistes Lima. Bal. ovalis, fuscus ; squamis omnibus, prceter 
capitis dorsique anterioris, in medio pallidioribus tuberculatisque ; 
pinnd caudali subquadratd, in medio, superne et inferne paullum 



169 

producta ; pinnarum dorsalis 2dce analisque antice magis elevala- 
rum fimbria, caudalisque mar ginis fascia lunata, nigrescentibus. 
D. 1?, 29. A. 26. P. 13. 
Praecedenti valde affinis j sed pictura alia, pinnae antic& minus 
elevatae, numerusque radiorum paullo major. 

Balistes mitis. Bal. late ovalis; pinnd caudali rotundatd, extre- 
mitatibus paullum productis ; seriebus septem vel octo aculeorum 
caudalium minimorum: pallide brunneus, pallidiori varius. 
D. 3, 30. A. 28. P. 15. C. 12. 
Mr. Bennett availed himself of the opportunity to remark that the 
Serranus, characterized by him from this collection on the 23rd of 
August, as the Serr. Telfairii (p. J 27), had been described about the 
same time by MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes under the name of Serr. 
argyro-grammicus. He also stated, that those eminent zoologists 
having used as the designation of a distinct genus of Scombrida from 
that to which he had applied it (p. 146), the classical name Apolectus, 
he proposed, with the view of preventing confusion, to apply to the 
group indicated by him the name of Apodontis. 

Mr. Bennett subsequently observed, that the Birds described by 
him (p. 13), had during the summer completed the change of their 
plumage, and had thereby assumed the full adult characters of the 
Angola Vulture of Pennant, Vultur Angolensis, Gmel. The Poly- 
borus? hypoleucus sinks therefore into a synonym, and the description 
of it is that of the Angola Vulture in its change from immature to 
adult plumage. 

Mr. Owen read the following additional Notes on the anatomy of 
Crocodilus acutus, Cuv., taken at the dissection of the female of that 
species, which lately died at the Society's Gardens. 

" The same subdivision of the serous membranes, as was noticed 
in the dissection of the male (p. 139), was again observed j and in 
addition to those cavities previously described, another distinct one 
was found between the back part of the liver and oesophagus. 

"The interior of the stomach did not present the distinct patches 
observable in the previous dissection (and still obvious in the prepa- 
ration), which must therefore be considered as an accidental variety : 
but the lining membrane was a smooth uniform villous surface, stained 
of a yellow colour, and highly vascular, as is proved by injection of 
size and vermilion. 

" The small intestines presented a dilatation immediately beyond 
the folds of the duodenum ,• which is most probably a normal structure, 
and not depending on the accumulation ofjlatus, as was supposed in 
the dissection of the male. 

" The spleen was in the same relative situation, and exhibited the 
same loose mode of connection, but the process of peritoneum was 
somewhat broader. On holding it up to the light an equally satis- 
factory view of its contents was obtained ; and I am therefore inclined 
to consider it an experiment unf, crueis on the negative side of the 
question regarding the duct of the spleen. 



170 

" In the trachea of this species, we have an additional instance of 
the resemblance between the structure of the Crocodile and that of 
Birds. It is folded on entering the chest like that of the Demoiselle, 
Ardea Virgo, Linn., as regards the extent of the loop, which is, how- 
ever, disposed on a horizontal instead of a vertical plane, inclining 
first to the left side, then turning towards the right, and ascending 
for the extent of 3 inches, where it divides ; the bronchia descend- 
ing to the right of the loop, and separating on a level with the lower 
part of it to pass to their respective lungs. 

" The ovaries formed two thin granular patches, of a gray colour, 
attached, like the ovary of the common Fowl, to the sides of the vena 
cava. The oviducts were of a flattened puckered form, not unlike a 
tape-worm; they terminated in the genito-urinary cavity." 

Mr. Vigors exhibited the sixth and last portion of the species com- 
prising the 'Century of Birds from the Himalayan Mountains,' drawn 
and lithographed by Mr. and Mrs. Gould, the publication of which 
was now drawing to a close. Among them were the following species 
apparently new to science; the first of which exhibited a striking 
diversity of form among the Eagles, which was characterized as fol- 
lows under the generic name of 

HjEMATORNIS. 

Rostrum subforte, satis elongatum ; mandibuld superiori ad basin 
recta, ad apicem valde curvata ; naribus ovalibus oblique in cera 
positis. 

Alee longre, subrotundatre; remige prima subbrevi, secunda tertia- 
que longioribus, quarta quintaque fere aequalibus longissimis, ere tens 
gradatim decrescentibus. 

Pedes subdebiles, subelongati ; tarsis rugosis squamatim reticularis; 
digitis subbrevibus, reticularis ; unguibus fortibus. 
Cauda saris longa, subrotundata. 

Hamatoknis undulatus. Hcemat. supra, intense brunneus, subtus 
brunnescenti-rufus; pectore fusco undulatim fasciato ; abdomine 
ocellis albis brunneo circumdatis noiato; capite cristato caudaque 
nigro-brunneis, illius plumis ad basin albis, ad apicem rufescenti 
marginatis, hdc fascia lata in medio, margineque gracili ad apicem 
rufescenti albidis, notata ; regione carpali ocellis albis maculaia, 
Longitudo 2 ped. 7 unc. 

This group was observed to bear a near affinity to the genus Pan- 
dion in the shape of the bill, wings, and the rugose reticulated scales 
of the tarsi, but to differ from it in the comparative length and weak- 
ness of the legs and claws, as well as in having the nails grooved 
underneath, and not convex, as in the latter group. To this genus 
belongs the Falco Bacha, Lath.* of Africa, and the Manilla bird lately 
described in the 'Proceedings' of the Committee (page 9G) under 

* Mr. Vigors expressed his doubts whether the Falco Bacha, Lath., and 
Falco Bido, Horsf., were the same species, although they were generally 
supposed to be identical. He had not the opportunity of examining a suf- 
ficient number of African specimens to determine the point. 



171 

the name of Buteo holospilus. These, from the apparent weakness of 
their limbs, had hitherto generally been ranked among the Buzzards ; 
although from the description of the courageous habits of the Bacha 
Falcon, the only one well known of the group, doubts had been ex- 
pressed of the propriety of ranking them with that tribe. Mr. Vigors 
suggested the subfamily of Eagles as a more appropriate station for 
them - } where, united by many important characters to Pandion, they 
apparently led off by the length of their tarsi to the genus Limnaetus 
(' Memoirs of Sir S. Raffles,' Append, p. 648.) and others of the long- 
legged Eagles. The three species of the group were exhibited j their 
general similarity in colour and markings pointed out j and their spe- 
cific differences explained. These consist chiefly in size, the Hcemat. 
holospilus being one-third smaller than H. Bacha ; while H. midulatus 
considerably exceeds the latter. The first is spotted all over the body, 
the second only on the abdomen ; while the third is marked by spots 
on the wing-coverts, and by ocelli bearing an undulated appearance 
on the abdomen, the breast also being crossed by undulating/ascitr. 

Muscicapa melanops. Mas. Muse, unicolor ccesio-ccerulea ; regione 

rictali circumocularique atris ; cauda subiiis fusco-atrd. 
Fcem. minds intense colorata ; viridisque magis qucim ccerulea. 
Species Muse. Indigo, Horsf. simillima, ejusdemque statural : differt 
colore magis intenso, notaque capitis atr&. 

Turdus erythrogaster. Mas. Turd, grisescenti-cceruleus ; genis, 
colli lateribus, remigibusque atris; pectore, abdomine, crissoquerujis. 

Fcem. Cinerascenti-brunnea, dorso imo obscure fusco fasciato ; collo 
in J route albescenti, fusco- brunneo notato ; pectore, abdomine, cris- 
soque rufescenti-albo undulatim notatis. 

Statura Turdi saxatilis, Linn. 

Cinclosoma erythrocephalum. Cinclos. supra cineraceum, sub- 
tus pallidius, colore rubro leviter tinctum; nucha maculis atris 
semilunaribus grandibus, pectore gracilioribus notatis ; guld notis- 
que auricularibus nigris ; capite notaque alarum castaneo-rufis. 

Longitudo 94- unc. 

Myophonus Temminckii. Myoplu ater, azureo nitens, corporis in 

fronte plumis in medio metallice splendentibus ; abdomine fusco' 

atro ; capite supra in fronte regioncque carpali alarum lazulinis ; 

tectricibus alarum parce ccesio-albo maculatis;. rostrofiavo. 

Statura My op h.flavirostris (rnetallici, Temm,), cui simillimus : differt 

rostro graciliori, colore splendidiore corporis caudseque, capitisque 

vertice lazulino. 

A species belonging apparently to the family of Merulidce, and to 
that portion of it which, from their long legs and short wings and tails, 
indicate their station to be on the ground, afforded an opportunity of 
characterizing a form which seems hitherto to have been unnoticed. 
The length, strength, and arcuated culmen of the bill, and the length 
and strength of the hallux, formed the most distinguishing points of 
modification. 



172 



ZOOTHERA*. 



Rostrum forte, elongatum, subcurvatum, subcompressum, culmine 
elevato j mandibuld superiori subemarginata, dente subapicali vix 
decernenda ; naribus ovalibus, lateralibus ; rictu vibrissis rigidis 
munito. 

Alee subbreves, subrotundatae ; remigibus prima brevi, secundft 
multo longiore, tertia quarta quintaque fere sequalibus longissimis, 
sexta his breviori at prima longiori, cseteris gradatim decrescentibus. 
Pedes subelongati, subfortes, acrotarsiis integris ; digitis anteriori- 
bus subfortibus, externis ad basin membrana connexis, internis liberis, 
medio longissimo ; halluce elongato fortissimo, ungue forti elongato. 
Cauda subbrevis, sequalis ; rectricibus duodecim. 
ZooTHF.iiA monticola. Zooih. saturate brunnea; colli in fronte 
notd longiiudinali, pectoris notis parciSi abdomineque albis, hoc 
brunneo squamatim notato; femorum tectricibus, crissoque fuscis, 
hoc albo maculato. 
Longitudo corporis, 11-^ unc. 3 rostri, H; alee a carpo ad apicem 
remigis 4tae, 6 j tarsi, 1-g-j caudce, 4. 

Petrocincla cinclorhyncha. Petr. genis, dorso, alis cauddque 
nigris ; peciore, abdomine, crisso, uropygioque rujis ; capite suprct, 
jugulo, regioneque carpali alarum cano-lazulinis ; macula alarum 
alba. 
Longitudo 6^ unc. 

This bird was observed to bear an affinity to the family of Merulida 
by the strength and Thrushlike form of the bill 5 and by its general 
character of form and colour to that portion of it which includes the 
Rock Thrushes ; where it was provisionally placed, until more accurate 
comparison of the species with contiguous groups determined its 
station. Its bill was more that of the true Thrush, than of the Rock 
Thrush. Its colours were those of Phcenicura ; under which genus it 
was erroneously ranked by accident on the plate. The bill is too 
powerful to admit the species among the Sylviadce. 

Phcenicura frontalis. Phcen.fusco-atra ; abdomine, crisso, uro- 
pygio, rectricumque apicibus, duarum mediarum exceptis, rufis ; 
fronte lazulino splendente. 
Longitudo, 5^ unc. 

Picus nanus. Pic. superne fusco-brunneus, alis cauddque maculis, 
dorso fasciis albis, notatis; subtiis albescens, fusco-brunneo late 
striatus; strigd superciliari alter dque suboculari albis; capitis 
fronte verticeque brunneis, occipite nigro, strigd gracili auriculari 
coccined, 
Longitudo, 44- unc. 
Cuculus Himalayanus. Cue. corpore supra rufo,fusco fasciato ; 

* The group seems to have many characters in common with Pomato- 
rhinus, Horsf. The strong and elevated bill constitutes the chief mark of 
separation. The alliance between the two groups may serve to indicate the 
general affinities of the latter genus, whose place in the system has been 
hitherto undetermined. 



173 

subtus albo, nigro fusciato, pectore rufo tincto ; remigibus rectrici- 
busquefuscis, Mis externe rufo, interne albo maculatis, his duabus 
mediis rufo oblique fascia to, cceterisalbo, rufo variegato, maculatis. 
Longitudo 1 1 unc. 

Cuculus sparvrrioides. Cue. corpore supra brunnescenti-cinereo, 
capite plumbeo-cinereo ; subtus albo, collo rufo striato, abdomine 
brunneo fasciato, pectore rufo tincto ; remigibus externe leviter 
rufo maculatis ; rectricibus fasciis brunneis latis rufo marginatis 
quatuor notatis. 
Longitudo 16 unc. 

Pomatoriiinus erythrogenys. Pom. cinerescenti-brunneus, sub- 
tus albescens; fronte, capitis colli abdominisque lateribus, crissoque 
rufis; cauda fusco obscure fasciata ; rostro pedibusque pallidis. 
Longitudo 1 1 unc. 

Vinago sphenura. Vin. supra olivaceo-, subtus Jlavo- , viridis; capite 
in fronte pectoreque aureis ; alarum tectricibus, regioneque inter- 
scapular vinaceo-purpureis ; caudd cuneatd. 
Longitudo 15 unc. 

Totanus glottoides. Tot. supra fuscescenti- griseus , capite collo- 
que fusco striatis, dorso alisque strigis fasciisque fuscis undulatis ; 
fronte corporeque toto subtus niveis ; rectricibus duabus mediis 
grisescentibus, later alibus albis ; quatuor mediis utrinque, ceteris 
externe, fusco fasciatis. 
Statura formaque Tot. glottidis ; differt notis supernis gracilioribus, 
corporeque subtus toto niveo, haud notato. 

The number of species exhibited at the present and former Meet- 
ings, which were considered to have been hitherto undescribed, 
amounted to sixty. To these were added the following species, which, 
although previously described, had either remained unfigured, or had 
not been figured with sufficient accuracy for the present state of 
science, or which had been figured elsewhere during the progress of 
the work ; viz. Falco Chicquera, Daud. ; Otus Bengalensis, Franklin 
('Proceedings,* No. X. p. 115.); Muscipeta peregrina, $ & £> ; 
Cinclosoma leucolophum ; Pitta brachyura ; Cinclus Pallasii, Temm. ; 
Pica erythrorhyncha, Wagl.; Pica vagabunda, Wagl.; Pica Sinensis, 
Hardvv. & Gray ; Buceros cavatus, Shaw ; Bucco grandis, Gmel. ; 
Picus Mahrattemis, Lath. $ & £>; Vinago militaris, Cuv. $ & £>; 
Lophoplwrus Impeyanus, Cuv. $ & £> ; Tragopan Satyrus, Cuv. j 
Phasianus Pucrasia, Hardw. & Gray, S & P > Perdix Chucar, Hardw. 
& Gray; Parra Sinensis, Gmel.; Vanellus Goensis; Anser Indicus. 

The foregoing species completed the series of the Himalayan col- 
lection which had originally formed the basis of the 'Century of 
Birds.' All of these, Mr. Vigors observed, had been most liberally 
presented by Mr. Gould to the Society, and were deposited in the 
Museum as authentic types of the species figured in that work. To 
these species were added a few others from the same locality, which 
the liberality of their owners allowed to be exhibited to the Com- 
mittee, and to be made use of for the benefit of science. Among them 
were the following species, which had been kindly communicated by 
Dr. Scouler of the Glasgow University. 



174 

Enicurus Scouleri. En. capite, collo, dorso superiori, alls, cau- 
ddque atris ; fronte, fascia alarum, dorso imo, abdomine, caudce 
basi lateribusque albis ; abdomine maculis, dorso imo fascia, atris 
notatis. 
Longitudo corporis, 5-f unc. ; caudce, 2. 

Mr. Vigors expressed his pleasure in dedicating this species to an 
active and liberal friend to science. 

Pyrrhula erythrocephala. Pyrr. capite supra, nucha, pecto- 
reque rufs; dorso, scapularibus, gutture, abdomineque imo cine- 
reis ; fronte, regione rictali, guld, remigibus, alarum tectricibus, 
rectricibusque intense atris ; fascid alarum, uropygio, crissoque 
albis. 
Longitudo corporis, 6 unc. 

Certhia Himalayana. Certh. suprcL brunnea, capitis dorsique plu- 

mis in medio albescenti-rufo lineatis, alis fasciam medium rufam 

exhibentibus ; subtus ' albescens ; remigibus, rectricibusque palli- 

diori brunneis, fasciis fuscis gracilibus frequentibus notatis. 

Statura formaque Certh. familiaris, Linn. Differt fasciis confer- 

tioribus gracilioribusque alarum rectricumque. 

A very striking modification of form was conspicuous in the fol- 
lowing bird, which, with the bill and plumage of some of the typical 
Wading Birds, exhibited the tridactyle conformation and general 
character of the legs of some of the Charadriadcc. In the former 
particulars it approached to Ibis and Numenius ; in the latter to Hce- 
matopus. A knowledge only, it was observed, of its habits and in- 
ternal construction, at present wanting, could determine with accu- 
racy the exact affinities of the group, which was thus characterized : 

Ibidorhyncha. 

Rostrum gracile, elongatum, deorsum curvatum, Ibidis Numeniique 
rostris simile ; naribus lateralibus, longitudinalibus, membrana per 
totara longitudinem clausis. 

Corpus gracile, Grallatorum typicorum formam exhibens. 
Alee subelongatse, subgradatae j remigibus secundis et tertiis sequa- 
libus longissimis, prima paulo breviori, cseteris gradatim decrescen- 
tibus. 

Pedes mediocres, tridactyli, Hcematopodum pedibus simillimi j digitis 
internis liberis, externis membrana usque ad pollicem primam con- 
nexis, omnibus marginatis ; unguibus obtusis. 
Cauda mediocris, aequalis. 

Ibidorhyncha Struthersii. Ibid, corpore suprcL colloque in fronte 
pallide griseis ; corpore subtus albo ; capitis vertice, facie gut- 
tureque nigris albo variegatis ; torque pectorali subgracili, ad 
nucham extendente latiori, uropygioque extremo atris ; rectricibus 
mediis fusco obscure undulatim fasciatis, prope apicem nigro no- 
tatis, lateralium pogoniis externis albis nigro fasciatis. 
Longitudo 14 unc. 

This bird was named in honour of Dr. Struthers, a zealous natu- 
ralist, who had formed the collection in the Himalayan Mountains, 
out of which the four preceding species were selected. 






175 

In addition to the birds thus kindly placed by Dr. Scouler at the 
disposal of the Society, for exhibition and description, Mr. Vigors 
exhibited a species of Woodpecker belonging to the three-toed section 
of that genus, nearly allied to Picus Tiga, Horsf., but differing in its 
greater size, in more intenseness of the scarlet colour on the back 
and wings, and in being marked by a light gray patch on the throat. 
The species was discovered in the Himalayan Mountains by the Hon. 
Frederick J. Shore of the East India Company's civil service, and 
was kindly forwarded to the Society for exhibition by his brother, the 
Hon. C. J. Shore. The species was named in honour of the disco- 
verer, whose observations made on the spot on many of the Himalayan 
birds will form the most valuable part of the letter-press accom- 
panying the forthcoming work on these birds -, — it was characterized 
as follows : 

Picus Shorii. Pic. supra) aurantio-viridis ; capite cristato, dorso 
iiropygioque coccineis ; subtics albus ; strigd postoculari, altera a 
rictu extendente, nucha, remigibus, rectricibus, notisque squamosis 
pectoris abdominisque atris ; thorace pallide grisescenti-brunneo. 
Longitudo 12 unc. 

A drawing by Mr. Gould of a species in the Liverpool Museum, 
which was obligingly communicated by Dr. Traill for description, was 
exhibited, and the bird was characterized as follows : 

Pastor Traillii. Mas. Past, supra subtusque brunnescenti-coc- 

cineus ; capite, collo, alisque nigris. 
Fcem. supra, brunnea, subtics albescens, strigis brunneis notata ; 

capite, collo remigibusque nigris ; caudd brunnescenti-coccined. 
Longitudo 10^- unc. 

Mr. Vigors observed that this bird appeared to approach nearer to 
Pastor than to any other known group ; but that at the same time it 
exhibited some modifications of that form. As he had however only 
a drawing of thel)ird before him, he refrained from any more detailed 
observations. He expressed his pleasure in having the opportunity 
of inscribing it to an active and scientific naturalist. He begged here 
also to refer to a bird which he had characterized at a preceding 
Meeting (Feb. 8), the description of which had been published in the 
Committee's 'Proceedings' (No. III. p. 35.), the Phasianus Staceii. 
This bird was to be included in the list of those which had been libe- 
rally communicated by other Institutions for the general benefit of 
science, having been forwarded for exhibition to the Committee by 
Philip B. Duncan, Esq. Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, 
where the specimen is deposited ; to whom, and to whose equally 
liberal brother, J. Shute Duncan, Esq., his predecessor in the Mu- 
seum, every lover of zoology is aware how deeply their science is 
indebted. The species commemorates the name of Major Stacey of 
the East India service, who had obtained the bird in the Himalayan 
range, and had presented it, with several other valuable species, to 
the Ashmolean Museum. 

Mr. Vigors, in closing this subject, called the attention of the Com- 
mittee to some errors which had occurred in the lettering of the plates 
on which the foregoing birds had been lithographed. The Picus auri- 



176 

ceps (' Proceedings,' No. IV. p. 44.) was by some accident named Picus 
brunmfrous, which name, as it had appeared on the plate, he wished 
to be retained to the species. The White- crowned Crow of General 
Hardwicke, which had been figured in the ' Century,' was erroneously 
called a Garrulus. It seems rather to belong to the tribe of Denti- 
rostres, and the genus Cinclosoma. Some verbal errors in the lettering 
were also pointed outj all of which, together with the mistakes in 
the names, Mr. Vigors attributed to the hurry in which some of the 
numbers of the work were obliged to be printed off in order to answer 
the demand that was made for them on the day of the monthly pub- 
lication. And he concluded by trusting that the supporters of the 
work, and the lovers of science would overlook these accidental ble- 
mishes in the lettering of the plates in the midst of so many superior 
excellencies. 






INDEX. 



The names of New Species and of Species newly characterized are printed 
in Roman Characters : those of Species previously known, but respecting 
which novel information is given, in Italics : those of Species respecting 
which Anatomical Observations are made, in Capitals. 



Page. 

Agonostomus, n. g. Benn 166 

Telfairii, Benn... 166 

Alauda alpestris, L 35 

Chendoola, Frankl 119 

Gulgula, Frankl 119 

Alcedo Bengalensis, Gmel 116 

, guttatus, Vig 22 

rttdis, L 116 

Alosa Senegalensis, Benn 147 

Amphiprion chrysog aster, Cuv... 165 
fusci venter, Be?in... 166 

Anas arcuata, Cuv 125 

Chiloensis, King 15 

Coromandeliana, Gmel 125 

Crecca, L 125 

Fretensis, King 15 

occidua, 35 

sponsa, L 35 

Terrce Leeuwin, Riche. ... 26 

Anguilla AcuTmosTRis,Yarrl33,159 

LATiRosTRis,Yarr. 133, 159 

Anguilla acutirostris, Yarr 133 

latirostris, Yarr 133 

Mauritiana, Benn 128 

Anser griseus, Vieill 27 

Indicus 125, 173 

inornatus, King 15 

melanotos, Lath 125 

Antilope Bennettii, Sykes 104 

Cervicapra, Pall 104 

Hodgsonii, Abel 52 

picta, Pall 37,105 

Apodontis, n.g. Benn 169 

Apolectus, n.g. Benn 146, 169 

immunis, Benn. ..146, 169 

maculatus? 146, 169 

Aquila Vindhiana, Frankl 114 

Ardea Caboga, Penn 124 

Gardeni 27 

Nycticorax, L. 27 

purpurea, L 123 



Page. 

Ardea speciosa, Horsf. 123 

Torra, Buch. 123 

Ateles frontalis, Benn 38 

Atherina affinis, Benn 166 

Aulacodus, Van Swin d Ill 

Swinderianus, Temm. Ill 
Balistes auromarginatus, Benn. 168 

Lima, Benn 168 

mitis, Benn 169 

Belone platyura, Benn 168 

Bos Bubalus, Briss 105 

Taurus, var. Indicus 105 

Botaurus cinnamomeus 124 

Bracjiypteryx Horsfieldii, Sm... 11 

Bucco caniceps, Frankl 121 

grandis, Gmel 173 

nanus, Vig 93 

Philippinensis, Gmel 121 

Buceros cavatus, Shaw 173 

Gingianus, Lath 120 

Malabaricus, Gmel. ... 120 

Buteo Bacha 114, 171 

holospilus, Vig 96, 171 

Callomys Viscacia, Isid. G. St. Hil. 33 

Camelus Dromedarius, L 104 

Canis aureus, L 101 

Dukhunensis, Sykes 100 

Kokree, Sykes 101 

pallipes, Sykes 101 

Capra Hircus, L 105 

Caprimulgus Asiaticus, Lath.... 116 

macrotis, Vig 97 

monticola, Frankl. 116 

Carbo fuscicollis 125 

Carcharias fissidens, Benn 148 

Carduelis canicep3, Vig 23 

spinoides, Vig 44 

Castor Fiber, L 12, 19 

Cavia Cobaya, L 20 

CaviaPatachonica, Penn 57 

Ceblepyris canus, Temm 117 



178 



IXDEX. 



Page. 
Ceblepyris fimbriates, Temm. . . . 117 

Centenes setosus, Desm 89, 165 

Centropus Philippensis, Cuv. ... 121 

Cephallepis, n. g. Lodd 12 

Cephalopterushypostomus,i?awc7\134 
Cereqpsis Nov^e Hollands, 

Lath 25 

Cereopsis Novce Hollandia, Lath. 26 

Certhia Himalayana, Vig 174 

spilonota, Franlcl 121 

Cervus campestris, F. Cuv 57 

equinus, Cuv 104 

humilis, Benn 27 

Mimtjak, Zimm 104 

nudipalpebra, Ogilb 136 

Cervus Tarandus, L 14 

Chaetodon flavescens, Benn. ... 61 
Lunula, Cuv. & Val... 61 

strigangulus, Sol 61 

vittatus, Schn 61 

Zoster, Benn 61 

Charadrius hiaticulo'ides, Franlcl. 125 
Cheilinos Commersonii, Benn.... 167 

punctatus, Benn 167 

Chelydra serpentina, Schweig. 129 

Chinchilla lanigera 31 

Chloropsisaurifrons, Jard.& Selb. 122 

Chromis Taenia, Benn 112 

Cinclosoma, Horsf. & Vig 55 

capistratum, Vig... 56 
ery throcephalum, V?gl71 
leueolophum....l73, 176 

lineatum, Vig 56 

ocellatum, Vig 55 

vaviegatum, Vig. . . . 56 

Cinclus Pallasii, Temm 54, 173 

unicolor, Bonap 54 

Cinnyris Gouldiae, Vig 44 

Orien talis, Franlcl 122 

Circus cyaneus 115 

melanoleucus 115 

rnfus, Briss 115 

Teesa, Franlcl 115 

Clupea alba, Yarr 13 

Alosa, L 34 

delicatula, Benn 168 

fallax, Lacep 34 

Harengus, L 34 

Leachii, Yarr 34 

Coccothraustes icterio'ides, Vig.. 8 

Collurio, n. g. Vig 42 

ery thronotus, Vig. ... 42, 1 1 7 

Excubitor, Vig 117 

Hardwickii, Vig... % 42,117 
meridionalis, Vig 96 



Page. 

Collurio nigriceps, Franlcl 117 

tephronotus, Vig 43 

Columba Cambayensis, Gmel.... 122 

Fitzroyii, King 15 

humilis, Temm 122 

leuconota, Vig 23 

risoria, L 122 

tigrina, Temm 122 

Conger flavipinnatus, Benn. ... 168 

Savanna, Cuv. t 135 

vulgaris 159 

Conger vulgaris 158 

Coracias Bengalensis, L 120 

Corvus Corone, L 120 

Corythaix porphyreolopha, Vig. 93 

Coturnix Coromandelica 123 

dactylisonans, Meyer.. 123 

Falklandica, Vig 3 

Crax Yarrellii, Benn 33 

Crenilabrus anthioides, Benn.... 167 

Crocodilus acutus, Cuv.... 139, 169 

Ctenodactylus Massonii, Gray 48 

Ctenodactylus Massonii, Gray... 48 

Cuculus canorus, L 121 

fugax, Horsf. 121 

Himalayanus, Vig 172 

Sonneratii, Lath.? 121 

sparverioides, Vig 173 

Cursorius Asiaticus, Lath 124 

Cygnus anatoides, King 15 

Cyprinus Mamitianus, Benn.... 167 

Cypselus affinis, Hardw 116 

Palmarum, Hardw. ... 116 

Dacelo Lessonii, Vig 97 

Lindsay i, Vig 97 

Dascyllus unicolor, Benn 127 

Dasyprocta Acuschy, 111 75 

Dasyprocta Acuschy, 111 6 

Dasypus Peba, Desm 141 

sexcinctus, L 154 

6-cinctus, L 48, 142 

Dendrocolaptes albo-gularis, King 30 

Dentex lycogenys, Benn 127 

D!acope Angulus, Benn 127 

Dipus maximus, Blainv 33 

Echeneis lunata, Bancr 134 

Echinorhynchus tereiicollis, Rud. 132 

Edolius ccerulescens 117 

Elanus melanopterus, Leach 115 

Eleotris Mauritianus, Benn 166 

Emberiza Baghaira, Lath 119 

Bengalensis 119 

cristata, Vig 35, 119 

Gingica, Gmel 119 

Emys Caspica, Schweig 107 






INDEX. 



179 



Page. 
Emys concentrica, Leconte.... 74 
Engraulis Neso-gallicus, Benn. 168 

Enicurus niaculatus, Vig 9 

Scouleri, Vig 174 

E quits A sinus, L 104 

Caballus, L 104 

Erinaceus Capensis, Sm 11 

Eudynamys Orientalis 122 

Sirkee 122 

Exocoetus pinnatibarbatus,Zterarc. 146 

Falco Bacha, Lath 170 

Chicquera, Daud 114, 173 

Subbuteo 114 

Tinnunculus, Daud 114 

tinnunculo'ides 96 

Felis Chaus, Giild 102 

concolor, Linn 158 

jubata, Schreb 102 

Leopardus 102 

Pardus 102 

Tigris, L 102 

torquata, F. Cuv 102 

venatica, Sm 102 

Felis Leo, L 28 

FrancolinusPonticerianus,Temm. 122 

vulgaris, Steph 123 

,Fringilla Amandava, L 119 

domestica, Linn 96 

flavicollis, Frankl 120 

formosa, Lath 120 

Malabaria 120 

rodochvoa, Vig 23 

rodopepla, Vig 23 

Garrulus bispecularis, Vig 7 

lanceolatus, Vig 7 

striatus, Vig 7 

Gobius coalitus, Benn 166 

Graucalus Papuensis, Cuv 117 

Grus Orientalis, Briss 123 

Gulo Barbaras, L 74 

larvatus, Ham., Sm 95 

orientalis, Horsf. 57, 94 

Haematornis, n, g. Vig 170 

Bacha, Vig 171 

holospilus, Vig. ... 171 

undulatus, Vig 171 

Halcyon Smyrnensis 116 

Heliases axillaris, Benn 128 

Helictis, n. g. Gray 94 

moschata, Gray 94 

Hemipodius Dussumieri, Temm. 123 
Heniochus monoceros, Cuv. & Val. 61 

Herpestes griseu-s, Desm.. 101 

Pharaonis, Desm. ... 145 
Hierax erythrogenys, Vig 96 



Page. 

Himantopus melanopterus 125 

Hirundo filicaudata, Lath 115 

Klecho, Horsf. 115 

riparia, L 116 

Hycena vulgaris, Cuv 102 

Hylactes, n. g. King 15 

Tarnii, King 15 

Hylurgus piniperda, Latr 126 

Hypsipetes, n. g. Vig 43 

psaroides, Vig 43 

Hypsiprymnus setosus, Ogilby... 149 

Hystrix leucurus, Sykes 103 

Ibidorhyncha, n. g. Vig 174 

Struthersii, Vig... 174 

lor a scapularis, Horsf. 118 

Irena cyanogastra, Vig 97 

Ixos Cafer 118 

fulicatus 118 

jocosus 118 

Julis Aygula, Lacep 128 

bicatenatus, Benn 167 

Cuvieri, Benn 128 

Ruppelii, Benn 128 

scapularis, Benn 167 

Labrus axillaris, Benn 166 

leucosticticus, Benn. ... 166 

maculatus, Bl 17, 34 

Lagostomus trichodactylus, Brookes33 

Lampromorpha amethystina, Vig. 98 

chalcopepla, Vig. 92 

Lamprotornis spilopterus, Vig... 35 

Lanius 42 

erythropterus, Vig 22 

Excubitor, L 117 

meridionalis, Temm. ... 96 

muscicapoides, Frankl. 117 

Larus capistratus, Temm 151 

Lemur Macaco, L 58 

Lemur Potto, Gmel 109 

Leptosomus Afer 121 

Lepus nigricollis, F. Cuv 103 

Lestris Pomarhinus, Temm 151 

Jaophophorus Impeyanus, Cuv... 173 

Lutra Nair, F. Cuv 100 

Macacus radiatus, Geoff. 99 

Macropus major, Shaw 159 

Macroscelides rupestris, Sm. ... 11 

Manis pentadaclylus, L 104 

Megaderma Lyra, Geoff. 113 

Merops Philippinus, L 115 

viridis, L , 115 

Micropterus Patachonicus, King 15 

Mirafra Javanica, Horsf. 119 

phcenicura, Frankl. ... 119 

Monacanthus setifer, Benn 112 



ISO 



INDKX, 



Page. 

Monitor 137 

Moschus Meminna, Erxl 104 

Motacilla^rtwff, L 119 

picata, Frankl 119 

Murrena fimbriata, Benn 168 

Mus Barbaras, L 145 

decumanus, Pall 103 

giganteus, Hardw 103 

Gundi, llothm 48 

Musculm, L 103 

Sumatrensis, Teram 95 

Mus Rattus, L 20 

Muscicapa Banyumas, Horsf.... 116 

melanops, Vig 171 

nitida, Lath 116 

occipitalis,^? 97 

Muscipeta brevirostris, Vig* 43 

Paradisi 116 

peregrina 116, 173 

Princeps, Vig 22 

Mustela Galera, L 57 

Mycteria aus traits 123 

Myophonus Horsfieldii, Vig. ... 35 

Temminckii, Vig... 171 

Myrmecophaga jubata, Linn.... 149 

Noctua cuculo'ides, Vig. ...: 8 

Indica, Frankl 115 

Nomeus maculosus, Benn 146 

Nucifraga hemispila, Vig 8 

Nycticejus Heathii, Horsf. 113 

Nycticorax Europceus 124 

Manillensis, Vig 98 

Nyctinornus plicatus, Geoff. 99 

tenuis, Horsf. 99 

Ocypterus leucorkynchus 117 

Ocythoe antiquorum 107 

Cranchii 107 

Oriolus acrorhynchus, Vig 97 

Galbula, L 117 

Maderaspatanus, Frankl. 118 

melanocephalus, L 117 

Ornithorhy nchus brevirostris, Ogil- 

by 150 

Ortyx 2 

affinis, Vig 3 

neoxenus, Vig 3 

Osphromenus Goramy, Comm... 89 

Otis Afrao'ides, Sm 11 

ferox, Sm 11 

Himalayanus, Vig. 23 

Indica, Lath 123 

Kori, Burch 50 

nigriceps, Vig 35 

Vigorsii, Sm 11 

Otus Bengalensis, Frankl.. ..115, 173 



Page. 

Ourax Mitu, Cuv 59 

Ovis Aries, L 105 

Paguma, n. g. Gray 95 

larvata, Gray 95 

Palseornis Bengalensis, Wg 120 

fiavicollaris, Frankl... 120 

torquatus, Vig 120 

Paradox urus Typus, F. Cuv. ... 102 

Parra Indica, Lath 124 

phcenicura 124 

Siner H sis, Gmel 124, 173 

Parus atriceps, Horsf. 119 

erythrocephalus, Vig. ... 22 

melanolophus, Vig 23 

monticola, Vig 22 

xanthogenys, Vig 23 

Pastor Contra, v. Capensis, 

Temm 120 

griseus, Horsf. 120 

Pagodarum, Temm 120 

roseus, Temm 120 

Traillii, Vig 175 

tristis, Temm 120 

Pavo cristatus, L 122 

Perdix Cambayensis, Temm. ... 123 

Chucar, Hardw. & Gray 173 

Falklandica, Lath 3 

Hardwickii, Gray 123 

picta, Jard. & Selb 123 

Perodicticus, n. g. Benn 109 

Geoffroyi, Benn.... 109 

Petrocincla cinclorhyncha, Vig.. 172 

Petromyzon fluviatilis, L 133 

marinus, L 134 

Petromyzon fluviatilis, L 133 

marinus, L 134 

Phalacrocorax erythrops, King.. 30 

imperialis, King.. 30 
Sarmientonus,iTm<7.30 

Phalangista Cookii, Cuv 136 

fuliginosa, Ogilb.... 135 

xanthopus, Ogilb... 135 

Phasianus albo-cristatus, Vig.... 9 

lineatus, Lath 24 

Pucrasia, Hardw. & 

Gray 173 

Reevesii, Hard\v.&Gray77 

Staceii, Vig 35 

veneratus, Temm. ... 77 

Phoca vitcjlina, Linn 151 

Phcenicura atrata, Jard. & Selb. 119 

cceruleocephala, Vig. 35 

frontalis, Vig 172 

fuliginosa, Vig 35 

leucocephala, Vig.... 35 






INDEX. 



'181 



Page. 
Phcenicura rubeculoides, Vig. ... 35 

Pica cyanea 96 

erythrorhyncha, Wagl 173 

Sinensis, Hardw. & Gray... 173 

vagabunda, Wagl 120,173 

Picus Bengalensis, L 121 

brunnifrons, Vig 176 

hyperythrus, Vig 23 

Mahrattensis, Lath.... 121, 173 

melanocephalus, King 14 

modestus, Vig 98 

nanus, Vig 172 

occipitalis, Vig 8 

pygmseus, Vig 44 

Shorii, Vig 175 

spilolophus, Vig 98 

squamatus, Vig 8 

Pitta brachyura 117, 173 

Platalea Telfairii, Vig 41 

Platycercus eximius, Vig 36 

Platycercus unicolor, Vig 24 

Platysternon, n. g. Gray 106 

megacephalum, 

Gray 107 

Ploceus chrysogaster, Vig 92 

gutturalis, Vig 92 

Philippinus, Cuv 120 

spilonotus, Vig 92 

Plotus melanog aster, Lath 125 

Plyctolophus Leadbeateri, Vig... 61 

Podiceps minor, Lath 125 

Polyborus? hypoleucus, Benn. 13,169 

Polynemus Artedii, Benn 146 

Pomatorhinus ery throgenys, Vig. 1 73 

Porphyrio hyacinthinus 124 

Prinia cursitans, Frankl 118 

gracilis, Frankl 119 

macroura, Frankl 118 

Psettodes, n. g. Benn 147 

Belcheri, Benn 147 

Erumei? 147 

Psittacara leptorhyncha, King... 14 

PsiTTACULA GALGULA, Kuhl 36 

Psittacula rubifrons, Vig 97 

PsiTTACUS MITRATUS, Kuhl 36 

Pterocles exustus, Temm 122 

Pterois Russelii, Benn 128 

Pteromys Volucella, Cuv 38 

Pteropus medius, Temm 99 

Pyrrhula albifrons, Vig 92 

erythrocephala, Vig.... 174 

Raia bispecularis, Benn 148 

Rallus niger, Gmel 124 

Jlana Rubeta, L 61 

Jtatelus, n. sp. ? 57 



Page. 

Rhinolophus Dukhunensis, Sykes 99 

Rhipidura albofrontata, Frankl. 116 

fuscoventris, Frankl. 117 

nigritorquis, Vig 97 

Rhizomys, n. g. Gray 95 

Sinensis, Gray 95 

Sumatrensis, Gray.., 95 
Rhombus heterophthalmus, Benn.Wl 

parvimanus, Benn 168 

Rhynchaea Capensis, Sav 62 

Qrientalis, Horsf..... 124 

picta, Gray 62 

Ryzjena tetradactyla, 111.. ..39, 51 

Ryzcena tetradactyla, 111 27 

Saxicola cachinnans,Temm 96 

rubicola, Temm 119 

stapazina, Temm. 96 

Scicena Aquila, Cuv 112 

Sciurus Elphinstonii, Sykes... ... 103 

Palmarum, Briss 103 

Scolopsides phseops, Benn 165 

Scyllium marmoratum, Benn. ... 148 

Semnopithecus Entellus, F. Cuv. 99 

? albogularis, Sykes 105 

Serranus argyro-grammicus, Cuv. 169 

Delissii, Benn 126 

mitis, Benn 127 

Telfairii, Benn 127, 169 

Simia Satyrus, L 4,9,28,67 

Troglodytes, L....5, 9, 28,68 

Sitta castaneoventris, Frankl 121 

Solea hexophthalma, Benn 147 

impar, Benn. 147 

Sorex giganteus 100 

Indicus, Geoff. 99 

Sterna melanogastra, Temm. ... 125 

Strix personata, Vig 60 

Sturnus unicolor, Marm 96 

Sula Bassana.... ».. 90 

Sus Scrofa, L 104 

Sylvia conspicillata, Marm 96 

Hippolais, Lath 118 

Tithys, Scop 18 

Synallaxis anthoi'des, King 30 

Tachypetes Aquilus, Vieill.... 62 

Tantalus papillosus 1 24 

Tapir Americanus, Gmel 161 

Tapir Americanus, Gmel 94 

Testudo Gr-eca, L 63, 74 

Indica, L 46 

Tetrao hybridus, Gmel 73 

rupestris, Penn 74 

Tetrix 73 

Tetrodon guttifer, Benn 148 

Thalassidroma pelagica, Vig.... 151 



182 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Timalia Chataraea, Frankl. 118 

hyperythra, Frankl. ... 118 

hypoleuca, Frankl 118 

pileata, Horsf.... 118 

Totanus glottoides, Vig 173 

Tragopan Hastingsii, Vig 8 

Satyrus, Cuv 122,173 

Tringa Glareola, L 124 

hypoleuca, L 124 

ochropus, L 124 

pusilla, L 124 

Trocliilus Fernauderois, King... 30 

Loddigesii, Gould 12 

Stokesii, King 30 

Turdus erythrogaster, Vig 171 

guttatus, Vig 92 

macrourus, Gmel 118 

Magellanicus, King 14 

pcecilopterus, Vig 54 

Saularis, L..,.. 118 



. Page. 

Upeneus bitaeniatus, Benn 59 

immaculatus, Benn. ... 59 
Mauritianus, Benn. ... 59 
pleurostigma, Benn. ... 59 

Upupa minor, Shaw 121 

Urcxjallus medius 73 

Ursus labiafus, Blainv 100 

Ursus Thibetanus, F. Cuv 76 

Vanellus bilobus 124 

Goensis 124, 173 

ventralis 124 

Vinago militaris, Cuv 122, 173 

sphenura, Vig 173 

Viverra Indica, Geoff. 101 

Vultur Angolensis, Lath. 13, 67, 169 

auricularis, Daud 66 

Ponticerianus, Daud 67 

Yunx pectoralis, Vig 93 

Zoothera, n. g. Vig 172 

monticola, Vig 172 



. 



Printed by Richard Taylor, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE 



OF 



SCIENCE AND CORRESPONDENCE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON. 



PART II. 

1832. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
BY RICHARD TAYLOR, 

RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



Ok' 



ft 



. d 






LIST 



OF 



CONTRIBUTORS. 

With References to the several Articles contributed by each. 



Blnnett, E. T. Esq. page 

Characters of a New Species of Otter (Lutra, Erxl.), and 
of a New Species of Mouse (Mus, L.), collected in Chili by 
Mr. Cuming 1 

Characters of some New Species of Fishes, collected by 
Mr. Cuming 4 

Characters of a New Genus of Lemuridce, presented by 
Mr. Telfair 20 

Characters of a New Genus of Rodent Mammalia, from 
Chili, presented by Mr. Cuming 46 

Characters of two New Species of the Genus Mus, L., 
collected by Colonel Sykes in Dukhun 121 

On several Skins of Mammalia from Algoa Bay 122 

Characters of two New Species of Hedgehog (Erinaceus, 
L.) from the Himalaya Mountains 123 

Characters of several New Species of Fishes, from Ceylon, 
presented by Dr. Sibbald 182 

Characters of two New Species of Fishes, from the Mau- 
ritius, presented by Mr. Telfair 184 

Characters of a New Species of Hedgehog (Erinaceus, L.) 
from South Africa, collected by Mr. Steedman 193 

Broderip, W. J. Esq. 

Characters of New Species of Mollusca and Conchifera, 
collected by Mr. Cuming 25, 50, 104, 124, 173, 194 

Children, J. G. Esq. 

On Specimens of the Phytotoma Bloxhami, Childr., col- 
lected by Mr. Cuming in Chili 3 

Cox, J. C. Esq. 

On Atmospheric Causes as influencing the Health of Ex- 
otic Animals kept in confinement in England 33 



IV 

Cuming, H. Esq. page 

Characters of New Species of Mammalia, Birds, and Fishes, 
collected by 1 

Characters of New Species of Stomapodous Crustacea, col- 
lected by 5 

Characters of New Species of Mollusca and Conchifera, 
collected by 25,50, 104, 113, 124, 173, 194 

Characters of a New Genus of Rodent Mammalia, pre- 
sented by 46 

Characters of New Species ofCyprcea, chiefly collected by 184 

Daniell, W. Esq. R.A. 

Exhibition of numerous Drawings of Antelopes, &c. made 
by his Brother 24 

Desjardins, Julien. 

Abstract of the Proceedings of the " Societe d'Histoire 
Naturelle de l'lle Maurice, pendant la 2de Annee." Ill 

Fuller, Devereux. 

Report on certain Experiments on the Feeding of Carnivo- 
rous Mammalia 49 

Report on the period of Gestation of the Puma (Felis con- 
color, L.) 62 

Gould, Mr. John. 

On a New Species of Wagtail (Motacilla, L.) 1 29 

On a New Species of Woodpecker (Picus, L.) 139 

On a Collection of Birds from the Orkneys 189 

Gray, J. E. Esq. 

Characters of a New Genus of Mammalia, and of a New 
Genus and two New Species of Lizards, from New Holland 39 

On the Specific Distinction of Mus giganteus, Hardw., 
and Mus setifer, Horsf. 40 

On the Animal of the Genus Antipathes 41 

On the Family of Viverridce and its generic Subdivisions ; 
with an enumeration of the Species of Paradoxurus, and 
Characters of several new ones 63 

Characters of several New Species of Cyprcea, chiefly col- 
lected by Mr. Cuming 184 

Hall, Marshall, M.D. 

On a particular Function of the Nervous System 190 

Hodgson, B. H. Esq. 

Characters and Descriptions of New Species of Mammalia 
and Birds from Nepaul 10 

Horsfield, T., M.D. 

On the Specific Distinction of Viverra Rasse, Horsf., and 
Viverra Indica, Geoffr 22 






Jenyns, Rev. L. page 

On a Species of Crested Wren (Regulus) new to England 139 
On the Occurrence in England of the Sorex remifer, 
Geoffr 139 

Loddiges, George, Esq. 

Characters of four New Species of Humming-birds (Tro- 
chilus, L.) from Popayan, in the collection of Mr. Gould . . 6 

Lowe, Rev. R. T. 

List of a Collection of Fishes formed on the Coast of Ma- 
deira, and presented to the Society 139 

Mackenzie, Sir F. 

On the Breeding of Woodcocks (Scolopax rusticola, L.) in 
Scotland 133 

Martin, Mr. William. 

On the Anatomy of the Jaguar (Felts Onca, L.) 7 

Maule, Hon. Lauderdale. 

On the Habits and Economy of the Ornithorhynchus .... 145 

Owen, R. Esq. 

Characters of some New Species of Stomapodous Crusta- 
cea, collected by Mr. Cuming 5 

On the Habits of the Birgus Latro, Leach 17 

On the Morbid Appearances of a Mandrill (Cynocephalus 

Maimon) 17 

On the Anatomy of the Cercopithecus albogularis, Sykes 18 

On a Malformation of the Beak of Psittacus Erithacus, L. 23 

On the Anatomy of the Animal of Stilifer Astericola. ... 61 

On the Anatomy of Capromys Fournieri, Desm 68 

On the Peculiarities of the Skeleton of Capromys Fournieri, 

Desm. and Dasyprocta Acouchy, F- Cuv 100 

On the Anatomy of two Species of Armadillo (Dasypus, L.) 1 30 
On the Osteology of the Weasel-headed Armadillo (Da- 

sypus 6-cinctus, L.) 134 

On the Anatomy of the Flamingo (Phcenicopterus ruber, L.) 141 

On the Mammary Gland of Echidna Hystrix, Cuv 179 

On the Teeth of the Capybara (Hydrochcerns Capybara, 

Erxl.) 187 

On the Anatomy of the Cape Hyrax {Hyrax Capensis f 

Schreb.) 202 

Palmedo, A. P. Esq. 

Note on the Breeding together of the Moufflon and Domes- 
tic Sheep 9 

Sibbald, Dr. 

Characters of New Species of Fishes, from Ceylon, pre- 
sented by 185 



VI 

Smith, Andrew, M.D. page 

Notice of a Collection of Birds, Land-Shells, and Corals, 
presented by 1 

Smith, W. Esq. 

Notice of the Capture of an Arctic Fox (Canis Lagopus, L.) 
on an Ice-berg 1 89 

Strickland, Arthur, Esq. 

On a Species of Puffin (Puffinus, Ray) new to Great Bri- 
tain 128 

Sowerby, G. B. Esq. 

Characters of New Species of Mollusca and Conchifera, 
collected by Mr. Cuming 25, 50, 104, 113, 173, 104 

Spooner, Mr. 

Notes of the post-mortem Examination of a Dromedary 
(Camelus Dromedarius, Linn.) 126 

Swinton, G. Esq. 

Notice of a lineated Pheasant (Phasianus lineatus, Lath.) 
presented by 193 

Sykes, Lieut.-Col. W. H. 

Catalogue of Birds observed in the Dukhun 77, 149 

Characters of two New Species of the Genus Mus, L. col- 
lected by 121 

Telfair, C. Esq. 

Characters of a New Genus of Lemur idee, presented by . 20 
Characters of New Species of Fishes, presented by 184 

Tripp, H. Esq. 

On the Provision made by a Male Hawk, after the De- 
struction of its Female, for the Nourishment of their Young 62 

Vigors, N. A. Esq. 

Characters of several New Species of Birds, collected by 
Mr. Cuming in Chili and Mexico * 3 

Weatiierhead, Dr. 

On the Habits and Economy of the Ornithorhynchus .... 145 

Woods, H. Esq. 

On the Claw of the Tip of the Tail of the Lion (Felis Leo, L.) 146 

Yarrell, W. Esq. 

On a hybrid bred by the Society between a Muscovy Drake 
{Anas moschata,) and a Common Duck (Anas Boschas) .... 100 

On two Species of Mammalia new to Britain ; one of 
them also new to Science 109 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE of SCIENCE and CORRESPONDENCE 

OF THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



January 10, 1832. 

Joshua Brookes, Esq., in the Chair. 

Specimens were exhibited of several Birds, Land-Shells, and 
Corals, together with the cranium of a Balcenoptera, LaC£p., all 
collected at the Cape of Good Hope by Dr. Andrew Smith, Corr. 
Memb. Z. 3., and presented by him to the Society. In illustration 
of the subjects exhibited, extracts were read from a letter from Dr. 
Smith which accompanied his present. The Balcenoptera was there 
referred to as Bui. Capensis : it is apparently the Rorqual du Cap 
of M. Cuvier in his « Ossemens Fossiles,' which has since been 
named by M. Desmoulins Bal. Poeskop, and by M. Fischer Bal. 
Lalandii. 

Specimens were also exhibited of several Mammalia, Birds, and 
Fishes, collected by Mr. H. Cuming chiefly in Chili. 

Among the Mammalia, Mr. Bennett pointed out as apparently 
new to science an Otter and a Mouse, which may be characterized 
as follows : 

Lutra Chilensis. Lut. supra saturate vinaceo-brunnea, infrh 
pallidior ; caudd brunneo-nigricante, corporis dimidio parum 
breviore. 
Hab. in aquis Chiliae. 

The fur is composed of hairs of two kinds : the inner woolly and 
thickly furnished ; the outer silky, also thickly set, and completely 
concealing the inner. The colour of the fur of the upper surface 
is glossy brown on the head, (where the hairs are comparatively 
short,) and increasing in depth as it proceeds backwards becomes 
blackish on the rump, and still more decidedly so on the tail. The 
lower surface of this member, for the extreme three-fourths of its 
length, is of the same colour with the upper ; near the vent it be- 
comes paler and assumes a reddish hue ; and this colour is conti- 
nued, with a slight canescent tint, along the whole of the under 
[No. XV.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



2 

surface, scarcely becoming lighter on the throat and lower jaw. 
The margin of the upper lip, the cheeks, and a patch under each 
ear, are of the same colour with the under surface. Of the mou- 
staches, which are short, some of the hairs are yellowish, while the 
greater number are blueish black. The legs are of the colour of 
the upper surface of the body, which becomes deeper on the feet. 
The whole of the silky hairs exhibit that varying somewhat metallic 
gloss which is common to most aquatic Mammalia. 

The naked muzzle is of moderate size. The claws are short, 
those of the hinder toes being somewhat flattened, while the ante- 
rior claws are compressed but not acute. " The eyes," Mr. Cu- 
ming states, u are small, their colour dark-blue." , 

" The total length is 2 feet 4 inches ; from the nose to the root 
of the tail, 1 foot 7 inches; girth at the belly, 9J inches." 

Its habits, according to Mr. Cuming's observations, agree with 
those of the European Otter; and it is equally capable of domesti- 
cation. 

Mus longicaudatus. Mus caudd longissimd: supra pallide 
Julvus nigrescente varius ; infra' et ad pedes albescens. 

Hab. in arbores Chiliae, nidum e foliis graminum construens. 

The most striking peculiarity of this Mouse is the extreme length 
of its tail, which approaches nearly to double that of the body ; 
the length of the head and body, taken in a straight line, being 3 
inches, while that of the tail is 5{. 

The fur is soft, smooth, and well furnished. The hairs are deep 
ashy grey at their base : those of the upper surface are fawn-co- 
loured or pale rufous towards their points, the extreme tip being 
frequently black ; those of the under surface are tipped with white 
slightly tinged with fawn. 

The face is covered with short hairs of mingled fawn and black : 
the lips are nearly white : the moustaches extremely long, black at 
their base and silvery at the tip. The ears are rounded and of 
moderate size : their lobe is well covered on the inside with short 
hairs of the colour of those of the face, and on the outside is spa- 
ringly furnished with very short whitish hairs which are scarcely 
discernible on the blackish skin. The colour of the back is mixed 
fawn and black; the black disappears on the sides, which are almost 
purely fawn-coloured, as are also the front of the fore-legs and the 
outside of the hinder legs. The tail is scaly, and furnished with 
numerous very short bristly hairs, which are brownish above and 
nearly white beneath. The hairs of the upper surface of the tarsi 
are short, and of a very pale fawn approaching to white ; those of 
the toes still more white ; and the lengthened bristles covering the 
claws almost silvery. 

The length of the head is 1 inch and 2 lines ; of the ears, 5 lines; 
breadth of the ears, 5 lines ; length of the anterior limbs, 9 lines $ 
of the posterior limbs, 1 inch and 6 lines ; of the anterior tarsus and 
toes, 5 lines ; of the posterior tarsus and toes, 1 inch and 2 lines ; 
and of the tnoustaches, 1 inch and 6 lines. 



Among the Birds were two specimens of the Phytotoma Bloxhami, 
Child., which having been submitted to Mr. Children, that gentle- 
man reported that one of the specimens was apparently a female 
or a young male of the species. It differed from the adult male in 
being devoid of the ferruginous colour on the crown ; and in the 
total absence of the same colour on the breast and abdomen, which 
were of a dirty yellowish white streaked with fuscous. The co- 
lours of the upper part of the body were also less deep than in the 
adult male. Mr. Children stated that the male specimen accorded 
accurately with that which he originally described in Jardine and 
Selby's ' Illustrations of Ornithology.' He added, that more re- 
cently, in 1830, both sexes of the bird had been described and 
figured in the ' Memoires presentes a l'Academie Impe>iale des 
Sciences de St. Petersbourg,' by M. Kittlitz, who, not being aware 
that it had been previously published, had given to it the name of 
Phyt. silens. As M. Kittlitz's description was subsequent to that 
of Mr. Children, so also was his discovery to that of Mr. Bloxham, 
whose name is commemorated by Mr. Children in that of the bird, 
which was shot by him at Valparaiso certainly not later than De- 
cember 1825, while M. Kittlitz did not observe the species in 
Chili until March or April 1827. Mr. Children added, that the 
" two serrated tomice or ridges" in the margin of the upper mandible, 
mentioned by him in his description of Phyt. Bloxhami, are very 
distinct in both the specimens submitted to his inspection. 

The following species from the same locality were apparently 
new to science, and were characterized by Mr. Vigors as follows: 
Capito aurifrons. Cap. occipite, genis, collo superiori, nuchd, 
dorsoque atris albido-Jlavo striatis ; abdomine albido-Jlavo, atro- 
Jusco striato ; jugulo tectricibusque alarum aurantiacis, illius 
plumis subgraciliter, hujus latius in medio nigro striatis ; Jronte 
verticeque aureis, hoc subfuscescenti ; remigibus rectricibusque 
Juscis. 
Longitudo 7-f- unc. 
Xanthornus chrysocarpus. Mas. Xanth. ater, plumis obscure 

Jerrugineo marginatis ; regione carpali-aureo-Jlavd. 
Fcem. colore superno minus saturato, dor so imo subcinerascenti ; 
corpore infra albo maculatim notato ; strigd utrinque a rictu per 
oculos ad nucham extendente lata, alterdque in medio verticis 
gracili albis ; regione carpali Jlavescenti. 
Longitudo maris 8 unc. fcem. 74- 

Aglaia Chilensis. Agl. sericeo-aier ; capite genisque Jlavo- 
viridibus, colore genarum in latera colli angulariter extendente ; 
pectore abdomineque beryllinis ; dorso medio imoque Jlammeo- 
coccineis. 
Statura Tanagrce Tatao, Linn. 

This bird differs from the well known Paradise Tanager only in 
the uniform flame-colour of the middle and lower parts of the back, 
and in the light green feathers of the cheeks extending more angu- 
larly into the black on each side than in the common species. The 



great distance that separated these Chilian birds from those of 
Guiana and Cayenne in some measure authorized the specific sepa- 
ration here suggested. There were two specimens in Mr. Cuming's 
collection according with the above description ; and Mr. Vigors 
stated that he had seen others of the same locality equally answer- 
ing to it ; while he had observed no specimen from the eastern coast 
which did not correspond with the Paradise Tanager, as figured by 
Edwards, Buffon, and Desmarest. 

Picus auRocapillus. Pic. suprh' ater, albo Jasciatus macula- 

t usque ; strigd lata super oculos adhumeros extendente, alter aque 

suboculari interrupt d 9 guldque albis ; pectore abdomineque sor- 

dide albescentibus, strigis parcis Jiiscis notatis ; capite atro, 

fronte aureo strigatim notato, vertice aureo. 

Longitudo, 6^ unc. 

The two following apparently new species were also in Mr. 
Cuming's collection, but they had been obtained by him from 
Mexico. 

Coccothraustes chrysopeplus. Mas. Cocc. corpore aureo, 
dorso medio nigro notato ; alis rectricibusque nigris, illis albo 
variegatis ad carpumque aureo notatis, horum, quatuor mediis 
exceptis, pogoniis intemis ad apices albis. 

Fcem. aut Mas jun. capite, collo, corporeque infrh pallide aureis, 
illis Jusco striatis ; dorso olivascentijlavo, Jusco notato ; alis cau- 
ddque olivaceo-brunneis, illis albo parce maculatis. 

Longitudo, 9l unc. 

The white markings on the wings of the male consist of five 
large spots extending in a line over ihe coverts and tertiary quill 
feathers ; a narrow margin on the edge of the second to the fifth 
primary quill feather inclusive; and a spot on the outward webs of 
the tertiaries at the apex. The marks on the bird supposed to be 
the female or young male are small and few in number at the apices 
of the wing coverts. 

Ortyx spilogaster. Ort. capite guttureque atris, illo strigis, hoc 
maculis, albis notatis ; collo, pectore, nucha, dorso, alis, cauddque 
pallide plumbeo-cinereis ; capitis crista elongatd recumbente, 
strigis colli superioris, scapularihus , abdominisque lateribus Jer- 
rugineis, his albo strigatis ; pectore abdomineque medio albo ocu- 
latim guttatis ; abdomine inio crissoque albescentibus, illo obscure 
Jusco Jasciato, hoc intensius brunneo notato. 
Longitudo, 12 unc. 

As the most interesting of the Fishes exhibited, Mr. Bennett 
pointed out a new species of Scombresox, LaCep., which differs by 
its less ample mouth, the number and direction of its teeth, and the 
smaller extent of the bony plate behind those of the upper jaw from 
the Cyclopterus Dentex, Pall. This he distinguished as the 

Scombresox lemuridens. Scomb. ore capitis dimidium latitu- 
dine cequante ; labiis crassis, inferiore utrinque late lobato ; den- 



tibus incisoribus maxillce superioris verticalibus, inferioris hori- 
zontalibus, pone Mas osse scabro utrinque parvo. 
D. 8. A. 5. C. 8. P. 25. 
Hab. in Oceano Pacifico, Chiliam alluente. 
In maxilla superiore dentes incisores approximate, elongati, sub- 
sequales, (externis longitudine parum decrescentibus,) utrinque 
tres ; dein laniarius parvus discretus, quern sequitur alter minimus 
dimotus : in maxilla inferiore dentes incisores utrinque tres, quo- 
rum primus major, secundus minor, tertius minimus, omnes ap- 
proximati j dein laniarius parvus discretus, et ab hoc dimoti et inter 
se discreti laniarii minimi tres. 

An Agriopus, Cuv. and Val., from the same locality with the pre- 
ceding fish, was shown to agree generally with the description pub- 
lished by MM. Cuvier and Valenciennes of their Agr. Peruvianus ; 
but a deviation occurred in the number of the fin-rays, those of the 
spinous portion of the dorsal fin being one less in number, while of 
the soft rays of the anal there were three more than in the species 
referred to ; the rays in the specimen exhibited being D. -H-. A. x v« 
It appears therefore probable that the seas of the western coast of 
South America, like those of the Cape of Good Hope, are inhabited 
by two species of Agriopus; but it was not deemed advisable to 
characterize a second until an opportunity should occur for a satis- 
factory comparison of specimens. 

Various specimens of Syngnathi, obtained by Mr. Cuming in the 
Atlantic Ocean, were regarded by Mr. Bennett, notwithstanding 
some important differences in their proportions, as belonging to one 
species, which he described as new to science, although nearly 
allied to Syng. Acus, Linn. It may be thus characterized : 

Syngnathus fucicola. Syng. pinnis pectoralibus , dorsali, anali, 
caudalique prceditus :'. rostro cylindrico, producto : scutis dorsa- 
libus quatuordecim, prceanalibus sedecim, caudalibus viginti sex : 
corpore heptagono cauddque tetragond transversim pinndque dor- 
sali oblique nigrescenti Jasciatis. D. 28. 
Faem. rostro truncoque brevioribus ; hoc latiore ; ventre (ovis ex- 

clusis) baud carinato ; caudd longiore. 
A Syng. Acu differt occipite minus elevato ; fronte subaequaliter 
declivi, orbitis parum elevatis $ et prsesertim scutis longe pauci- 
oribus. 

Specimens were exhibited of several Stomapodous Crustacea, also 
from the collection of Mr. Cuming, a collection extremely rich in 
Crustacea, Mollusca, and other invertebrate animals inhabiting the 
sea. A considerable portion of it was formed during a voyage in 
the Southern Pacific Ocean undertaken by Mr. Cuming in a vessel 
freighted by him for the express purpose of obtaining objects of 
natural history. Among those now exhibited Mr. Owen pointed 
out two new species, one of which belongs to that section of the 
genus Squilla, Fabr., which is distinguished by the presence of 
moveable spines at the extremity of the caudal segment, and like- 
wise, as was particularly shown, by the first pair of pedipalpi being 



6 

unarmed. Of this section but one species had been previously de- 
scribed, the Squilla ciliata, Fabr., {Squilla stt/lifera, Lara.), a figure 
of which has been engraved for the forthcoming Appendix contain- 
ing the Zoology of Captain Beechey's late * Voyage to the South 
Pacific/ &c. The second species was described under the name of 
Squilla spinifrons; and in illustration of the distinctions between it 
and the Fabrician species the following characters were read by 
Mr. Owen : 

* Antenna chelis breviores. 
Squilla ciliata, Fabr. Squil. pollice tridentato ; corpore suprh, 
prceter segmentis natatoriis,lcem ; rostro inermi ; segmento ultimo 
superne 5-carinato. 
Hab. Oahu. 

** Antenna chelis longiores. 
Squilla spinifrons. Squil. pollice tridentato; corpore suprh, 
prater segmentis natatoriis, Icevi ; rostro 3-spinoso ; segmento 
ultimo superne 1 1 -carinato. 
Hab. Valparaiso. 

Mr. Cuming's note affixed to the latter states that it was " caught 
by dredging in deep water, and by the fishermen's lines." 

The other new species is referable to Gonodactylus, Latr., and is 
nearly allied to Gon. Chiragra, Ejusd., for which the following 
amended character was proposed by Mr. Owen with the view of 
distinguishing it from Gon, ensiger. 

Gonodactylus Chiraora, Latr. Gon. pollice edentato, basi 
extus gibbo, intus crenato ; rostro 3-spinoso, spina intermedia 
productd. 
Long. 4 unc. 

Hab. "in insula Erromanga Novarum Hebridum Oceani Pacifici, 
ubi in foraminibus rupium se celat," teste Dom. Georgio Bennett. 
Gonodactylus ensiger. Gon. pollice edentato, ensato, intus 

acuto; rostro 3-spinoso, spina intermedia obsoletu. 
Long. 6 unc. 
Hab. Valparaiso. 
Color flavus; chelarum cceruleus. 

Prflecedenti valde affinis, praesertim sculptura armaturaque seg- 
mentorum ultimorum ; sed diftert pollice ad basin non ventricoso, 
ad marginem internum non crenato ; spina rostri media non pro- 
ducts ; necnon magnitudine. 

Mr. Cuming states that this is taken in the same manner as the 
Squilla spinifrons. 

Specimens were exhibited of several Humming Birds from Po- 
payan, forming part of the collection of Mr. John Gould; and the 
following characters, by Mr. George Loddiges, of four new species 
were read. 

Trochilus tyrianthinus. Troch. capite supra dorsoque aureo- 
viridibus ; guld splendenti saturate viridi ; alis brunneo-Juscis ; 
caudd subrotundatd, latissima, aureo-purpurea : rostro gracili, 
brevissimo, recto. 
Long, corporis, 4 unc. ; rostri, 4 lin. 



This bird differs from all the known species by its small bill, which 
is much shorter than the head ; and by the rich golden-purple tail 
composed of very broad feathers. 

Trochilus eurypterus. Troch. suprajusco-viridis, subtus ci- 
nereo viridique variegatus ; caudd rotundata, atro-aureo-viridi, 
rectricibus lateralibus apice cinereis ; alis latissimis Jusco-atris : 
rostro brevi, recurvato, mandibula inferiore alba. 
Longitudo, 4^ unc. 

Trochilus flavescens. Troch. aureo-viridis ; capite guldque 
splendenti aureo-smaragdinis ; caudd subfurcatd, albo-jlave- 
scenti, rectricibus lateralibus ad margines, mediisque totis aureo- 
olivaceis ; alis atro-fuscis, subtus pallide rufescentibus : rostro 
mediocri, recto, 
A species resembling Troch. rubineus, Auct, in its size, and 
nearly allied to that bird. It differs, however, in the collar, which 
is golden green, and in the tail-feathers, which are (with the ex- 
ception of the middle pair,) yellowish white. 

Trochilus Gouldii. Troch. viridis ; jugulo pallide smaragdino ; 
caudd longissimd, forficatd, rectricibus rotundatis, exterioribus 
k\ uncialibus nigris, ad apices aureo-viridibus, mediis brevibus, 
cceteris gradatis aureo-viridi splendentibus ; alis mediocribus ro- 
tundatis ; rostro parvo, recto. 
Long, corporis, 2 unc. ; rostri, 3^- lin. 

The most remarkable feature in this elegant little bird is its long 
and luminous green tail, in the form of which and in the arrange- 
ment of the feathers it approaches the ^fire-tailed Humming-Bird, 
Trochilus sparganurus, Shaw, and likewise the Nouna Koali of M. 
Lesson's ' Supplement,' pi. 35. 

Preparations were exhibited of the stomach, and of the tongue, 
larynx and trachea of a Jaguar, Felis Onca, Linn. They were ob- 
tained from an individual which lately died at the Society's Gar- 
dens, respecting the dissection of which Mr. Martin read, at the re- 
quest of the Chairman, the following notes. 

" The Jaguar which died a few weeks since was a full grown fe- 
male, and although in height less than the Leopard, appeared more 
muscular and strongly made. The length of the body, exclusive 
of the tail, was 3 feet 2 inches ; the tail measured 2 feet. 

" The small clavicles which are found in the feline tribe in general, 
were in the present instance barely 2 inches in length, simply im- 
bedded in the muscles of the chest, and without any ligamentous 
attachment either to the scapula or sternum. 

" The lungs consisted of three lobes on the left side, and four on 
the right, of which the posterior was furnished with an appendix 
or process, situated in a cavity or kind of inferior mediastinum hav- 
ing its walls (which were incomplete on the right but complete on 
the left side,) formed by a reflexion of the pleura passing from the 
heart, the diaphragm constituting its base. This structure is, I be- 
lieve, to be found in most Mammalia. 

u The immense volume of the chest, as contrasted with that of the 



8 

abdominal cavity, was very striking, a circumstance which might 
be considered as furnishing an index to the habits and vital energy 
of this tribe of active and ferocious quadrupeds. On measuring the 
length of the vena cava in the chest, it was found to be 4 inches. 
The heart was of large size and rather fat; the coronary veins were 
found to terminate in the right auricle to the left side of the poste- 
rior cava at its entrance. 

" The liver consisted of five lobes and a lobulus Spigelii. In the 
middle lobe, a deep fissure cut quite through its substance for the 
reception of the gall-bladder, the fundus of which appeared through 
the fissure on the anterior surface of the lobe. The gall-bladder 
was large and filled with green bile : the ductus choledochus, in 
length 3 inches, terminated an inch below the pylorus, and just be- 
low this again the duct of the pancreas. 

" The pancreas was of considerable length, beginning about 5 
inches below the stomach ; passing on to the termination of the 
ductus choledochus ; then leaving the duodenum and taking its course 
over the posterior surface of the cardium, inclining backwards and 
terminating at the posterior edge of the spleen. For some distance 
before its termination it was found enveloped in omentum. 

" The kidneys were in length 3 inches, the pelvis of each large. 
The supra-renal glands were compressed, triangular, and hollow ; 
their texture firm and white, not unlike condensed fibrine. The left 
emulgent vein received the spermatic of that side ; but the right 
spermatic, which was much shorter, terminated in the vena cava. 

" The stomach in shape was found to be very prolonged, lessening 
gradually from the cardiac portion, but rather increasing again 
before ending in the pylorus. Its length following the large curva- 
ture was 2 feet, and the small intestines measured 13 feet 10 inches. 
The caecum extended 3 inches from the termination of the small in- 
testines, but was smaller in its circumference than the colon. The 
large intestines measured 24- feet. 

" The tongue, flattened towards the tip and rounded there, ex- 
hibited on its surface, for a considerable distance, a grove of horny 
points arising from its papilla and reflected backwards : these di- 
minish in size and number as they proceed onwards, the base of the 
tongue becoming quite smooth. 

" The distance from the base of the tongue to the rima glottidis 
measured fully 3 inches ; and, as in the Lion, the posterior nares 
were continued on by a canal which opened upon the rima glottidis , 
a construction adapted perhaps for allowing freedom of breathing 
during the gorging of food, and probably of use also in giving some 
modification to the tone or character of voice. 

"The rugce of the pharynx were slight and transverse. 

" The os hyoides consisted of three portions, a body and two small 
bones ; the body forming three sides of an oblong square, the angles 
being rather rounded, and to these angles the two separate portions 
of bone, of a semilunar shape, (having the indented edge external,) 
were attached. The thyroid and cricoid cartilages were strong and 
broad. 



9 

" The rirna glottidis presented a construction very similar to that 
of the Lion, the slit being simple with its edges considerably pro- 
duced ; a form occasioned by the projection of the arytenoid car- 
tilages, which in shape were found to be somewhat triangular, one 
angle of each cartilage being placed anteriorly. 

" The thyroid gland consisted of two compressed disjoined lobes, 
one on each side of the larynx, extending from the top of the first 
ring as far down as the sixth or seventh. 

" The epiglottis was broad and acuminate. 

" The trachea consisted of thirty-four imperfect rings, and mea- 
sured fully 3 inches in circumference ; the cartilaginous portion 
making up but about two-thirds of the circle, and being very soft 
and elastic. At the division of the trachea two large indurated 
glands were situated." 

A preparation of the tongue, larynx and trachea of an Ocelot, 
Felis Pardalisy Linn., having been placed on the table for compa- 
rison with the preparation of the same parts in the Jaguar, Mr. 
Martin pointed out the difference between them. He showed that 
while in the Jaguar there intervenes between the base of the tongue 
and the rima glottidis a distance of 3 inches, in the Ocelot the 
rima and base of the tongue are in close proximity. In the Ocelot 
the epiglottis is larger in proportion than in the Jaguar, is not so 
acute, and has a slight indentation at the point : the rings of the 
trachea are also firmer and more perfect than in the Jaguar; and 
the edges of the rima glottidis do not protrude as in that animal and 
in the Lion. The thyroid gland is double both in the Ocelot and 
the Jaguar. At the commencement of the oesophagus the mem- 
brane is puckered up in the Ocelot into a number of irregular folds 
crossing the strice, which are there very slight and longitudinal so 
as to form a kind of valve or obstruction : in the Jaguar on the con- 
trary the stria are transverse, and there are no valve-like foldings 
of the membrane between the pharynx and oesophagus. 

The following note by A. P. Palmedo, Esq., H. M. .Consul in 
Corsica, dated Bastia, Jan. 1832, was read. It was communicated 
to the Committee by Mr. Barnard. 

" There had been hitherto no instance in Corsica of Moufflons 
breeding in a domesticated state, nor any of their coupling with 
Sheep, though the flocks of the latter not rarely approach the high 
regions of the Moufflon. General Merlin, the commanding officer 
of Corsica, has now, however, not only a young Moufflon born of 
two tame Moufflons in his possession, but also an offspring of the 
same he-Moufflon and of a Ewe" 



10 



January 24, 1832. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Specimens were exhibited of various Mammalia and Birds, col- 
lected in Nepal by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z. S., Bri- 
tish Resident at Katmandoo. For this exhibition the Committee 
was indebted to the kindness of Dr. N. Wallich, to whom the skins 
had been transmitted by Mr. Hodgson. 

The Mammalia included specimens of a new species of Felis, L.; 
of two Antelopes, one the Chiru and the other new to science ; and 
of the wild Dog of Nepal. They were accompanied by coloured 
figures, and, except in the instance of the latter, by accounts of the 
several animals from the pen of Mr. Hodgson. These accounts 
were read. 

The new species of Felis is described as the Moormi Cat, a name 
derived from that of the tribe which inhabits the part of the hills in 
which the animal was taken. It was entirely unknown to the na- 
tives, and had consequently no local name. It may be thus cha- 
racterized : 

Felis Moormensis. Fel. caudd elongatd ; supra saturate badia, 
infra pallidior ; auribus caudceque apice nigris ; mento albo fa- 
ciei lateribus vittisjlavescentibus nigro marginatis tribus notatis. 

In size it is nearly intermediate between the larger and the 
smaller Cats ; but is more allied in its general form, proportions, 
and aspect, to the former than to the latter, having in fact little re- 
semblance to the smaller species of Felis, except in the shortness 
of its nose and the agreeable expression of its countenance. 

Its body is long and compressed ; its legs short and not remark- 
ably stout. The neck is short and thick. The head is of consider- 
able breadth and depth ; its crown flattened ; the nose straight, 
short, and abrupt ; the ears short, widely opened, and well lined 
within, erect, rounded, and without tuft at the tip. The tail is 
long, rounded, well and uniformly covered with hair, and slightly 
tapering at its extremity. 

The hinder legs are considerably longer than the anterior, and 
are distinguished by the true pardine length of the femoral portion ; 
indicating, like all other parts of the form of the animal, very great 
agility. The jaws are very powerful, but the teeth are not remark- 
able for superiority of size, and the front ones may even be said to 
be small ; they are close-set and compressed laterally except near 
the extremities, where the lateral compression ceases and an ob- 
lique truncation is observed both from without and within. The 
moustaches are large and very stout ; the bristles above the eyes are 
only four or five, and are small. The expression of the face is 
devoid of ferocity, and agreeable, approaching to that of the domestic 
Cat. 



11 

The whole of the upper parts of the animal (except the ears, the 
tip of the tail, and the marks on the face,) are of a uniform deep 
rich brown-red or bay ; the ears and tip of the tail above are black ; 
and the marking on the face pale buff, edged with black. The 
under surface is generally of the same colour with the upper, but 
considerably paler 5 the neck alone being nearly as dark below as 
above. The insides of the fore-limbs are paler than those of the 
hinder, being whitish buff, and are, moreover, marked with several 
transverse dusky bars : the paws are dusky, freckled with grey: the 
upper lip pale buff with three parallel rows of black dots : the 
moustaches black at the base and whitish buff at the tip : the lower 
lip and chin white, as is also the inferior surface of the tip of the 
tail : the insides of the ears are of the same colour with the under 
surface generally, but paler, or buff. 

The markings on the face which form so conspicuous a charac- 
teristic of the animal were particularly described. There are three 
principal marks on each side of the head -, one above the eye and 
two behind the gape. Their general form is linear, and their ge- 
neral direction longitudinal ; but the lines are not regular, neither 
is their direction strictly lengthwise, the two proceeding from be- 
hind the gape almost to the angle of the jaw, though in general 
nearly parallel to each other, tending to approximate behind j and 
the one above either eye being rather arched above the middle of 
the orbit. From the latter lines, too, two shorter lines are given off 
obliquely as they approach the openings of the ears. The middle 
and larger portion of all these marks is whitish buff'; the marginal 
portion surrounding them entirely is black. 

The eyes are of a freckled greenish hue like those of the domestic 
Cat, and below them is a dash of whitish buff. The nose is fleshy 
white. The nails are black. 

The dimensions are as follow : 

ft. in. 
Length of the body from the tip of the nose to the in- 
sertion of the tail 2 *l\ 

Length of the head 65 

from the nape to the eyes 4 J 

eyes to the snout. 2| 

of the tail 1 7 

fore-leg to the line of the belly Oil 

hinder ditto ditto 1 \\ 

Height at the shoulder 1 5 

Length of the ears 2£ 

The only specimen of this species which Mr. Hodgson has been 
able to procure was a fine mature male sent to him alive, about two 
years back, by the Prime Minister of Nepal : it was accompanied 
by an intimation that the animal presented to him was the first of 
the kind ever taken, the people of the country having been by its 
capture first apprised of its existence in Nepal. It was caught in a 
tree by some hunters in the midst of an exceedingly dense forest, 



12 

situated in about the latitude of the great valley : the habitat of the 
species may therefore be presumed to be the central part of these 
mountains, or that portion which lies equidistant from the snows 
of the Himalaya and the hot plains of Hindoostan. Though only 
just taken when it was brought to Mr. Hodgson, it bore confinement 
very tranquilly, and gave evident signs of a tractable disposition and 
cheerful unsuspicious temper • so much so as to convince that gen- 
tleman that a judicious attempt at taming it must succeed. None 
such, however, was made ; and when the animal, after six months 
confinement, died of disease, it was still, of course, unreclaimed from 
its wild state of manners and temper ; in which state it manifested 
considerable ferocity and high courage, the approach to its cage of 
the huge Bhoteah Dog exciting in it symptoms of wrath only — none 
of fear. 

In a note appended to his description of this second new species 
ofFelis from Nepal, Mr. Hodgson refers to that of the Fel. Nepa- 
lensis published by Messrs. Horsfield and Vigors in the < Zoological 
Journal,' vol. iv. p. 383. The ground-colour of this latter animal is 
there described as "grey, with a very slight admixture of tawny ;" 
whereas in five specimens possessed by Mr. Hodgson the tawny 
prevails over the grey to such an extent that the tawny should be 
regarded as the ground-colour in the mature animal of both sexes. 
One adult male is almost as brightly tinted as a Leopard : the fe- 
males are paler than the males. He adds that the common species 
of wild Cat is frequently met with in Nepal of the fullest European 
size, and so like to the Occidental type as not even to constitute a 
variety. 

The new species of Antelope is distinguished by Mr. Hodgson as 
the Bubaline Antelope. 

Antilope Bubalina. Ant. cervice jubatd; cornubus brevibus, 
cojiicis, recurvis, sulcatis, annulatisque ; supra ?iigra } ad latera 
saturate Julvo intermixta. 

" This remarkable species is entirely devoid of the characteristic 
elegance of the genus to which it belongs. It is a large, coarse, 
heavy animal, with bristly thin-set hair, not unlike that of the 
Buffalo. The body is short and thick; the chest deep ; the neck, 
short and straight ; the head coarse and spiritless, though not re- 
markably large ; the eye, poor ; the limbs (for an Antelope) thick 
and short ; and the hoofs short and compact. The general form, 
proportions and attitudes, the style and character of the ears, the 
hoofs, the hair, and, more especially, of the testes and mane, belong 
rather to the Goal- than to the Deer-kind. So likewise do the man- 
ners of the animal, which dispose it to solitude and to mountainous 
situations. It is seldom found in herds, however small ; and the 
grown males usually live entirely alone, except during the breeding 
season. Of all the Deers or Antelopes of these hills it is the most 
common. It tenants the central region equidistant from the snows 
on the one hand, and the plains of India on the other j and though 
it be found everywhere, within that central space, between the Sut- 



IS 

lege on the west, and theTeesta on the east, it is more frequent in 
the eastern than in the western half of the tract so defined, or in 
Nepal Proper. The female is scarcely distinguishable from the male, 
by her somewhat inferior size, smaller horns, and rather paler co- 
lours ; being, in every other respect, precisely like him. 

" The mature male measures, from the tip of the nose to the end 
of the tail, fully 5 feet ; and stands upwards of 3 feet at the shoulder. 
In his ordinary quiescent attitude all the four legs are perfectly 
upright ; the back horizontal; the neck slightly raised and straight : 
and we look in vain for the gracefully bowed neck of the Antelope 
and Deer, or the taper stooping hinder limbs with which they seem 
ever ready to bound from the earth, upon which they scarcely ap- 
pear to tread at all. 

" The horns, in the fully grown male, are annulated more than 
two-thirds of their whole length from the base; and in such males 
the terminal third is perfectly smooth and polished. The rings are 
closely set, equally prominent all round, and blunt- edged ; and 
their continuity is broken by a numerous series of irregular longi- 
tudinal grooves running from the base upwards as far as the annu- 
lations, which they cut, and even higher. In young animals the 
grooving extends almost to the tips of the horns ; whereas the an- 
nulation is confined nearly to their bases. The core of the horns 
reaches almost to their extremities. The basal interval of the horns 
is from |ths of an inch to fths : the divergency at the tips, very 
inconsiderable: the arcuation backwards, uniform and well defined. 
The horns are quite round, short, (as short almost as the ears,) and 
acute. 

" The ears are very large and coarse, erect, not much opened, 
the insides well lined with long soft hair, the tips rather sharp and 
not tufted. 

" The head is (as already noted) not inelegantly large, though 
coarse, and expressionless ; its tapering is considerable and uniform 
to the muzzle: the eye (for an Antelope) is poor and mean; the 
suborbital sinuses are quite round, small, distinct and naked ; the 
testes goat-like, large, pendent, and hairy ; the hoofs short, firm, 
and thick; the teeth devoid of peculiar characters ; the hair coarse, 
bristly, straight, sparely set on, and closely applied to the skin ; 
the entire dorsal surface of the neck, and half the shoulders, fur- 
nished with a semi -erect, straight mane, composed of bristles rather 
longer and stouter than those covering the rest of the body; in cha- 
racter goat- or rather hog-like ; no mane on the pectoral surface of 
the neck, nor any semblance of beard on the chin ; the tail short, 
narrow, and deer-like. 

" With regard to the colours, there is, in this species, some little 
variation independent of that caused by sex and age. The follow- 
ing is, however, an adequate description of the mature male in this 
respect. 

" The whole superior parts of the animal, and the neck, below as 
well as above, are pure black : the lateral parts are black, largely 
mixed with earthy brown red, but the latter colour prevails greatly 



14 

over the former on the limbs above the knees. The inferior parts, 
insides of the limbs, and entire legs below the knees, as well as the 
insides of the ears and the muzzle, are dirty white. The outsides 
of the ears are black, like the rest of the superior surface, but dotted 
with the brown-red of the flanks: the periophthalmic region nearly 
naked and of an earthy red mixed with grey ; round the sinuses the 
same : irides brown-red : horns and hoofs black j naked skin of 
the nose, the same. 

" In the female, the black of the superior parts is less full than in 
the male and sometimes mixed with grey. In her, too, and in the 
young male, the parts above described as white are sprinkled often 
with the red prevailing on the parts next to them : and, lastly, the 
belly is not immaculate white but has a black sprinkling. 

" The female has four teats. 

" The Nepalese call this animal the Thar, The chase of it is a 
favourite diversion with the Gooroong tribes especially, who usually 
kill it with poisoned arrows. It is not speedy, as might be inferred 
from what has been said of its make. Its flesh is very coarse and 
bad : but there is plenty of it, and these mountaineers, who are apt 
to look to the quantity more than the quality of such flesh as a 
Hindoo Government deems licit food for them, prize the Thdf very 
highly, and hunt him very eagerly. 

" The following are the size and dimensions of a fine mature 
male. 

ft. in. 
Length of the body, from the setting on of the horns 

to the root of the tail 4 1 J 

ofthehead 11| 

of the tail (flesh only) 3| 

■ to the end of the hair 6| 

Height at the shoulder 3 1 

Depth of the chest 1 3± 

Height of the fore- leg to the line of the chest ...... 1 9§ 

Utmost girth of the head 1 9 

of the body 3 2 

Length of the ears 7f 

of the horns (in a straight line) 8 

Basal diameter of ditto lf- 

Basal interval of ditto 0|" 

. Of Mr. Hodgson's account of the Chiru Antelope, Antilope Hodg- 
sonii, Abel, a full abstract has already been published in the * Pro- 
ceedings,' Part I., p. 52. He has had opportunities of examining 
carefully three individuals. One of these, which he possessed alive, 
furnished materials for the description originally given. The second 
was a very old male, noticed at p. 54, in which the ruddy hue of the 
upper surface had merged almost into hoary grey on the neck, the 
back of the head, the ears, and the buttocks. In this individual the 
stripes extended down the whole of the legs as far as the hoofs. 
The third specimen, a young male or a female ?, had the legs simi- 



15 

larly striped with the second ; and its forehead and the fronts of its 
limbs were much less darkened than in either of the others. 

It should be added that the fleshy tumour on the margin of the 
nostrils is covered with hair like the rest of the head ; and that the 
suborbital sinuses appear, on closer examination, to be wanting. 

In illustration of the history of the nomenclature of the species 
Dr. Wallich forwarded a note addressed to himself by the late Dr. 
Clarke Abel, in which that gentleman stated his intention of dedi- 
cating it to its discoverer, an intention which he subsequently car- 
ried into effect. 

The skin of the wild Dog of Nepal was compared by Col. Sykes 
with a specimen of the Kolsun of the Mahrattas, recently described 
by him in the 'Proceedings' (Part I., p. 100) under the name of 
Canis Dukhunensis. He stated his impression to be, that the ani- 
mals are identical, differing only by the denser coat and more woolly 
feet of the Nepal race, a difference readily accounted for by the 
greater cold of the elevated regions inhabited by it. He declined, 
however, pronouncing a decided opinion, which, he thought, could 
only be arrived at by more extensive comparison and by a full ac- 
quaintance with the habits of the wild Dog of Nepal. 

Among the Birds contained in Mr. Hodgson's collection was 
exhibited a specimen of the Hcematomis undulatus, a species de- 
scribed in the First Part of the 'Proceedings' of the Committee, 
p. 170, and figured in Mr. Gould's < Century of Birds.' The spe- 
cimen agreed accurately with that which had been previously ex- 
hibited to the Committee except in size; the present specimen 
being about one third larger. From this difference in size it was 
conjectured to be a female. Specimens were also in the collection 
of the Myophonus Temminckii> the difference between which species 
and the Myophonus Jlavirostris {metallicus^ Temm.)had been pointed 
out in the same Part of the 'Proceedings', p. 171. The separation 
of the two species was thus further justified by the accurate accord- 
ance of several specimens of the Nepalese bird, in those characters 
which separated them from the Archipelagan species. A specimen 
of Zoothera monticola was also included in the exhibition, which 
deviated in no respect from that already described in the ' Proceed- 
ings', p. 172, and figured by Mr. Gould. 

An interesting species of Hornbill, which had been described by 
Mr. Hodgson in the ' Asiatic Researches', vol. xvii. p. 178, but 
which had never before been seen in Europe, accompanied the 
former birds. Its characters are as follows: 

Buceros Nepalensis, Hodgson. Buc. ater, dorso alisque viridi- 

splendeniibus ; remigibus lertid ad septimam inclusam, rectrici- 

busque ad apices albis ; rostro albo, mandibuld superiori strigis 

sex latis atris oblique jiositis notatd. 

Jun. capite, collo, abdomineque rtifo-brunneis ; rostro albo haud 

notato. 
Longitudo corporis, 39 unc. ; rostri, 74; alee a carpo ad apicem 
remigis 5tse, 15^; tarsi, 2^ -, caudce, 17-t. 



16 

Among some drawings of this species which accompanied the 
collection, one was observed in which the tail was elevated in the 
same manner, although not to the same extent, as in the Toucans 
of South America when at rest. Mr. Vigors called the attention of 
the Committee to this peculiarity in the Toucans, which he had as- 
certained from a living bird in his own collection, and which he de- 
scribed in the ' Zoological Journal', vol. ii. p. 480, pi. xv. And he 
dwelt on the additional proof thus afforded of affinity between these 
two families of the Old and New World, which are equally allied 
by the most important characters of their structure. 

A male and female Pheasant were also exhibited from the col- 
lection which appeared to be the species described by Dr. Latham 
under the name of Phasianus leucomelanos, (Ind. Orn ii. 633.) 
Mr. Vigors pointed out the difference between this species and the 
Phasianus albo-cristatus, which he had described in the First Part of 
the « Proceedings', p. 9. This difference consisted in the deep black 
colour of the crest in the Phas. leucomelanos ; in the lanceolated 
feathers of the under part of the body extending no further than 
the breast ; and in the plumes of the lower part of the back being 
doubly fasciated, by a slender violet-black band in the first instance 
near the apex, and secondly by a slender white apical band. In 
the Phas. albo-cristatus, on the contrary, the crest is white with a 
somewhat dusky base ; the lanceolated feathers on the under body 
extend over the abdomen ; and the feathers on the lower part of 
the back are fasciated with one rather broad white apical band, 
without any vestige of the black violet markings observed in the 
other species. Mr. Vigors added that these two species, together 
with the Phas. lineatus of Dr. Latham, exhibited to the Committee 
on the 11th Jan. of last year, and described in the * Proceedings' 
of that date, p. 24, as well as the Jire- backed Pheasant, Phasianus 
Ignitus, Lath., formed a group among the Pheasants, which appeared 
intermediate between the typical birds of that family and the genus 
Gallus, or Jungle Fowl. This group, distinguished by their crests, 
and by the tail partaking equally of the elevated character of that 
of the Jungle Fowl, and the recumbent character of that of the 
Pheasant, had been set apart by MM. Temminck and Cuvier under 
the name of Houppiferes, and by the former naturalist under the 
scientific name of Euplocamus. 

The only species apparently undescribed in the collection was 
the following Pigeon, which Mr. Vigors expressed his pleasure in 
having it in his power to dedicate to the enterprising and scientific 
discoverer. 

Columba Hodgsonii. Col. capite colloque pallide, dorso cris- 
soque intensius vinaceo-griseis ; alis, regione interscapular, abdo* 
mineque vinaceo-brunneis, hoc albo variegato ; scapularibus albo 
guttatis ; nucha vinaceo-brunneo notatd ; remigibus rectricibus- 
que, his intensius, Juscis ; guld albescenti-grised ; pedibus satu- 
rate cceruleis, unguibus Jlavis. 

Longitudo corporis, 15 unc. 



17 

A specimen was exhibited of the Birgus Latro, Leach, which had 
recently been presented to the Society by Mr. J. P. Vaughan ; and 
Mr. Owen referred to the curious statement made by Herbst, that 
this Crab climbs trees for the purpose of stealing cocoa- nuls ; a 
statement partially confirmed by the fact recorded by MM. Quoy 
and Gaimard, that individuals of this species were fed by them for 
many months on cocoa-nuts alone. A more ample confirmation, he 
remarked, was furnished by some observations communicated to 
him by Mr. Cuming, whose fine collection of Crustacea contained 
several specimens obtained in the islands of the South Pacific. 
f* They climb," Mr. Cuming states, "a species of Palm, (Panda- 
nus odoratis$imus 9 ) and eat a small kind of cocoa-nut that grows 
thereon. They live at the roots of trees, and not in holes in the 
rocks; and are a favourite food of the natives." 

Mr. Owen subsequently reported the morbid appearances ob- 
served on the post mortem examination of the Mandrill, Cynoce- 
phalus Maimon, which recently died at the Society's Gardens. 

The animal was convulsed at different periods before death, and 
was in the act of acquiring its permanent teeth,- a critical period 
to the Quadrumana, and especially to those in which the laniary 
teeth are large. The following was the state of its dentition. In 
the upper jaw, the four permanent incisors were acquired, or had 
passed through the gum ; the point of the left laniary had also ap- 
peared, but the right was still concealed, though it had protruded 
from tliq jaw: both the temporary incisors and laniaries in this jaw 
had been shed. In the lower jaw, the four permanent incisors had 
also been acquired, and close to them were the temporary laniaries, 
not yet shed : half an inch behind these were the permanent laniaries 
about one third advanced through the gums, and their points worn 
or broken. 

There existed no inflammation or disease in the brain or its mem- 
branes. 

In the abdomen there was a slight inflammation or congestion in 
the first part of the small intestines. The mesenteric glands were 
not diseased, but a small scrofulous cyst was found in the omentum. 

In the chest, the right lung was healthy ; the left gorged with 
bloody serum, partially hepatized, and having a large scrofulous 
vomica at the lower part. The whole of this lung was firmly adhe- 
rent to the parietes of the chest, except at the upper part; where 
there was more recently effused lymph. The heart and pericar- 
dium were firmly adherent, and there was much recently effused 
lymph about the great vessels. Near the base of the right ventricle 
and on its external surface there was a small ulcer. The kidneys 
were not diseased, but appeared to be unusually loaded with blood, 
their tubular part being of a dark venous hue. It seemed therefore 
probable, that on account of the impeded respiration and the checked 
cutaneous exhalation the actions of these glands had increased. The 
bladder was much distended. 



18 



February 14, 1832. 

Dr. Such in the Chair. 

The Monkey described at p. 105 of the First Part of the * Pro- 
ceedings' of the Committee, under the name of Semnopilhecus ? ai- 
bogularis, having died, it was placed upon the table; and Colonel 
Sykes remarked that notwithstanding its large facial angle, nearly 
equal incisors, very small callosities, mild disposition, and gravity 
of manner, which had induced him to class it provisionally with the 
Semnopitheci, its more essential anatomical characters were those of 
the genus Cercopithecus. The posterior molar tooth of the lower 
jaw has only the four tubercles characteristic of that genus, without 
any prolongation backwards; and the cheek-pouches, although not 
very large, are distinct and capable of moderate dilatation. For 
these reasons, and to avoid the inconvenience resulting from the 
too great multiplication of genera, he preferred considering it as a 
species of Cercopithecus. The peculiarities above noticed indicate, 
however, a remarkable transition between the African and Indian 
groups of Monkeys in an animal believed to have been brought from 
an intermediate locality, the island of Madagascar. To the Lemu- 
rine groups hitherto supposed to be the exclusive quadrumanous 
inhabitants of that island, it approaches in the great development 
of its canines, which form fangs of a large size, and have their pos- 
terior edge acutely angular, and as sharp as that of a knife. 
Its admeasurements are as follows: 

ft. in. 
Length of the head and body taken in a straight line 1 9- 

the tail 2 7| 

the muzzle anterior to the eyes l;f 

the fore-leg from the axilla to the end of 

the longest finger 1 2 

the hind-leg to ditto 1 6 

the thumb of the anterior hands in its free 

portion OJ 

Diameter of callosities when exposed by the separa- 
tion of the hair \\ 

The general appearance of the animal is massive and thick- set, 
and the limbs, especially the anterior, are strong and muscular. On 
the body the hairs are close-set and measure generally from 2 
to 3 inches in length - } they are for the most part soft and ad- 
pressed; on the fore-limbs they are more rigid, and become gra- 
dually shorter as they approach the hands. 



Mr. Owen read the following notes on the Anatomy of the Cc 
■pithecus albogularis, Sykes. 



rco- 



19 

w The anatomical examination of this new species did not bring 
to light any remarkable deviations from the ordinary structure of 
the Cercopitheci ; in which, as in the Baboons, the most interesting 
circumstances are those which indicate the departure from the hu- 
man type and the approximation to the carnivorous genera, e.g. 
the genus Canis. Among these may be noticed the extension of the 
superior or lesser cornua of the os hyoides, and the muscles which 
connect them to the greater ; the projecting ridge on the thyroid 
cartilage for the attachment of the thyreo-hyoidei ; the bone deve- 
loped at the extremity of the penis; the uniform character of the 
lining membrane of the intestinal canal ; the simple ccecum, and its 
loose mode of attachment to the abdominal parietes ; the order 
of origin of the large arteries from the aortic arch ; the great extent 
of the inferior cava in the thorax ; the additional lobe to the right 
lung j the additional lobe to the liver; and the simple composition 
of the kidneys. It is less necessary to notice the remarkable deve- 
lopment of the laniarii in some of these species, as this circumstance, 
together with their projecting orbits and receding forehead, has 
procured for them from the most remote periods of natural history 
an appellation characteristic of the relation above alluded to. 

" The abdominal viscera of this Monkey were enveloped in a large 
omentum, extending to the pubes, and, as it were, tucked in at the 
iliac and lumbar regions j it was streaked with fat of a bright yellow 
colour j the line of adhesion was to the stomach and transverse 
colon, to the ascending portion of the colon, and as low down as 
the ccecum. The stomach had nothing of a sacculated appearance, 
as found by Dr. Otto in a species ot" Semnopitkecus ?, but the left 
blind extremity was more considerable than in the Macaci and 
Cynocephali, the oesophagus entering at an equal distance from the 
two extremities. I have observed the same circumstance in Cerco- 
pithecusjuliginosus. The pyloric end lay immediately below the gall- 
bladder, and had in consequence a deep circumscribed yellow stain. 
The duodenum has the same short course as in the Mandrill, and 
becomes a loose intestine as soon as it has crossed the spine. The 
cczcum and ascending arch of the colon have an entire investment of 
peritoneum, and are consequently more loosely attached to the parietes 
of 'the abdomen than in the human subject. At the commencement of 
the transverse arch the colon is connected with the duodenum; it ter- 
minates in a considerable sigmoid flexion on the left side of the abdo- 
men. The ccecum is puckered up by four longitudinal muscular bands, 
of which one terminates at the entry of the ilium, and the other three 
are continued on to the colon. The interior of the jejunum presented 
a singular appearance from numerous minute black spots, not unlike 
the skin of a Sepia ; when viewed through the microscope they 
were found to be situated at the extremities of the villi, which are 
very minute and disposed in delicate zig-zag lines; the black points 
disappeared on sponging the surface three or four times. In the 
omentum was found, what rarely occurs in Quadrumana, viz., a cyst 
containing the Cysticercus tenuicollis of Rudolphi ; differing only in 
its smaller size from those of the sheep and other ruminants. 



20 

M The liver was composed of four lobes ; the cystic lobe, or that 
containing the gall-bladder, being the third from the right. The 
gall-bladder was of an elongated form, and the cystic duct tortuous 
at the commencement, as in most Quadrumana. The spleen was 

2 inches long and broadest at the lower part. 

" The viscera of the chest were as in the Mandrill. 

"The larynx was as usual in Cercopitheci and Macaci, viz with 
two wide lateral sacculi, and a middle pouch continued forwards 
between the os hyoides and thyroid cartilage, and extending about 

3 inches under the skin of the neck. The aperture by which it 
communicated with the larynx was large enough to admit the little 
finger. The epiglottis was of a rhomboid form, with two small la- 
teral processes, and an apex slightly notched. 

" The tongue was characterized by three fossulate papilla placed 
in a triangle, the apex towards the epiglottis. In Macaci I have 
found four of these papillce similarly disposed, the apex being formed 
by two placed close together. 

" No structural disorganization was met with in this dissection. 
Abundance of bright yellow-coloured fat was found in different 
parts of the body." 

A specimen was exhibited of a Lemuridous animal, recently pre- 
sented to the Society by C. Telfair, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z. S. It 
was shown by Mr. Bennett to possess characters differing to so great 
an extent from those of the previously known genera of the family 
to which it belongs, as to require its separation from them as the 
type of a new group, to which he gave the name of 

Propithecus. 

Rostrum mediocre. 

Scelides antipedibus longiores. 

Index abbreviatus. 

Cauda longa, pilosa. 

Denies primores 4 : superiores coronidem versus lateraliter antice 
expansi, ideoque ad coronidem approximati, subseriati; inferi- 
ores approximati, proclives, externo utrinque majore : laniarii, 

-}-, 4- : molares ; superiorum priores 2 cuspidati, 3tius 

elongatus, externe 2-tuberculatus, 4tus praecedenti similis 

; inferiorum primus 1-cuspidatus, 2dus 3tiusque pluri- 

tuberculati =>. 

Propithecus Diadema. Prop, dorso cinerascenti ; artubus, 
prymna, caudd, Jasciaque frontali albis. Mis fulvo tinctis ; ver- 
tice, nucha, manibusque nigris. 

Hab. Madagascar. 

The face is nearly naked, with short blackish hairs about the lips, 
and equally short yellowish white hairs in front of the eyes. Above 
the eyes the long, silky, waved, and thickly set hairs which cover the 
body commence by a band of yellowish white crossing the front and 
passing beneath the ears to the throat. This is succeeded by black 
extending over the back of the head and neck; but becoming 



21 

freely intermingled with white on the shoulders and sides, the white 
gradually increasing backwards so as to render the loins only 
slightly grizzled with black. At the root of the tail the colour is 
fulvous, which gradually disappears until the extreme half of the 
tail is white with a slight tinge of yellow. The outer side of the 
anterior limbs is at the upper part of the slaty grey of the sides, 
below which it is pale fulvous ; the hands are black, with the ex- 
ception of tufts of long fulvous hairs at the extremities of the thumb 
and fingers, extending beyond and covering the nails. The outer 
sides of the hinder limbs, after receiving a tinge of fulvous from the 
colour surrounding the root of the tail, are of a paler fulvous than 
the anterior limbs : this becomes much deeper on the hands, which 
are fulvous except on the fingers, where there is a very considerable 
intermixture of black, the terminal tufts, equally long with those 
of the anterior hands, being, as in them, fulvous. The under-sur- 
face is*white throughout, with the exception of the hinder part of 
the throat, where it is of the same colour with the sides of the body. 

The hairs are generally long, silky, waved, erect, and glossy. 
On the crupper they are shorter and more dense, offering a sort of 
woolly resistance. On the tail they have the general character of 
those of the body, but are considerably shorter. 

On the anterior hands the thumb is slender; it is placed far back, 
and is extremely free ; its length is 1-$. inch, the extremity of its pen- 
ultimate phalanx ranging slightly beyond the end of the metacar- 
pal bone of the index. The index is 1-f inch in length ; its extre- 
mity ranges with the middle of the penultimate phalanx of the se- 
cond finger : the length of the second finger is 3 inches : that of the 
third finger is 3^-. The length of the carpus and metacarpus is 2 
inches. 

On the hinder hands the thumb is very strong, placed forwards 
and ranging with the fingers : it is 2 inches long : the index is 1\ 
inches, the pointed nail extending \ an inch beyond : the length of 
the 2d finger is Si : of the tarsus and metatarsus 3 inches. 

The length of the body and head, measured in a straight line, is 
1 foot 9 inches ; of the tail, 1 foot 5 inches. The anterior limbs, 
exclusive of the hands, measure 7| inches in length from the body ; 
the posterior, 15|. 

The muzzle is shorter than in the Lemurs generally ; the distance 
from the anterior angle of the orbit to the tip of the nose (J^ inch) 
being equal to that between the eyes. 

The ears are concealed within the fur. They are of a rounded 
form. Their length is 1 inch ; their breadth 1J. 

From Lemur, the genus to which it most nearly approaches, Pro- 
pithecus is essentially distinguished by the number and form of its 
teeth, and especially by the form of the incisors of the upper jaw, 
which constitute apparently a regular series, a structure unknown in 
any other Lemuridous animal. This difference, striking as it is, is how- 
ever more of an apparent than a real deviation from the type of the 
family, inasmuch as a tendency to dilate laterally towards their 
cutting edges is observed in the upper incisors of Lemur, and it is 



22 

only the extreme development of this dilatation that gives to the 
teeth of Propithecus a peculiarity of character rather resembling at 
first sight that of the Monkeys than the Lemurs. The number of the 
incisors of the lower jaw differs from that of Lemur, but occurs in 
another genus, Indri: and it may be remarked, that in Propithecus, 
as in Indri, the canine teeth of the lower jaw close behind those of 
the upper, — a remark which tends to invalidate an opinion expressed 
by M. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, that the outer of the six incisors of 
the lower jaw ought rather to be regarded as canine teeth, the usual 
position of the lower canines when the mouth is closed being ante- 
rior to the upper. The number of the false molars in Propithecus 
is one less in each jaw than in Lemur, and they are less smooth and 
not so acutely triangular; the second in the upper jaw being in fact 
somewhat tuberculate on its outer edge, and forming, as it were, a 
transition from the false to the true molars between which it is 
placed. The posterior molars were not examined. 

The external characters by which it is distinguished from Lemur 
are its shorter muzzle, terminated by more approximate nostrils, 
the upper margin of which appears to be only slightly lobulated : 
its rounded ears: the marked disproportion in length between its 
hinder and anterior extremities : the greater length of its hands, 
especially of the anterior: the shortness of its anterior thumb, which 
is also placed much further back: the marked abbreviation of the 
anterior index: the development and power of the hinder thumb, 
which is nearly an equal opponent to the whole of the fingers : and 
the comparative shortness of the hairs by which the tail is covered. 

Mr. Bennett concluded by expressing his regret that no particu- 
lars respecting the habits of this interesting addition to our cata- 
logues of Mammalia were known to him. He trusted, however, that 
the zealous correspondent by whom it was presented to the Society, 
and to whose liberality the Society is so deeply indebted, would at 
an early period obtain the requisite information, by inquiries in the 
district of Madagascar in which it is found, and where it is stated 
to be rare. 

Colonel Sykes took occasion to add the Viverra Rasse, Horsf., to 
his Catalogue of the Mammalia of Dukhun, the two specimens ex- 
hibited to the Committee, which he had hitherto regarded as va- 
rieties of the Viv. Indica, GeofT., having been pronounced by Dr. 
Horsfield to be the Viv. Indica and Viv. Rassc. The habitat of the 
former is in the woods of the western Ghauts ; the latter is found 
in the table land eastward of the Ghauts. 

Dr. Horsfield furnished the following account of the differences 
between the two animals. In Viv. Rasse the colour is grey, incli- 
ning to tawny or dark fulvous ; the form is lengthened and slender ; 
the ears are short and suddenly rounded, having somewhat the ap- 
pearance of being artificially clipped off; the dorsal lines are eight 
in number, broad and distinct ; and the lateral lines obscure, inter- 
rupted and consisting of separate spots. In Viv. Indica the colour 
is light grey inclining to yellow ; the form is lengthened and slen- 



23 

der, but wiih the character of length of body and neck existing in 
a greater degree than in Viv. Rasse ; the ears are of moderate length 
and suberect ; the dorsal lines are narrow, the superior eight con- 
tinuous; and the lateral lines resemble those on the back, and are 
tolerably distinct and subcontinuous. Dr. Horsrield added, that not 
having been acquainted with the Viv. Indica at the time when he 
wrote the account of the Viv. Rasse in his ' Zoological Researches 
in Java,' he now found it necessary to modify the specific character 
of the latter, which he contrasted with that of Viv. Indica in the fol- 
lowing terms : 

Viverra Rasse. Viv. griseo fulvescens ; auriculis approximate 
rotundatis subabbreviatis ; dorso lineis lon^itudinalibus octo latis 
nigricantibus saturatis ; lateribus utrinque lineis iribus interruptis 
obscuris ; pedibus concoloribus Juscis ; pilis corporis caudceque 
attenuated rigidiuscidis. 
Viverra Indica. Viv. isabellino-grisea ; auriculis erectis sub- 
elongatis ; dorso lineis longitudinalibus octo angustis nigricanii- 
bus ; lateribus utrinque lineis tribus subcontinuis. 
In illustration of the confusion prevailing between the two spe- 
cies, Dr. Horsfield referred to a note at p. 210 of M. Desmarest's 
'Mammalogie', where an animal preserved in the Paris Museum 
under the name of petite Civette de Java (in all probability the Viv. 
Rasse) is suspected to be the young of Viv. Indica ; and to Fischer's 
* Synopsis Mammalium', where the name of Viv. Indica is accompa- 
nied by the characters of Viv. Rasse, as given in the ' Zoological 
Researches in Java', the two animals being combined. The same 
union of the two species occurs in M. Lesson's ' Manuel de Mam- 
malogie'. 

Mr. Owen subsequently read the following notes on a malforma- 
tion of the beak of Psittacus Erithacus, L. 

" This bird was stated to have a double beak ; but the malforma- 
tion consists essentially in the separation of some of the upper horny 
lamince from the remainder of the superior mandible, leaving an in- 
terval of about 2 lines between the separated portions. The vertical 
diameter of the detached lamince is about 2 lines, that of the re- 
mainder of the mandible at the widest part, 6 lines, which is less by 
2 lines than in the natural state, and shows that the detached horn- 
like process is not to be considered a superaddition. This is also 
manifested by the form of the upper surface of the inferior portion, 
which, instead of being rounded and convex as in the natural state, 
presents a groove corresponding to the size of the detached process 
above. The latter, on the contrary, has a smooth convex upper 
surface such as the upper mandible usually presents. A further 
argument in favour of the above view of the subject is to be 
derived from the situation of the nostrils, which, supposing the two 
portions to belong to one mandible, is the same as in the ordinary 
beaks of this species ; for they are placed exactly in the interval of 
the separated portions, and consequently about 2 lines from the 
upper margin of the mandible that would result from the union ; 



24 

whereas if the inferior portion had represented a perfect mandible 
and the superior projecting process a horny excrescence, we ought 
to have had the nostrils situated about 2 lines lower than they actually 
are in the malformed specimen. 

" The detached process extends nearly to the extremity of the 
upper mandible, but is turned a little to the right side. It appears 
neither to be hurtful nor inconvenient to the bird, which uses its 
beak in the ordinary way. 

" As this process is not liable to have its growth checked by at- 
trition, I inquired if it ever attained inordinate growth, so as to 
require cutting, but was told that it had never grown beyond its 
present size. 

" The bird which exhibits this singular lusus naturae is in the pos- 
session of Captain Owen, who brought it from Africa. Mrs. Owen, 
to whose politeness Mr. Vigors and myself are indebted for an ex- 
amination of the bird, informed us that the original vendor, a negro, 
on being questioned, denied that any artificial means had been em- 
ployed to produce the appearance. It was at that time a young 
bird, and is now six years old. It possesses the usual good temper 
and tractability of its species, which renders it such a general fa- 
vourite among the negroes and so much in request in Europe. 

" Although this malformation is of a simple kind, being rather 
per situm mutatum, than per excessum, yet there are not wanting in- 
stances of a complete and well-formed upper mandible being super- 
added and situated above the ordinary one, of which there is an 
example in the head of a Vulture preserved in the Museum of the 
Royal College of Surgeons." 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. William Daniell, R.A., ex- 
hibited numerous drawings of Antelopes made by his brother from 
living animals in his different journeys in Africa. He added, that he 
was induced to bring them before the Committee by his desire to 
publish engravings of twenty of the species under the patronage of 
the Society $ and briefly explained the terms on which he proposed 
to submit them to the public, commencing the work as soon as two 
hundred copies shall have been subscribed for. Mr. Daniell also 
exhibited drawings of the male and female fire-bached Pheasant, 
(Phasianus Ignitus, Lath.), which had been made by his brother 
in the native place of these birds. The male was observed to possess 
two elongated middle tail feathers, of a white colour with a black tip, 
which had never been observed in the specimens received in this 
country, nor noticed in the descriptions of the species, except by 
Dr. Latham, who referred to these drawings of Mr. Daniell. The 
Committee considered this fact worthy of being recorded, in order 
to draw the. attention of the naturalists of India to the circum- 
stance. 



25 



February 28, 1832. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Specimens were exhibited of numerous Mollusca and Conchifera 
hitherto undescribed, which form part of the collection made by 
Mr. H. Cuming during a voyage undertaken in 1827, 1828, 1829, 
and 1830, for the purpose of obtaining subjects in natural history 
on the western coast of South America, its adjacent islands, and 
many of those which form the principal Archipelago of the South 
Pacific Ocean. The specimens exhibited on the present occasion 
constituted the first portion of the collection, which extends in 
these classes to upwards of four hundred new species ; the whole of 
which Mr. Cuming proposes to bring before the Committee from 
time to time, as the descriptions of them are completed. The in- 
tention of publishing coloured figures of all the new species was 
announced. 

The new species brought, on this evening, under the notice of the 
Committee were accompanied by characters and descriptions of 
them by Mr. Broderip and Mr. G. B. Sowerby, of which the follow- 
ing is an abstract. 

Genus Chiton. 

* Ligamento marginis granoso. 
Chiton Goodallii. Chit, testa ovali, olivaceo -fused ; valvis ter- 
minalibus subradiatim granulosis, interne striatis ; cceteris con- 
centrice linearis, interne medio serratis, areis lateralibus subra- 
diatim granulosis ; limbo marginali granoso, olivaceo, cceruleo- 
viridi vario : long. 5, lat. 3 poll. 
Hab. ad insulas Gallapagos. (James's Island.) 
This fine species differs from Chit, olivaceus principally in the 
absence of longitudinal strice on the central areas of the valves, 
the coarser texture of the grains which stud the border, and in the 
colour of those grains, which in Chit, olivaceus is a uniform shining 
black, while in the specimens of Chit. Goodallii that are not aged 
the grains are of an olive brown dappled or even almost transversely 
banded with ccerulean green, going off towards the border in some 
individuals into a more dusky hue. Some of the specimens of a 
moderate size are beautifully marked on each side of the carina of 
the seven posterior valves with short, transverse, closely zigzagged 
lines of a light blue colour, about six in number. 

The older individuals were found in exposed situations ; the 
younger under stones and ledges of rock at low water. — W. J. B. 
Chiton Stokesii. Chit, testa ovatd, viridi-fuscd, intus viridi- 
cceruled; valvd anticd posticceque parte posticd granoso -rugosis, 
intermediarum areis lateralibus granoso-radiatis : long. 2-J-, lat. 
14- poll. 
[No. XVI.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



26 

Hab. ad oras America? Meridionalis. (Port St. Elena, west coast 

of Columbia and Panama.) 
In boldness of sculpture this species comes nearest to Chit. suU 
catus. 

It was found on stones at low water. — W. J. B. 

Chiton subfuscus. Chit, testd ovali, subfuscd, pallidiore varid, 
valvis terminalibus lincis subinterruptis concinnis radiatis ; val- 
varum intermediarum areis lateralibus radialim centralibus lon- 
gitudinaliter subsulcatis ; limbo granoso, granis externis majori- 
bus : long. 2-{j-, lat. lipoll. 
Hab. ad littora America? Meridionalis. (Island of Chiloe.) 
Var. area intermedia valvarum lsevi, parte centrali solum longi- 
tudinaliter subsulcata. 

In its form and general appearance this species resembles Chit. 
Goodallii. One specimen is of a dark rusty colour with a tinge of 
lead gray ; another is very dark chestnut brown. 
It was found under stones at low water. — G. B. S. 

** Ligamento marginis subgranoso, quasi velutino. 
Chiton Lyellii. Chit, testd oblongd, nigro, viridi, roseoque varid; 
dorso elevatiusculo ; valvd anticd radiatim subgranosd ; areis la- 
teralibus valvarum intermediarum radiatim obsolete granosis ; 
limbo minutissime subgranoso, quasi velutino : long. 1^, lat. %poll. 
Hab. in Polynesia. (Pitcairn's Island.) 

It was found in small round hollows formed by Echini in exposed 
situations at low water mark. — G. B. S. 

*** Ligamento marginis velutino. 
Chiton luridus. Chit, testd oblongd, elevatiusculd, cinered; 
valvd anticd, areis lateralibus valvarum intermediarum et valvd 
posticd scabroso-granidosis ; areis centralibus valvarum interme- 
diarum longitudinaliter sulcatis, interstitiis scabroso-granulosis : 
long. l-rV> lat. iV poll. 
Hab. ad littora Stae Elena?. 

This small species is remarkably scabrous all over ; the scabrosity 
of the central area of the intermediate valves being arranged in 
longitudinal rows. 

It was found on stones in five fathoms water. — G. B. S. 
Chiton limaciformis. Chit, testd elongatd, limaciformi, varie- 
gatd; dorso rotundato ; lateribus anterioribus valvarum interme- 
diarum emarginatis ; valvd anticd, areis lateralibus valvarum 
intermediarum et posticd parte valvce posticce longitudinaliter 
granulosis ; areis centralibus longitudinaliter sulcatis : long. 
1-t-V* lat. tV poll. 
Hab. ad oras fanerfcee Meridionalis. (Inner Lobos Island in 

Peru, and Guacomayo in Central America.) 
The intermediate valves are nearly as long as they are wide, are 
deeply notched on each side in front, and when viewed on the under ■ 
side appear much contracted : the lateral areae do not meet in the 
centre of these valves. — G. B. S. 












27 

*### Ligamento marginis coriaceo. 
Chiton Blainvillii. Chit, testd subrotundd, valvd anticd ob- 
scure radiatd,posticd minima, abruptd, cceteris concentrice linearis, 
rosed, albo, fusco, viridique varid, interne albida; limbo auran- 
tio-rubro postice valde angusto, antice enormiter producto, sub- 
rotundo, processibus coriaceis brevibus hinc et hinc (prcecipue ad 
marginem anticum) lacinioso : long. % lat. I4- poll, 
Hab. ad oras Peruvianas. (Inner Lobos Island.) 
The enormous production of the anterior part of the border gives 
to this species a considerable resemblance to a waterman's cap, or 
to an English coal-heaver's hat. 

Although sought for with great perseverance by Mr. Cuming, 
only a few specimens adhering to a stone were obtained while 
dredging in seventeen fathoms water. — W. J. B. 

Chiton Elenensis. Chit, testd oblongd, pallida ; dorso rotun- 
dato ; valvd anticd radiatim sulcata ; areis lateralibus valvarum 
intermediarum turgidis, unisulcatis ; valvd posticd retusd, postice 
radiatim sulcata; areis centralibus valvarum intermediarum irre* 
gulariter sulcato-scabrosis ; margine Icevi: long. -£#, lat. -rV poll. 
Hab. ad portum Stse Elenae et Panamae. 

This is the Chiton Janeirensis, var.? Gray. It is unquestionably 
a distinct species, as Mr. Gray hints it may be, from his Chit. Ja- 
neirensis. 

Found under stones at low water. — G. B. S. 
Chiton Swainsoni. Chit, testd oblongo-ovali, dorso elevatius- 
culo, castaned, albido-lineatd ; valvis rotundatis ; valvd anticd, 
area posticd valvce posticce et areis lateralibus valvarum inter- 
mediarum leviter radiato-granulosis ; areis medianis valvarum 
intermediarum longitudinaliter sulcatis : long. 1 -g- , lat. 1 poll. 
Hab. ad oras Peruvianas. (Iquiqui and Callao.) 
This species resembles in colouring Chit, lineolatus, Frembl ., but 
differs materially in its sculpture. 

It was found on Mytili and Pectines in nine fathoms water.-— 
G. B. S. 

Chiton crenulatus. Chit, testd oblongd, albido-rosed, lineis 
nigro-viridibus subconcentricis varid ; valvd anticd subgranoso- 
radiatd, posticd retusd, cceteris granoso- subconcentrice lineatis, 
medio externe carinatis, interne nigro-rubris ; areis lateralibus 
granoso -bir adiatis : long. l-rV> &f« I P°M- 
Hab. ad oras American Meridionalis. (Panama.) 
Found under stones below low water mark. — W. J. B. 

***** Ligamento marginis setoso. 
Chiton setosus. Chit, testd oblongo-ovali, cinereo-virescente, 
scabrosd; valvd anticd, areis lateralibus valvarum intermediarum 
et valvd posticd radiatim sulcatis ; setis marginis breviusculis, con- 
fertis; long. 1-^V, lat. ^ poll. 
Hab. ad oras Americae Centralis. (Guacomayo.) 
This species is very distinct from Chit, setiger, King, (Zool. 
Journ. vol. v. p. 338,) which it in some degree resembles. The bris- 
tles around the edge are much shorter, thicker, and more closely set. 



28 

It was found in exposed situations. — G. B. S. 

Chiton Frembleii. Chit, testa oblongd, complanatd, olivaceo* 
fused, lineis albido-viridibus varid ; valvce anticce radiis elevatis 
subgranosis ; intermediarum marginibus angulosis, areis lateralibus 
biradiatis, radiis subgranosis, interstitiis longitudinaliter subsul- 
catis; limbo setis brevibusfrequentibus obsito: long, l^lat. ] poll. 

Hab. in Sinu Valparaiso. 

This species differs from Chit, setiger, King, in being much flatter, 
in the more angular margins of its intermediate valves, and in its 
more numerous and much shorter bristles. 

It was found only on one exposed rock covered by a small species 
ofFucus.— W. J. B. 

****** Ligamento marginis piloso. 

Chiton scabriculus. Chit, testa ovali, planiusculd, cinered, 
albido-variegatd ; valvd anticd, areis lateralibus valvarum inter- 
mediarum et parte posticd valvce posticce radiatim scabroso- 
lineatis ; valvis intermediis et parte anticd valvce posticce longi- 
tudinaliter sulcatis ; limbo piloso, cinereo, rufo-articulato : long. 
If, lat. ^poll. 

Hab. ad littora America? Centralis. (Guacomayo and Puerto 
Portrero.) 

Found under stones. — G. B. S. 

******* Ligamento marginis fasciculato-piloso. 

Chiton retusus. Chit, testa oblongd, postice relusd, pallescente ; 
valva anticd, areis lateralibus valvarum intermediarum et valvce 
posticce area posticd turgidis, radiato- sulcatis ; areis centralibus 
valvarum intermediarum et area anticd valvce posticce sulcato- 
asperis ; ligamento marginis fasciculis pilorum minimis plurimis : 
long. liV, lat. -^y poll. 

Hab. ad oras America? Centralis. (Guacomayo and Puerto Por- 
trero.)— G. B. S. 

Genus Placunanomia. 

Testa adhserens, subsequivalvis, irregularis, complanata, marginem 
versus plicata, interne vitrea. Cardo internus, dentibus duobus 
elongatis, crassis, subcurvis, divaricatis, basi convergentibus in 
valva inferiore, sulcis duobus ligamentiferis in superiore. Valva 
inferior cardinem versus superficialiter irregulariter externe fissu- 
rata, organo adhaesionis subosseo inter testas laminas inserto et 
externe fissuram implente. Impressio muscularis in utraque valva 
subcentralis. In valva superiore organi adhaesionis impressio super- 
addita. 

This interesting genus partakes of the characters of the genera 
Ostrea, Plicatula, Placuna, and Anomia. It may be regarded as 
the connecting link between the two latter. With an arrangement 
of the hinge approaching very nearly to that of Placuna, it has the 
distinguishing organization of Anomia, while the external appear- 
ance of the shell, especially if viewed in situ, bears the strongest 
resemblance to a Plicatula or some of the plicated Oysters, The 
organ of adhesion, which in its bony character (for it is more bony 



29 

than shelly) resembles that of Anomia, does not perforate the lower 
valve directly, but is inserted between the laminae of the internal 
surface of the lower valve above the muscular impression and below 
the hinge, and passes out into an external irregular somewhat lon- 
gitudinal superficial fissure or cicatrix, which is narrowest at the 
hinge margin, and which it entirely fills to a level with the sur- 
rounding surface of the shell. 

Placunanomia Cumingii. Plac. testa subrotundatd, obscure 
argenteo-albidd, complanatd ; margine plicato, plicis maximis : 
long. 2-^, lat. tV, alt. 2% poll. 
Hab. ad oras Americae Centralis. (Gulf of Dulce, Province of 

Costa Rico.) 
Dredged from a muddy bottom, at a depth of eleven fathoms, 
attached to dead bivalve shells and dead coral. — W. J. B. 
Genus Dentalium. 
Dentalium splendidum. Dent, testa tenui, politd, basi earned, 
apice majori lacted ; aperturd posticd Jissuris duabus, alter d dor- 
sali, alter d ventrali : long. 1^V> lot, -^V poll. 
Hab. ad oras Americae Meridionalis. (Xipixapi, West Columbia.) 
Dredged in from ten to sixteen fathoms water, on a sandy muddy 

bottom G. B. S. 

Dentalium tesseragonum. Dent, testa tenui, lacted, Icevi, 

primum tetragond, ob angulos evanescentes dein cylindricd; linen 

incrementi tenuissimis annulos subhyalinos effbrmantibus : long. 

tV, lat. -rV poll. 

Hab. ad oras America? Centralis. (Gulf of Nocoiyo and Puerto 

Portrero -, also Xipixapi.) 
Var. angulis indistinctis • lineis incrementi annulos efFormantibus. 
Obtained in the same manner as the preceding species. — G. B. S. 
Dentalium quadrangulare. Dent, testa parvuld, albd, qua- 
drangulari, angulis acutiusculis, interstitiis striatis ; aperturd 
tetragond: long. -^, lat. y ff poll. 
Hab. ad oras Americae Meridionalis. (Xipixapi.) 
The colour of this shell is variable, being either milk-white, yel- 
lowish, or reddish ; the angles are less acute at the larger end; and 
at the smaller end there is sometimes formed a tubular appendage. 
— G. B. S. 

Dentalium perpusillum. Dent, testa minima, tenui, angusta, 
curvd, politd, albd ; apice acuto ; aperturd coarctatd, obliqud : 
long. -rV, lat. -jV poll. 
Hab. ad oras Americas Meridionalis. (Puerto Salango, West Co- 
lumbia.) 
This is related to Dent. Gadus, but is much more slender, and 
the aperture is obliquely truncated from the dorsal to the ventral 
margin. — G. B. S. 

Genus Helix. 
Helix Monile. Hel. testa globosd, turgido -plana, translucidd, 
corned, superne maculis strigisque angulatis moniliformibus or- 
natd; spird excavatd ; umbilico magno : long. T \, kit. 1 poll. 



30 

Hab, in Columbia. (Salango.) 

This pretty species belongs to that group of Helices which so much 
resemble Planorbis. — W. J. B. 

Genus Carocolla. 
Carocolla globosa. Car. testa orbiculatd, subcaslaned, infri 
tur giddy anfractu basali subangulato, scabriusculo ; labro uni- 
dentato, rejiexOy albo, dente magno ; aperturd Jusco-caslaned, 
umbilico mediocri : long. -g-, lat. 2^ poll. 
Hab. in sylvis Insula? Tumaco, Columbia? Occidentalis. 
An obscure band runs round the angle of the basal whorl. Ex- 
posure to the weather causes the chestnut colour of the shell to 
acquire somewhat of a blueish cast. — W. J. B. 

Carocolla quadridentata. Car. testa crbictdatdyfusci, an- 
fractu, basali turgido, angulatOy scabro ; labro subreflexo, albo, 
intus tridentato ; aperturd Jliscdy dente albo Jalcato armatd ; 
umbilico magno : long. 4-, la t, 4- poll. 
Hab, in sylvis America? Centralis. (Woods near the Gulf of 

Dulce.) 
This species approaches nearly to Car. Labyr'inthus: the white 
elevated tridentated lip is continued round the aperture: the single 
white falcated tooth is not attached to the lip, but rises within it 
from the lower surface of the basai whorl. — W. J. B. 

Genus Bulinus. 
* Labio externo tenui, acuto. 
Bulinus Broderipii. Bui. testd ovato-pyramidaliy tenuiy albi- 
cante y nigro Julvoque elegantissime maculatd et variegatd; an- 
fractibus qui?ique, rapide crescentibus, paullulum ventricosis ; 
suturd subcoiifluenti ; superficie granulis minimis y longitudinaliter 
seriatim dispositis : long. 1%, lat. 1^ poll. 
Hab. in fissuris rupium prope Copiapo Chilensium. 
Var. testa nana, albicante-rosacea, laeviore, maculis nigris ma- 
joribus et seriatim dispositis 

Hab. in fissuris rupium prope Iquiqui, in Peruvia. 
The dwarf variety was found at an elevation of 2500 feet above 
the level of the sea. — G. B. S. 

Bulinus Coturnix. Bid. testd glohoso-pyramidaliy anfractibus 
quatuor ad quinque, ventricosisy albicantibuSy fusco macvlatis et 
variegatis ; suturd distinctd; superficie tenuissime transvcrsim 
striata; umbilico parvo : long. 1^-, lat. ^ poll. 

Hab. sub lapides in aridis apud Huasco Chilensium. 

From the preceding species the present is easily distinguished by 
its more globular form and the possession of an umbilicus. — G. B. S. 

Bulinus Coquimbensis. Bid. testd levi, ovato : fusiformi,Jragili t 
subdiaphand, albido-Jiiscd, maculis strigisque nigro-fuscis spars:/; 
anfractibus &ex> longitudinaliter striatis, ultimo maxima ; labro 
acuto: long. 1 X V> lat, xV poll, 

Hab. ad Coquimbo in montibus. 



31 

The body whorl is more than twice as long as all the rest to- 
gether. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus granulosus. Bui. testd, ovato-pyramidali, subpellucidd, 
fused, strigis fasciisque interruptis castaneo-nigris varid; an- 
fractibus sex granulosis ; labro acuto : long.l-^, lat. -^ poll. 
Hab. subterraneus ad Valparaiso et in montibus Conceptionis. — 
W. J. B. 

Bulinus cactivorus. Bui. testa fusiformi-pyramidali, albidd, 
subpellucidd, opalescente ; anfractibus sex, subventricosis, longi- 
tudinaliter creberrime elevato -striatis ; spirce apice subnigro : 
long. -I, lat. -§- poll. 
Hab. ad montem Christe in Columbia. — W. J. B. 
Bulinus nitidus. Bui. testdfusiformi, subpellucidd, nitide albidd, 
strigis frcquentibus longitudinalibus castaneo-fuscis varid; an- 
Jractibus sex, longitudinaliter striatis ; apice subnigro ; labro 
acuto: long. \±, lat. -g- poll. 
Hab. in Peruvia. (Tumbez.) 

This species has somewhat of the opalescent character of the 
preceding. In some of the old specimens there is a small blunt 
tooth on the inner surface of the body whorl within the aperture 
and just above the columella ; but this is by no means a constant 
character. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus translucens. But. testa oblongo-pyramidali, levissime' 
transversim striata, pallide Jlavd, valde pellucidd; anfractibus 
quinque, subventricosis : long. -1-, lat. -g- poll. 
Hab. in America Meridionali, arboribus adherens. (King's and 

Saboga Islands, Bay of Panama.) 
This elegant Bulinus, when in fine preservation, is so translucent 
that the internal pillar and structure of the shell may be plainly 
viewed through its glassy surface. Like many other transparent 
shells, this species, when it has been long weathered or dead, becomes 
of a white hue and much more opaque. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus guttatus. Bui. testa fusiformi, pellucide Juscd, guttis 
lineisque longitudinalibus albis varid; anfractibus sex ; apice 
papillari et quasi elephantino : long. -£, lat . | poll. 
Hab. in Peruvia. (Cobija or Puerto De la Mar.) 
The termination of the spire in this pretty and transparent spe- 
cies is somewhat abrupt, and the ivory-looking apex is almost as 
papillary, and appears almost as opaque, as that of a Turbinella. — 
W. J. B. 

Bulinus vittatus. Bui. testd pyramidali, albidd, subdiaphand, 
vittis latisfuscis circumdatd, anfractibus septem, turgidis, longitu- 
dinaliter levissime striatis ; labro acuto ; umbilico mediocri ; aper- 
turd earned ; long. l-rV> lat. T V poll. 
Hab. in Peruvia. (Ho.)— W. J. B. 

Bulinus Scalariformis. Bui. testd pyramidali, subfuscd, an~ 
Jractibus quinque, subturgidis, creberrime longitudinaliter cos- 
tatis ; labro acuto ; umbilico magno : long. -^, lat. ^V poll. 
Hab. in Peruvia. (Ancon.) 
Var. testa fusca, fasciis et lineis transversis albis. — W. J. B. 



32 

Genus Partula. 

Partula hyalina. Part, testa oblongd, hyalind, anfractibus 
sex, longitudinaliter levissime striatis et transversim minutissime 
creberrimeque linearis ; labro albo : long. X V> lat. iV polL 
Hab. in Polynesia. (Oheataroa.) 

The sculpture of this elegant species is most minutely delicate. 
— W. J. B. 

Genus Achatina. 
Achatina Dactylus. Ach. testdfusiformi, subpellucidd,Jlave» 
scente, strigis rubro-castaneis longitudinalibus raris ; anfractibus 
septem, striis longitudinalibus minutissime crenulatis debris, et 
suturam versus crenulatam lineis circiter sex transversis : long. 
2tV, lat. -rV poll. 
Hab. in Insula Tumaco. 

The body whorl is large and long, and the upper whorls decrease 
rapidly. The sculpture, especially when viewed through a micro- 
scope, is most elaborate. — W. J. B. 

Genus Cyclostoma. 
Cyclostoma Cumingii. Cycl. testa orbiculari, subdepressd, 
albicante, epidermide fused ; spird elevatiusculd, earned; an- 
fractibus quinque vel sex, rotundatis, spiraliter sulcatis ; suturd 
subdecurrente ; aperturd fere circulari, obliqud, alba, superne 
subacuminatd, peritremate simplici subincrassato ; umbilico max- 
imo ; operculo corneo, tenui, spirali, anfractibus plurimis, mar- 
gin e fmbriato : long, ly^, lat. 2 poll. 
Hab. in America Meridionali. (Island of Tumaco.) 
The epidermis appears to be very deciduous, and is much thinner 
on the lower parts of the shell than on the upper, its remains form- 
ing a broad, dark, fuscous band just below the suture. — G. B. S. 

Cyclostoma succineum. Cycl. testa parvd, orbiculato-pyrami- 
dali, Iccvi, succined; anfractibus quinque, rotundatis ; suturd 
distinctd ; aperturd rotundatd, margine basali interna angulatd ; 
peritremate tenui, acuto ; umbilico parvo, margine carinato : 
long, -A, lat. -J-vpoll. 

Hab. in Polynesia. (Opara.) — G. B. S. 

Cyclostoma minutissimum. Cycl. testd globoso-pyramidaliy 
fulvd, apice nigro ; anfractibus tribus rotundatis; suturd pro- 
funda ; aperturd circulari; peritremate acuto ; umbilico nullo ; 
operculo corneo. 

Hab. in Insula Pitcairni. 

This is the smallest species of the genus. 

Genus Fasciolaria. 

Fasciolaria granosa. Fasc. testd fusiformi, tuber culiferd, luteo- 
albidd, transversim striata ; anfractibus suturam versus subangu- 
latis, duobus ultimis prcecipue tuberculiferis, tuberculis magnis, 
distantibus ; columella luted triplicatd ; aperturd transversim 






33 

striata, albidd, marginem versus subluted ; labro denticulate ; 
epidermide fused, granosd : long. 4-i, lat. 1<| foil. 
Hab. ad Panamam. 

The shell at first sight resembles Pyrula Vespertilio, but differs 
from it in many other points (such as the mamillary termination of 
the spire) besides the generic character of plaits on the pillar. 
It was found on mud banks. — W. J .B. 

Genus Voluta. 

Voluta Cumingii. Vol. testa ovato-pyramidali, albidd, cceruleo- 
spadiceo nebulosd, suturas versus nigro-spadiceo vittatd ; spird 
elongatd, apice acuto ; anfractibus nodosis, ultimo subcostato, 
costis tumidis ,fascid subcentrali pallida lata cincto ; labro tumido 
subcontracto subreflexo, acuto, varice interno obliquo, submedio ; 
columella obscure multiplicatd, plicis tribus ultimis maximis : 
long. l£, lat. % poll. 
Hab. in America Centrali. (Gulf of Fonseca, province of San 

Salvador.) 
This pretty species is one of the group which approaches so 
closely to the Mitres. In some, as in Vol. lyriformis , we have a 
general likeness ; in others similitude of particular parts of the 
shell ; and in Vol. Cumingii we have general similarity combined 
with the strictly acuminated spire of a Mitra joined to the arrange- 
ment of plaits on the pillar by which Voluta is distinguished from 
that genus. 

A single specimen was dredged in nine fathoms water. — W.J.B. 

A paper was read by Mr. Cox, in which he entered at some length 
into the consideration of atmospheric causes as influencing the health 
of exotic animals kept in confinement in thi3 climate. 

He commenced by reminding the Committee of the power pos- 
sessed by man of supporting extreme vicissitudes of temperature even 
to the extent of from —40° to 2/0° or 280° Fahr., and by observing 
that no other animal can bear such a range with impunity. Thus a 
Leopard has been killed by exposure to a degree of cold but little 
below 32° 5 while on the other hand the Esquimaux Dog is incapable 
of bearing, without great inconvenience, the heat of our climate in 
summer. 

The cause of the generation of heat in animals remains still to be 
ascertained. The chemical theory ingeniously propounded by Craw- 
ford is now perhaps generally regarded as unsatisfactory j and indeed 
the later experiments of Dulong seem almost conclusive of its inade- 
quacy to explain the phenomena. The experiments of Mr. Brodie 
have fully proved that the nervous influence is necessary for the pre- 
servation of the animal temperature : and Dr. Wilson Philip, regard- 
ing the nervous influence as identical with galvanism, has shown that 
galvanism and electricity are both capable of sustaining for some time 
the temperature of a cup of blood. This, however, as Mr. Cox remarks, 
only proves that the stimulus employed by Dr. Philip will for a short 
time produce phenomena similar to vital action, but by no means 



34 

proves the identity of that stimulus with the one which forms so im- 
portant a part of the animal economy; an observation further illus- 
trated by the fact that a purely mechanical stimulus, such as the ap- 
plication of a needle, will excite muscular action after life has ceased. 
If moreover temperature, arterialization, digestion, &c, were all pro- 
duced by electric agency, this would surely be manifested by delicate 
instruments j but no such manifestation is obtained. Still further, it 
is worthy of observation that in those animals (such as the Gymnotus 
electricus and the Torpedos) which are endowed with electric power, 
a peculiar apparatus exists for the development of such power. On 
the whole, indeed, it appears that modern physiologists have scarcely 
advanced in the explanation of the causes of animal temperature be- 
yond that given by John Hunter, who says, " It is most probable that 
it arises from some other principle; a principle so connected with life, 
that it can, and does, act independently of sensation, circulation, and 
volition ; and is that power which preserves and regulates the internal 
machine. This power of generating heat is in the highest perfection 
when the body is in health ;" and the energy of the vital principle is, 
in fact, the scale by which we can estimate the power of the body 
to sustain its temperature. 

There are many circumstances which modify the effects of tempe- 
rature upon animals and render them more susceptible of a low tem- 
perature. Such are want of exercise, inappropriate food, impure at- 
mosphere, exhaustion whether from fatigue or hunger, immature age, 
season, and the quality of the air as to humidity or dryness. These 
were severally considered. 

The excitement produced by exercise, the activity imparted by it 
to the circulation, and the glow which it gives to the system, all tend 
to render an animal less susceptible to the effect of a low tempera- 
ture. Dens therefore in which animals are kept should be of sufficient 
size to allow of the taking of free exercise. Its importance is strongly 
illustrated by the fact that in very cold or elevated situations cessation 
of motion is destruction, well known instances of which are the cases 
of Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander, and of Dr. Richardson. 

The quality of the food is of the greatest importance, and should 
be regulated as nearly as possible in accordance with the habits of 
the animals in a state of nature. This subject requires therefore ex- 
tensive inquiry and observation. There is, however, one part of it 
which is deserving of particular notice as connected with climate. 
In the quality of his nourishment man is guided by the climate in 
which he lives. The Esquimaux adopts a food entirely animal. The 
Hindoo uses a diet solely vegetable, employing condiments only to 
counteract the flatulency which such food is likely to produce. The 
inhabitants of northern countries take, and without material injury, 
stimulating liquors ; — the use of such beverages is borne very badly 
by the natives of India. In cold and elevated regions stimulating 
diet appears therefore to be indicated, and it seems consequently ad- 
visable to furnish such, including even spirits or fermented liquors, to 
tropical animals kept in our climate during the cold season. 

Air vitiated by respiration is deprived of the requisite stimulus to 



35 

support the due arterialization of the blood -, and hence animals con- 
fined in such air are in a state peculiarly liable to be affected by any 
great or unusual depression of temperature. It is probably on ac- 
count of their breathing air much contaminated by carbonic acid gas 
that persons sleeping near limekilns are so frequently frost-bitten. 
In repositories for animals which are much frequented the air is vi- 
tiated by the respiration of the visitors also, who, moreover, impart a 
heat to the rooms which is indicated by the thermometer, but is not 
beneficial but noxious to the animals. The air should be continually 
renewed, and when its temperature is to be raised it should be heated, 
where practicable, by a furnace placed in a lower apartment previously 
to being admitted into the repository, from which ample exit should 
be allowed at the top : in this manner an effective ventilation on just 
and scientific principles would be established. 

Exhaustion from fatigue is one of the causes which render persons 
ascending heights more susceptible to the impression of cold : ex- 
haustion from hunger produces the same effect : Mr. Hunter has 
shown that an animal which had fasted for some time was more 
affected by cold than one that was well fed, the reduction of tempe- 
rature in the latter being 16° and 18°, in the former 18° and 21°. 
The means of counteracting these effects in menageries are obvious ; 
but it is particularly necessary to attend to them in the importation of 
tropical animals, so many of which perish in beating up Channel, the 
effect of the low temperature being increased by the exhaustion from 
the fatigue of the voyage. Hence in the Channel not only should 
cold be particularly guarded against, but additional food should be 
supplied. 

Young animals are generally very susceptible of the effects of cold, 
as has been shown by the experiments of M. Edwards. Thus, young 
birds removed from the nest become quickly of the same temperature 
as the surrounding atmosphere. The young of those Mammalia which 
are born blind are equally obnoxious to cold, their blood being im- 
perfectly arterialized, owing to the foramen ovale remaining open for 
some time ; the young of the other Mammalia retain the temperature 
of the adult animal. This makes it very important that if any of the 
feline or similar races of animals breed in European menageries, their 
dens should be peculiarly warm : the probability of preserving them 
will also of course be considerably increased if the young are produced 
in summer, or even in spring. 

Season, as has been shown by the experiments of M.Edwards, ex- 
ercises a considerable influence on the susceptibility of animals for cold; 
a much greater degree being borne with impunity in winter than in 
summer. This is apparently analogous to what occurs in the vegetable 
kingdom : a tree which will bear in winter a temperature of — 20° with- 
out injury will be scathed as if by lightning, and perhaps die, if in sum- 
mer it be exposed to 32° or 30°. Many animals, in captivity especially 
(the Sylviadce as a familiar instance,) are as susceptible of cold as these 
trees ; a draft of cold air or a frosty night will frequently produce on 
them effects from which they never recover. As this susceptibility is 
so considerably increased during summer, especial care should be 



36 

taken to guard against the vicissitudes which frequently occur at that 
season. Animals brought from warm climates to those which are 
colder suffer under the same evils as animals exposed in summer to 
a considerable reduction of temperature. Tropical animals should 
therefore on their first importation be placed in apartments of higher 
temperature, which may be gradually reduced to that usually main- 
tained in the part of the menagerie appropriated to similar animals. 

The state of the atmosphere as regards humidity and dryness is of 
the highest importance to health. A very humid atmosphere does 
not exist at a temperature much below 40°, for when there is any 
great degree of frost the moisture is precipitated -, but a temperature 
of 40° when the air is saturated with damp is highly injurious, pro- 
ducing catarrhs and coughs, which are frequently cured by a sharp 
frost. Our insular situation may expose us especially to humidity, 
which has a bad effect, on vegetation at least, by intercepting light. 
The degree of luminousness in the atmosphere is probably of more 
importance in climate than is generally imagined. Between Havre 
de Grace and Portsmouth it is but eleven hours sail, yet there is 
evidently the difference of a complete climate in the productions of 
the soil and in animal life 5 the pomegranate and the vine grow- 
ing in the former place with luxuriance and fertility, and many in- 
sects which are here scarce, occurring there in the utmost profusion. 
The cold and humid atmosphere prevalent during our winters, and 
commonly called raw cold, is highly prejudicial to animals ; and its 
evil effects are so much the more rapidly produced, as by the de- 
position of the moisture on the covering of the animal, the wetted 
fur or wool (as occurred in an experiment made by John Hunter on 
the freezing of a Dormouse) is changed from the state of a bad to that 
of a good conductor of heat. During the continuance of such a state 
of atmosphere the apartments of the animals should be kept closed, 
and only so far opened as may be necessary for ventilation. Much 
of the humidity might be abstracted from the air by means of lime, or 
perhaps still more effectually, as suggested by Leslie, by dry vegetable 
mould. 

Extreme dryness of the atmosphere combined with cold is equally 
prejudicial, as was proved by M. Edwards, with the combination of 
cold and moisture j the latter causing mischief by the degree of cold 
it produced, and the former by the increased transpiration which it 
excited from the mucous surfaces. During March and April espe- 
cially this dry and cold state of the atmosphere prevails in England 
with winds from the N. and N.E. j and Mr. Daniell states that he 
has seen the dew point of his hygrometer at 20° to 30° below the 
temperature of the atmosphere, evidencing a degree of dryness 
scarcely surpassed by that of the Harmattan. This state of atmo- 
sphere is almost diametrically opposed to that of tropical climates 
generally ; a remarkable instance of which is afforded by the obser- 
vations of Captain Sabine in Africa, where the dew point was almost 
at full saturation. It must consequently, though highly injurious to 
all animals, be more particularly so to those brought from tropical 
regions. Its effect is to produce inflammation of the mucous surfaces, 



37 

croup, bronchitis, &c. j and it is well worthy of consideration whether 
inflammatory affections of the respiratory organs arising from such a 
cause would not be materially benefited by saturating with moisture 
the air of the apartments inhabited. Evaporation should during its 
continuance be promoted in menageries, either by placing wet cloths 
over the pipes employed for heating them, or by means of a fountain, 
or by exposing in different parts of the rooms vessels containing 
water. 

In the preceding observations the preservation of animals brought 
from tropical climates has been chiefly considered j but the keeping 
of those which are obtained from the northern or more elevated re- 
gions is apparently even more difficult. 

The Rein-deer and the Chamois scarcely ever continue to live during 
even a moderate period in our climate, the differences between which 
and that of the countries of extreme cold are worthy of especial con- 
sideration. One of these is the heaviness of our atmosphere, as com- 
pared with the highly rarefied state in which it exists in elevated re- 
gions j a difference so great as to increase the pressure of the air 
on the human body to the extent of 5500 lbs. beyond that which it 
sustains at an elevation of 1 200 toises. To obviate this, no sugges- 
tion can be advanced. Another marked distinction is the extreme hu- 
midity of England during the winter months, a state highly detrimental 
to life in beings adapted to a dry atmosphere 5 for a frosty atmosphere 
is (as has been before remarked) necessarily a dry one, and at a tem- 
perature of —-20° it is absolutely dry. The effect on animals of so 
great a contrast may receive some illustration from the evils resulting 
from moisture to the plants of cold regions : Auriculas die unless the 
moisture is drained from the pots in which they are kept j and the 
Saxifraga oppositifolia, and Rubus arcticus, plants which inhabit the 
extreme north, rot from the dampness of our atmosphere. Its effects 
upon arctic animals may, however, be guarded against by the precau- 
tions already suggested as adapted to preserve tropical animals from 
the influence of the raw cold of our climate. 

The greater part of the animals of northern regions, excepting 
those which hibernate, migrate to more southern latitudes, where food 
is more abundant and the cold less severe. Those which remain are 
generally predaceous, and being reduced to the greatest necessity, 
are voracious in the extreme. It is therefore a question whether in 
our attempts to keep such animals they should not be placed on a 
very low diet. This is also indicated by the fact that animals of cold 
countries are less acted upon by cold than those of warmer climates ; 
they approach apparently somewhat to the state of the cold-blooded 
classes, and it is therefore probable that it would be improper to 
exhaust their irritability by stimulating them at a period when nature 
has provided that they should be in a state of subaction. Hiberna- 
tion is the extreme of this state. It is a great resource established 
by nature to obviate the evils of low temperature and privation. 
In this condition the quadruped sinks to a state resembling that of a 
reptile, its temperature scarcely exceeding that of the immediately 
surrounding air, a state of existence which has been beautifully con- 



38 

trasted by M. Edwards with the summer condition of the same animal. 
Mr. Cox adverted particularly to the more remarkable phenomena of 
hibernation, which, he stated, were now undergoing the investigation 
of Dr. Marshall Hall, who was about to lay the result of his experiments 
on this subject before the Royal Society. 

Mr. Cox then proceeded to recapitulate the practical remarks which 
had resulted from his previous observations, and which in the present 
abstract have been embodied with them. He afterwards entered 
into the consideration of temperature, and dwelt particularly on 
the importance of maintaining it at a sufficiently high degree in 
all collections of tropical animals. On the question as to the degree 
which might safely be regarded as sufficient, he remarked that if ana- 
logies drawn from the vegetable kingdom could be depended on, 
reference might be made to a temperature of from 50° to 90°, being 
that of the noble Palm-house of Messrs. Loddiges, in which those 
natives of tropical climates nourish admirably. But it is evident 
from experience that 50° will be sufficient to keep tropical animals 
alive in this climate, and a temperature of from 50° to 55° will pre- 
serve them in health and activity. To induce them to breed with us, 
that temperature will not be high enough, for an emasculating effect, 
as has been observed by Mr. Yarrell in the Peccary and other ani- 
mals, is produced by a cold climate : the few instances in which some 
of the Fells tribe have been fruitful in this country, being only to be 
regarded as exceptions. To develope the organs of reproduction in 
plants, a higher degree of temperature than that suited for their mere 
preservation is required; this rule may be equally applicable to ani- 
mals, and the temperature of repositories for those of tropical climates 
should therefore probably be allowed to alternate between 55° and 70°. 
Mr. Cox repeated his opinion that sufficient humidity should at the 
same time be provided. 

Mr. Cox concluded by stating that he had long been of opinion 
that the best test for the proper state of the atmosphere in a mena- 
gerie is vegetation. If the plants of a tropical or warm latitude thrive, 
he conceives that the temperature and state of atmosphere (for it is 
not temperature alone which we have to regard, but the other qualities 
of the atmosphere also, moisture, elasticity, &c.) cannot be far removed 
from those required for animals of the same latitudes. He assumes 
that a perfect Vivarium should include within its area a conservatory 
containing plants, natives of countries of a character similar to that 
of the animals inclosed. No apprehension need, he thinks, be en- 
tertained of plants contaminating the air to any injurious degree, 
if proper ventilation were established, and abundance of fresh unre- 
spired air were supplied : the contrary would in fact be frequently 
the case during the day-time, the experiments of Priestley having 
shown that the purity of air vitiated by the breathing of animals is 
restored by the growth of living and healthy vegetables freely ex- 
posed to the solar light. 



39 



March 13, 1832. 

Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Gray described three new animals, brought from New Hoi- 2 
land by Mr. Cunningham. Of these, one was a Quadruped, forming 
a new genus of the Order Rodentia ; the two others Reptiles of the 
family of Lizards. The quadruped was characterized as follows: 

Pseudomys. 

Denies primores f, superiores antice rotundati laeves, inferiores 
subulati : molares -£, 4 radicati ; superiores oblongi, primus major 
elongatus extus uni-plicatus ; inferiorum primus compressiusculus 
secundo duplo longior, postremus parvus oblongus extus plicatus. 

Caput magnum. Aures majusculee nudiusculae. Artus sub- 
aequales, digitis 5, 5, longis liberis compressis, unguibus parvis cur- 
vatis. Cauda filiformis subannulata pilis brevibus setosis vestita. 

The general appearance of this animal agrees with that of the 
Water- Rats ; but the teeth are simple, and approach in character, 
as they correspond in number with, those of the true Rats. They 
differ, however, in the adult animal (the only state in which Mr. 
Gray had an opportunity of observing them,) in the front grinders 
of the lower jaw being much more compressed and elongated; and 
in the front grinder of the upper jaw and the hinder one of the lower 
having each a fold on the outer edge, and a corresponding ridge 
across the outer surface of the crown. The skull appears, judging 
from its remains, which were exhibited to the Committee, to bear 
a close resemblance in shape to that of the Rat. On the fore feet 
the thumb is short, almost rudimentary, and furnished with a claw; 
the second and third toes are nearly equal, and longer than the first 
and fourth, of which the latter is rather the shortest. On the hind 
feet the thumb is short and slender, the second, third, and fourth 
toes are nearly equal, and the fifth is shorter, and placed higher. 
The following is the specific character of the animal : 

Pseudomys Australis. Pseud. ?iigresce?di-brunneus cineras- 
cente intcrstinctus, infra cinereo-rufescens ; collo pectoreque ci- 
nerascentibus. 

Hab. in Nova Hollandia Orientali extratropica. 

The fur is soft, close, thick, blackish brown, and slightly grizzled 
at the tips of the hairs; beneath, it is of a reddish ash; and on the 
throat and breast grayish ash. The whiskers are slender, weak, and 
reach beyond the ears. The head and body measure 5± inches ; 
the tail 3^y ; the fore foot 5^- lines ; and the hind foot 1 inch. 

Mr. Cunningham states that the animal inhabits holes in swampy 
sandy grounds on the south-west or lower side of Liverpool Plains 
in New Holland. 



40 

One of the Lizards was also regarded by Mr. Gray as forming a 
new genus in the family of Geckos, which he characterized as fol- 
lows, under the name of 

DlPLODACTYLUS. 

Squamce subconformes, minutse, lseves, abdominales paulo ma- 
jores, caudales majores annulatae, labiales mediocres distinctsa, 
tritms anterioribus utrinque multo majoribus, gulares nullfe. Cauda 
cylindrica, ventricosa. Digiti 5, 5, simplices, subaequales, subcy- 
lindrici, apicibus subdilatatis, subtiis bifidis, discis duobus carnosis 
laevibus ovalibus obliquis; unguibus 5, 5, parvis, maxime retracti- 
libus. Porijemorales nulli. 

This genus differs from Phyllodactylus, Gray, in the under sides 
of the tips of the toes being furnished with two rather large oblong 
tubercles, which are truncated at the tip, and form two oval disks 
placed obliquely, one on each side of the claw, instead of having, 
as in Phyllodactylus, two membranaceous scales. The scales of the 
body are also uniform, while in that genus there is a series of larger 
scales extending along the back. The species, a drawing of which 
was exhibited, was named 

Diplodactyi.us vittatus. Dipl.fuscus, vitta dorsali longitu- 
nali lata saturatiore ; lateribus testaceis, artubus, cauddque ma- 
culis seriatisflavis marginatis. 

Hah. in Nova Hollandia. 

The length of the head and body is 2 inches ; that of the tail 1 J 
inch. On each side of the body there are two rows of rather distant 
small spots, which become larger on the upper surface of the tail ; 
they are scattered on the limbs. 

The other Reptile described was a species of Tiliqua, the 

Tiliqua Cunninghami. Til. squamis superioribus carinato- 
spinosis, carinis seriatis. 

Hab. in Nova Hollandia Orientali extratropica. 

This species is very distinct from all the rest of its genus, and 
even of its family, on account of its carinated scales, which are suf- 
ficiently prominent on the back and sides, but become more so on 
the limbs, and still larger in size, although their series decrease in 
number, as they approach the extremity of the tail. The colour is 
pale brown, dotted with yellow above, and paler beneath, with ob- 
scure darker spots. The head and body measure 8, and the tail 
7, making a total length of 15 inches. 

Mr. Cunningham found this Lizard in a torpid state in a barren 
sandy part of the scrubby country in lat. 29°, while prosecuting his 
overland journey from Port Jackson towards Moreton Bay in the 
winter of 1827. 

Mr. Gray stated that the comparison of a young specimen of 
Mus giganteus, Hardw., with a specimen of Mus setifer, Horsf., 
presented to the British Museum by their respective describers, had 
enabled him to correct an opinion expressed by M. Temminck in 
the 'Tableau Methodkjue,' appended to his < Monographies de Mam- 



41 

malogie', that the latter species is only the young of the former. 
The differences between the two animals were stated to be as fol- 
lows. In M us giganteus the head is short and rounded ; the eyes 
are large ; the fur is rather short, pale brown, varied with yellowish 
and black on the back, and ashy beneath ; the feet are of moderate 
size; and the claws moderate and blunt. The specimen being 
young is about the size of Mus setifer, the head and body measuring 
8 inches, and the tail 5\ ; but the length of the hinder foot to the 
end of the heel does not exceed 1 J inch. In Mus setifer, on the 
contrary, the muzzle is long and compressed ; the eyes are small ; 
the fur is long, loose, mixed on the rump with abundance of long, 
flat-tipt, bristly hairs, of a dark brown above, and darker with much 
longer scattered hairs beneath ; and the hinder feet are very large 
and strongly clawed. The length of the body is 7J- inches; the tip 
of the tail is wanting in the specimen ; the ears are 13 lines in 
length; and the hinder feet If inch, being half an inch longer than 
those of the young Mus giganteus. The geographical range of the 
latter appears to be very extensive, Mr. Charles Hardwick having 
transmitted to the British Museum a specimen from Van Diemen's 
Land. 

Mr. Gray further observed that the comparative length of the 
hinder feet, and the relative distances of the tubercles of the sole 
from the end of the toes and from the heel, appear to furnish very 
good distinctive characters for the species of this difficult genus. 
Thus in the Wood Mouse, Mus sylvaticus, L., the hinder tubercle of 
the sole is about a line nearer to the heel than to the end of the 
toes, while in the common Mouse, Mus Musculus, L., which has a 
shorter hind foot, the hinder tubercle is nearly equidistant between 
the heel and the tip of the toes. 

Mr. Gray also stated, that in examining a specimen of Antipathes 
sent to the British Museum by the Rev. R. T. Lowe from Madeira, 
and which he believed to be identical with the Ant.dichotoma, Pall., 
he had discovered the animals of this remarkable Coral, and thus as- 
certained (what had previously been only presumed from the close 
resemblance of their horny axes) its near relation to the genus Gor- 
gonia. He regarded this confirmation of the generally received 
opinion as the more important in consequence of the apparent simi- 
larity between some of the species of Antipathes and some strong 
fibrous Sponges, which are now generally believed not to be the 
habitations of Polypes. The minute branches of the specimen exa- 
mined bore on their surface at irregular intervals a number of red, 
dry, pellucid tubercles ; and portions of a similar substance were 
observed hanging from their sides. These on being immersed for 
some time in proof spirits, and afterwards placed for examination 
in water, exhibited under the microscope, in each tubercle, a polype 
exactly similar to those of Gorgonia and Corallium, except that it 
had only six tentacula, while the polypes of the two last-named ge- 
nera have eight. It is necessary to observe that when examined in 
spirit the polypes and the thin bark by which they are connected to 



42 

each other and to the stem assumed a uniform waxy appearance, 
and broke down beneath the needle without exhibiting any traces 
of organization, This circumstance had nearly induced Mr. Gray 
to abandon his search, had he not discovered that by macerating 
in water, and thus removing the spirit, the polype was restored to 
its natural gelatinous consistence, in which state it was readily ex- 
panded and observed. Minute, pellucid, oval bodies, which are 
perhaps similar to the irregular papillary spicula found in the bark 
of Gorgonia, are scattered through the bark of this species of Jnti* 
pathes, and the axes of its smaller branches are minutely tubular. 

In Ellis's * History of Zoophytes' is given a figure of what the au- 
thor regarded as the polype of Ant. spiralis, which he found scattered 
over the stem of that species in the shape of small distant warts. 
These when soaked in water he describes as having six tentacula 
surrounding a small cup. The tentacula, he observes, in a letter to 
Linnaeus, published in the 'Correspondence' of that naturalist, are 
shaped like a bull's horns, with wrinkles across, and full of gelati- 
nous matter ; and the cup is of a most elegant figure. In the figure 
this part appears to be concave, with a crenated edge, and placed 
on an urn-shaped pedicel. Should this account of the polype of 
Ant. spiralis prove to be correct, it would be necessary to remove 
that species from the neighbourhood of the Gorgonice and other 
barked Corah, from all of which it would differ so remarkably in 
its cup-shaped appendage, and the want of ciliation on the surface 
of its tentacula. Mr. Gray added that he had repeatedly examined 
the stem of the species in question, but had never been able to dis- 
cover on it anything resembling a polype. The earlier observations 
of ltumphius, Marsigli, and Pallas, the former- on Ant. spiralis and 
the two latter on Ant. dichotoma, were of too vague a character to 
furnish any idea of the real structure of the polype. 

Mr. Owen read the following account of the anatomy of the 
Ariel Toucan, Ramphastos Ariel, Vig. 

h Independently of the beauty of the plumage and singularity of 
the form of the Toucans, the peculiarity of some of their habits and 
actions renders them extremely interesting to the naturalist while in 
the living state, and not less desirable in connexion with the doubts 
respecting their natural food, as objects of anatomical investigation 
after death. These doubts, however, have already been in a great 
measure dispelled by the observations on the living Toucan, which 
we owe to Mr. Broderip (Zoological Journal, vol. i. p. 484?.), and 
by the subsequent remarks of Mr. Vigors (Ibid., vol. ii. p. 466.) on 
the present individual/ which for some time formed a principal or- 
nament of his choice collection. 

" The alimentary canal of the Toucan is short and simple, but has 
a general character of capacity which accords with the peculiar 
form of beak at its commencement. The oesophagus is 7 inches in 
length ; it is at first 1 inch in width, and becomes slightly narrower 
to its termination. It is unprovided with a crop, and not to be 
distinguished very readily from the proventriculus, as that cavity 



43 

is continued in the same lino with it without any dilatation, and 
its limits are only recognisable when its internal surface is seen. 
The lining membrane of the oesophagus exhibits at its commence- 
ment (or pharynx) the usual assemblage of retroverted papilla', 
after which it is smooth, and then rendered irregular by ruga', which 
towards the termination of the tube fell into distinct narrow longi- 
tudinal folds, evidently the consequence of a temporary state of 
contraction at that part. As it passes into the proventriculus it 
assumes the character of a mucous membrane, and also becomes 
finely reticulate ; the orifices of the gastric glands being in the 
interstices of the meshes. These glands are simple cylindrical 
follicles dispersed over the whole cavity, but more closely aggregated 
near the gizzard. The length of the proventriculus is 1 inch. 

"The gizzard is a spheroidal cavity, about \\ inch in diameter. 
The muscular coat does not exceed half a line in thickness j the 
lateral tendons are small but distinct. The horny lining membrane 
is tough and hard ; it was stained of a deep yellow colour, and not 
so readily separable from the muscular coat as I have observed in 
other birds. The entrance to the gizzard is by an ample orifice, 
and this, in connexion with the structure of the previously described 
parts, perfectly accords with the regurgitating actions witnessed by 
Mr. Broderip in Ramphastos erythrorhynchus, and which, being fol- 
lowed by a repetition of the process of mastication, he aptly com- 
pares to the act of rumination. The thin parietes of the gizzard, 
corresponding to the omnivorous character of this bird, may render 
in some cases additional mastication necessary ; and the powers of 
the extraordinarily developed beak may in this way compensate for 
the absence of the grinding structures so peculiar in the stomachs 
of the true vegetable feeders. The pyloric orifice of the gizzard is 
situated about a quarter of an inch from the cardiac entry, and is 
only 3 lines in diameter. The stomach, if we include in this term 
both proventriculus and gizzard., derives its nutrient fluid, as in man, 
from two sources ; the one a vessel analogous to the coronary artery, 
which comes off from the descending aorta ; the other an artery 
from the hepatic, analogous to the gastro-epiploic ; but in this in- 
stance the former vessel is remarkable for its superior size, in con- 
sequence of having to supply materials for the extensive secretion 
which takes place in the proventriculus. 

" The intestinal canal is 2 feet 1 inch in length ; it is 1-| inch in 
circumference at the commencement, 2 inches at the termination, 
and 1 inch at the middle, from which part it gradually widens to 
both extremities. It is simple, being without caecal appendages, 
corresponding in this respect to some carnivorous birds, as the Vul- 
ture, King-Jisher, and Cormorant; to some insectivorous birds, as 
the Nightingale, Woodpecker, and Hoopoe; and to some frugivorous 
and granivorous birds, as Glaucopis, the Psiitacidai, Columba coro- 
nata, and some other species of Pigeon. The mucous membrane of 
the intestines presents extremely delicate villi, between 1 and 2 lines 
in length, and repeats in a striking manner the peculiar downy cha- 
racter of the external integument. These villi become in a very 



44- 

gradual manner shorter and thicker, disappearing at length within 
a few lines of the verge of the cloaca. The duodenum forms a loose 
fold about 3 inches in length : the remainder of the alimentary canal 
is attached by a wide mesentery to the middle of the posterior 
parities of the abdomen. 

" The liver is composed of two lobes of unequal size, joined by 
a small band : the margins of the lobes are more rounded than 
usual. There is no gall-bladder j a small hepatic duct enters the 
duodenum very near its commencement; a second duct of about 2 
lines in width terminates near the pancreatic duct at a distance of 
4 inches from the pylorus. This dilated duct might serve in some 
measure in place of a gall-bladder • and a more complete receptacle 
for retaining and increasing the active powers of the biliary secre- 
tion may be unnecessary where the alimentary canal is so simple, 
short, and capacious, as in the Toucan. It is, however, interesting 
to observe that the Psittacidce, to which the Toucan manifests its 
affinity in other parts of its structure, exhibit a corresponding de- 
ficiency both of cceca and gall-bladder. The Pigeons also which 
are without a gall-bladder either want the cceca altogether, or 
have them, as in the Insessorial birds, of very small size. This cor- 
responding deficiency must, however, be considered rather as simple 
coincidence than in the relation of cause and effect; for in the 
Vulture and Nightingale the gall-bladder exists without the cceca, 
while in the Cuckoo the cceca exist without the gall-bladder : the 
similar examples in the other classes of Vertebrata are too well 
known to require notice. 

" The kidneys are composed of three lobes, of which the middle 
one is the smallest; their length is 1| inch; their surface is con- 
voluted., though in a less marked degree than in Reptiles. Between 
the anterior extremities of these glands was situated the ovary, of 
a triangular shape, and apparently healthy in structure. The ova 
were like minute granules, and disposed in a convoluted manner. 
The supra-renal glands were imbedded in the posterior part of the 
ovary. The oviduct was as large as a crow-quill ; it commenced 
by the usual fimbriated and wide aperture, was slightly tortuous at 
the commencement, and then continued straight to the cloaca. 

" Among the varied forms of tongue which birds present, that of 
the Toucan is one of the most remarkable. Its length from the aper- 
ture of the glottis is 2£ inches. The posterior ridge or backward- 
projecting process,, is broad, and finely notched ; it is situated about 
4 lines from the glottis. Anterior to this process the tongue is 
soft and minutely papillose for the extent of 4 lines, and here, 
most probably, the sense of taste resides : the rest of the organ 
consists of a transparent horny lamina, flattened horizontally and 
supported by the anterior process of the os hyoides, which forms 
a ridge along the middle of its inferior surface. At about \\ inch 
from the extremity of the horny lamina the margins become ob- 
liquely notched, and these notches becoming deeper and closer to-- 
gether towards the extremity occasion the bristled appearance on 
each side of the tongue. These bristles, Mr. Vigors observes, were 



45 

generally applied to the morsels of food whilst held between the 
mandibles previously to being swallowed. 

" The cornua of the oshyoides are 1^ inch in length. The trachea 
is 5 inches in length, the rings somewhat flattened and decreasing 
in diameter towards the inferior extremity, from which a single pair 
of muscles pass off to the sternum. The length of the lower fourth 
of the tube, and the state of tension in the bronchia, are regulated 
by a pair of small muscles, which, arising from the sides of the tra- 
cheal cartilages, are inserted into the bone of divarication at the 
extremity of the trachea : and that this part of the tube is subjected 
to variations in length is indicated by the tortuous character of the 
recurrent nerves attached to the sides of the trachea at this part. 
The lungs are small in proportion to the size of the bird, but of the 
usual form and structure. The abdominal air-cells were of small 
size. The heart is of a more oblong form than in general ; its 
apex, as it were, truncate ; its length 1 inch. 

" The pectoral muscles, as in the Psittacidce, are but feebly de- 
veloped, and the keel of the sternum is of moderate size, not pro- 
jecting more than half an inch from the plane of the bone. The 
sternum has four notches at its posterior margin. The clavicles, or 
lateral halves of thejicrcula, are here, as in the Psittacidce and Stru- 
thionidcp, separate ; they are 1 inch in length, slender, pointed at 
their lower ends, and joined to each other and to the sternum by 
ligament only, 

" The peculiar motions of the tail called for a particular exami- 
nation of that part. It is difficult to state the precise number of 
the caudal vertebrce in consequence of the terminal ones being au- 
chylosed, requiring for this purpose the examination of a young 
specimen at a period before the anchylosis takes place. In the 
skeleton of a black-billed Toucan which I have examined, it would 
appear that three vertebrce are thus anchylosed, making the entire 
number of coccygeal vertebrce nine. The Woodpecker has also nine 
caudal vertebrce, and this seems to be the greatest number found in 
Birds. The first six of these vertebrce in the Toucan are articulated 
by ball-and-socket joints, the ball and the socket being most di- 
stinct in the two last joints. That between the sixth and the an- 
chylosed vertebrce is provided with a capsule and synovial fluid ; 
the others have a yielding ligamentous mode of connexion. The 
spinous processes of these vertebrce, both superior and inferior, are 
of moderate size, but smallest in the sixth, where the greatest de- 
gree of motion takes place. The transverse processes on the con- 
trary are large and broad so as almost wholly to prevent lateral 
motion. The first of the anchylosed vertebrce is broad and flat and 
of a rounded form, supporting the two coccygeal glands : the last 
of these processes is compressed laterally, and of the ordinary 
plough-share form. The caudal vertebrce can be inflected dorsad 
till their superior spines are brought in contact with the sacrum ; 
in the opposite direction they can scarcely be bent beyond a straight 
line : and it is to this structure of the bones and joints that is to be 
attributed the capability in the Toucan of turning its tail upon its 






46 

back (as represented in the Zoological Journal, vol. ii. pi. xv.), the 
muscles presenting comparatively few peculiarities, since the mo- 
tion alluded to is remarkable rather for its extent, than the vigour 
with which it is performed. 

" The principal elevators of the tail are the sacro-coccijgei-supe- 
riores (sacro-sus-caudiens of Vicq d'Azyr). They arise from two 
longitudinal ridges on the inferior and convex part of the sacrum, 
and are inserted into the superior spines of the first six vertebrae by 
detached tendons, terminating broadly in the anchylosed vertebrae. 
The principal antagonists of these muscles, sacro-coccygei-inferiores 
(sacro-sous-caudiens of Vicq d'Azyr), pass over the first five verte- 
brae and terminate in the sixth and anchylosed vertebrae: their ori- 
gins are wider apart than in the preceding pair of muscles, coming 
off from the margins of the sacro-sciatic notches. In the interval 
are situated small muscles passing from the transverse processes to 
the inferior spines of the first six vertebrae. 

" From the limited nature of the lateral motions of the tail the 
muscles appropriate to these movements are feeble, especially in 
comparison with those which are observed in the birds that spread 
their tail-feathers in flight, and in that way regulate their course 
during that vigorous species of locomotion. . These muscles are in 
number two on each side, arising from the posterior extremities of 
the ischia and inserted into the expanded anchylosed vertebrce. 
From the disposition of these muscles it is obvious that after the 
proper elevators have raised the tail to a certain height, they also 
become dorsad of the centre of motion, combine their forces with 
the elevators, and by this addition of power terminate the act of 
throwing up the tail by a jerk : so Mr. Vigors in his observations 
on the living animal observes, that 'in these movements the tail 
seemed to turn as if on a hinge that was operated on by a spring.' 

" The morbid appearances ohserved in this dissection were con- 
fined to the alimentary canal, which exhibited in four places tracts 
of inflammation of one and two inches in extent." 

The stuffed skin and skull of a Rodent Quadruped, brought from 
Chili by Mr. H. Cuming, were laid upon the table, and characterized 
by Mr. Bennett as forming a new genus, 

Octodon. 

Denies primores -§- acutati antice laeves j molares utrinque -£ era-^ 
dicati complicati subsequales ; superiores subtransversi, facie antica 
lata, postica ob incisuram externam profundam duplo angustiore, 
interna medio uniplicata, plicis a primo ad postremum sensim mino- 
ribus ; inferiores obliqui, singulo plica, externa internaque suboppo- 
sitis coronidem in areas duas oblique transversales, figuram 8 vel 
clepsydram quodammodo referentes, dispartientibus, plica externa 
in postremo vix conspicua. 

Artus subaequales omnes pentadactj'li, digitis liberis, unguibus 
falcularibus acutis. Cauda mediocris subannulata pilosa apice 
floccosa. 

The teeth of this animal are remarkably different from those of 



47 

any known genus. Their nearest approach is to those of Helamys : 
the latter however want the narrowing of the posterior face of the 
molars in the upper jaw, and the external fold in those of the lower, 
as well as the oblique position of the latter, which so strikingly cha- 
racterize the present genus. From Arvicola, which it much more 
closely resembles in habit, it is at once distinguished by the num- 
ber of its teeth, and by their much smaller degree of complication. 
Its specific characters, should the discovery of other species render 
it necessary so to distinguish it, will probably be found in the fol- 
lowing phrase : 

Octodon Cumingii. Oct. supra fusco-griseus nigrescenti inter ~ 
mixtus, infra et ad pedes pallidior ; Cauda suprh et ad apicem 
floccosam concolore nigrescente. 

In size and shape the animal very closely resembles the common 
Rat ; but its head is much broader and less elongated, and its tail 
is uniformly covered with short adpressed rigid hairs, which be^- 
come longer and more lax as they approach the extremity, where 
they form a slight floccose tuft. The facial line is regularly and 
strongly arched, and the muzzle obtusely truncate j the eyes are 
small, and seated nearly midway between the base of the ears and 
the nostrils; and the ears are of moderate size, thinly covered both 
within and without with short adpressed hairs, and rounded at the 
tips. The whiskers are numerous and rigid, and the longest exceed 
the head in length. On the body, which is well-proportioned, the 
fur consists almost entirely of straight hairs, lying flat, and varying 
from half an inch to an inch in length : they become shorter on the 
head and beneath the body, and still more so on the tail and limbs. 
Of the limbs the hinder are somewhat longer, but the disproportion 
is by no means so great as might be inferred from the saltatory 
habits of the animal. All the feet have five toes, but the innermost 
both before and behind is very short, and separated by a wide in- 
terval from the rest. Except the thumb of the fore feet, which 
has a short obtuse claw, all the toes are armed with rather long, 
slightly curved, sharp-pointed claws, partially concealed by long 
bristly hairs. Of the four outer toes anteriorly the two interme- 
diate are nearly equal, and the two lateral somewhat shorter; pos- 
teriorly the three intermediate toes are of nearly equal length, and 
considerably exceed the outer. The tail, though covered rather 
thickly with short stiff hairs, is distinctly annulated. 

The general colour of the upper surface and sides is of a brownish 
gray, intermixed with frequent spots and patches of dusky black. 
It becomes slightly darker towards the rump ; and the upper surface 
of the entire tail, together with its under surface for one- third of 
its length from the tip, is dusky brown approaching to black. The 
under surface is dusky gray mixed with a shade of brown, lighter 
beneath the base of the tail, and deeper on the breast and neck, 
where it is nearly of the same general hue with the upper surface 
and head. The ears are dusky, with a few stiff gray hairs at their 
base anteriorly, and some whitish hairs on their inner surface. The 
shorter whiskers are for the most part white, and the longer black. 



48 

The legs are grayish mixed with brown, becoming of a paler gray 
towards the feet, and the claws are deep black. 

The following measurements were taken from the stuffed spe- 
cimen. 

inches, lines. 

Length of the head and body 6 8 

tail 4 

head 1 8 

muzzle, anterior to eyes 8 

longest whisker 2 

Height of the ears 9 

Breadth of ditto 7 

Length of carpus to the end of the longest toe. ... 9 

— — . tarsus to ditto 1 3 

The bones having been removed, no reliance could be placed on 
the remaining measurements, for which reason they were not given. 

Two living specimens of this interesting little Rodent, for which 
the Society is also indebted to Mr. Cuming, have been exhibited 
during the winter among the smaller animals at the Garden, where 
they retain all their liveliness and activity. They appear rather shy 
and have but little playfulness, but readily leap, with great agility 
and without any appearance of exertion, from the floor of their cage 
to a narrow perch placed at the height of nearly a foot, on which 
they remain seated quite at their ease. Their food, as might be 
inferred from the structure of their teeth, is entirely vegetable. Mr. 
Cuming states that, in their native country "these animals burrow in 
the ground, but always under brush-wood fences or in low thickets. 
They are so abundant in the neighbourhood of Valparaiso, that in 
the high-road between that place and St. Jago, more than a hun- 
dred may frequently be seen at one time in search of food. Some- 
times, but not often, they are observed on the lower branches of 
the shrubs and on those which form the fences. They fly at the 
least alarm, and in running carry their tufted tails bent like a bow. 
A species of horned- Owl, of which I had the pleasure of presenting 
a specimen to the Society, feeds principally on these pretty little 
creatures." 



49 



March 27, 1832. 

John Edward Gray, Esq., in the Chair, 

A Report from Devereux Fuller, the Head Keeper, was read. It 
was communicated to the Committee by the President. 

It referred to the experiments on the feeding of carnivorous Mam- 
malia recommended by the Committee on Dec. 13, 1831, (Part I., 
p. 164,) and subsequently ordered by the Council to be tried. The 
animals subjected to the experiment were two Leopards and two 
Hyanas: the whole of them were males. 

On Jan. 1 1 the Leopards were weighed. No. 1 weighed 9 libs. : 
it was fed in the usual manner with 4lbs. of beef daily in one meal 
given in the evening. No. 2 weighed 100|lbs. : it was supplied with 
21bs. of beef at eight o'clock in the morning, and with a like quantity 
at the same hour in the evening daily. On Feb. 16, (after an interval 
of five weeks,) they were again weighed. No. 1 had gained in weight 
lib. : No. 2 had diminished in weight |lb. No alteration was ob- 
served in the latter animal as regarded his daily exercise j but he be- 
came more ferocious than he had previously been, and was particu- 
larly violent. 

On Dec. 23 the Hycenas were weighed. No. 1 weighed 861bs. : it 
was fed as usual with 3lbs. of beef daily at one meal in the evening. 
No. 2 weighed 93lbs. : it was supplied with the same quantity of beef 
daily, divided into two equal portions, one of which was given in the 
morning and the other in the evening. On Feb. 16, (after an inter- 
val of eight weeks,) they were again weighed; and No. 1 was found 
to have increased in weight lib., while No. 2 had diminished in 
weight lib. The latter animal was observed to take less exercise than 
he had previously been accustomed to, and slept more than usual : 
his temper was not affected, and he did not exhibit unusual signs of 
hunger. 

During the continuance of the experiment all the animals were 
fasted one day in each week in common with the other carnivorous 
species kept in the Menagerie. 

From these experiments it appears 'that carnivorous Mammalia fed 
with two meals daily, do not continue in equally good condition with 
those which have the same quantity of flesh daily in one meal only. It 
further appears that in one instance (that of the Leopard,) the temper 
changed for the worse, and thus animals of the genus Felts might be- 
come more dangerous in a Menagerie from the ferocity they would 
acquire under such treatment j and that in another instance the habits 
were altered as regarded exercise, a diminution of which, in confined 

[No. XVII.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



50 

animals, must be injurious to health. The inference deduced in the 
Report is consequently in favour of the continuance of the accustomed 
mode of feeding the purely carnivorous animals with one meal daily. 

The Report further stated that an experiment had been tried at 
the same time on the feeding of two animals less completely carni- 
vorous than the preceding. They were weighed on Jan. 11. No. 1, 
a Paradoxure Gennet, weighed 4±lbs~: it was fed as usual with bread 
and milk in the morning, and with meat in the evening. No. 2, a 
spotted Gennet, weighed 7lbs. : it was fed with equal portions of 
bread and milk on the morning and evening of one day ; and with 
equal portions of flesh on the morning and evening of the next day j 
the quantity of food at each meal being the same as usual. On Feb. 
16, (after an interval of five weeks,) the animals were again weighed. 
No. 1 weighed as before, and was in perfect health. No. 2 had lost 
in weight lib. : it had been during the alteration in its feeding much 
duller than usual. 

The result of this experiment is in favour of the continuance of the 
plan hitherto pursued of feeding partially carnivorous animals with 
each kind of food on each day, and not on alternate days. 

The exhibition of the new species of Mollusca and Conchifera col- 
lected by Mr. Cuming, which had been commenced Feb. 28, was re- 
sumed. The several shells exhibited were accompanied, as on the 
former occasion, by characters and descriptions from the pens of Mr. 
Broderip and Mr. G. B. Sowerby. 

Genus Cancellaria. 
Cancellaria pulchra. Cane, testci subovatd, albicante, brunneo- 
fasciatd; spird breviusculd, acuminatd ; anfractibus 6, ventri- 
cosis, costatis ; costis muricato-aculeatis, lineis elevatis spiralibus 
decussatis ; aperturd ovatd; labio intils sulcato ; peritremate ere- 
nato ; columella triplicatd, plied intermedia minore; labio interno 
ruguloso ; umbilico mediocri, margine elevatd ; canali recurvo : 
long. l T v, lat. -tV poll. 
Hab. ad littora Sanctse Elenae. 

This species, which approaches in its characters more nearly to Cane, 
cancellata, Lam., than to any other, may nevertheless be distinguished 
at once by its strongly spinous ribs. 

It was dredged from a sandy bottom in from eight to ten fathoms 
water.— G.B.S. 

Cancellaria solida. Cane, testd subovatd, crassd, fulvd, Icevi ; 
spird brevi, mucronatd, superne costato-decussatd ; anfraciibus 6, 
ventricosis, ultimo maximo, superne rotundato-subanguloso ; aper- 
tura oblongd, spird duplb longiore, intils transversim sulcatd ; 
peritremate acuto, infra subemarginato ; columelld triplicatd, plied 
inferior e ex'igud; labio interno expanso, infra ruguloso ; canali 
brevissimo, subreeurvo: long. 1 T V, lat. 1 T V poll. 
Hab. ad littora Americse Centralis. (Real Llejos and St. Elena.) 
A species remarkable for its deviation from the character of the 
genus, in being very smooth. 



51 

It was found in dredging in from eight to ten fathoms, with a sandy 
bottom.—G. B. S. 

Cancellaria tuberculosa. Cane, testd subglobosd, albicante; 
spird breviusculd, subacuminatd ; anfractibus 5, bullatis, superne 
obtuse angulatis, spiraliter sulcatis et tuberculatis, tuber culorum 
iriplici serie ; suturd late canaliculatd; aperturd obtuse subtri- 
gonali, infra integrd; peritremate acuto ; columelld biplicatd, plicis 
parvis, obliquis; umbilico magno : long. 1 \, lat. 1 -tV poll. 

Hab. ad littora America? Meridionalis. (Iquiqui.) 

Remarkable for its dull, calcareous, tuberculated surface, its wide 
expanded aperture, and its widely channelled or contabulated spire. 

Dredged in seven fathoms water with a sandy muddy bottom. — 
G. B. S. 

Cancellaria bullata. Cane, testd subglobosd, cinereo-fuscescente ; 
spird mediocri, acuminatd ; anfractibus 5, bullatis, spiraliter stri- 
atis, ultimo tuberculorum triplici serie ornato; suturd canaliculatd, 
subcrenatd ; aperturd obtuse subtrigonali, infra integrd ; peritre- 
mate acuto ; columelld biplicatd, plicis parvis, obliquis ; umbilico 
magno : long. 1-rV, lat. 1 poll. 
Hab. ad littora America? Meridionalis et Centralis. (Payta and 
Gulf of Nocoiya.) 

Very like the last 5 it differs, however, in colour, in being more 
acuminated, and in its tubercles being less prominent 5 it is, more- 
over, a thinner shell. 

Found in twelve fathoms water with a muddy bottom. — G. B. S. 

Cancellaria Mitriformis. Cane, testd oblongd, brunned ; spird 
elongatd, acuminatd; anfractibus 7, cancellatis, prope suturam 
unicarinatis ; aperturd oblongd, in canalem longiusculam recurvam 
desinente ; peritremate infra sinuato, margine externd fimbriato- 
laceratd ; columelld biplicatd, plied superiore magnd, alterd parvd 
et basi columella rugulosd : long. 1 T V, lat. -^ poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam. 

A single specimen of this interesting shell was dredged in sandy mud. 

It is the most elongated species hitherto seen by Mr. Sowerby, and 
in appearance approaches to the Mitres. — G. B. S. 

Cancellaria goniostoma. Cane, testd oblongd, fused ; spird acu- 
minatd, gradatd; anfractibus 6, superne contabulatis, spiraliter 
striatis, longitudinaliter tuberculato-costatis ; aperturd trigonali, 
albicante; peritremate refiexo, crenato ; columelld biplicatd, plicis 
obsoletiusculis, obliquis; umbilico maximo : long. 1 T V, lat. -^poll. 
Hab. ad littora America? Centralis. (Conchagua, San Salvador.) 
A very fine and interesting species, of which a single specimen alone 
was brought up from a sandy bottom in eight fathoms water. 

It is an approximation to the shell named Delphinula trigonostoma 
by Lamarck, which would be properly placed in the genus Cancellaria 
next to this species. — G. B. S. 

Cancellaria tessellata. Cane, testd oblongd, ovulatd, albicante, 
brunneo-tessellatd; spird brevi, obtusiusculd; anfractibus 4, de- 
cussatis, ultimo maximo ; aperturd oblongd, ad basin integrd; labio 



52 

externo intus sulcato; labio interno supra anfractum ultimum ex- 
tenso ; columella biplicatd, plied superiore majore : long. W» lat. 
y* poll. 
Hab. in America Meridionali. (Bay of Caraccas, St. Elena, and 
Xipixapi.) 

A very elegant, small species, of a white colour, with three rows of 
squarish brown marks ; like that of Cane, nodulifera (Sowerby in* 
Tankerville Catalogue, Appendix), the inner lip is spread over part of 
the last volution, giving the full-grown shell somewhat of the appear- 
ance of a Cassis. 

Dredged in a sandy muddy bottom in from seven to ten fathoms. — 
G. B. S. 

Cancellaria Clavatula. Cane, testd turritd, brunned, albicante 
bivittatd, varicosd ; spird attenuatd, acuminatd ,• anfractibus 7, 
rotundatis, spiraliter striatis, longitudinaliter costatis et varicosis, 
varicibus sparsis ; aperturd subovali, in canalem desinente ; labio 
externo intus sulcato ; columelld biplicatd ; peritremate rejlexo : 
long. IYtj-j fat. 44 poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam et Paytam. 

A turrited, fusiform, varicose species, which very nearly resembles 
one of the Italian fossils. 

It was taken up from a sandv muddy bottom in seven fathoms water. 
— G. B. S. 

Cancellaria obesa. Cane, testd ovatd, acuminatd, laevi, ponde- 
rosd, pallidd ; spird brevi, attenuatd, decussatim striatd ; anfrac- 
tibus 6 — 8 ventrieosis, spiraliter leviter striatis, ultimo maximo, 
Icevigato ; aperturd oblongd, utrdque extremitate acuminatd, infrd 
in canalem brevem desinente ; labio externo intus sulcato ; peritre- 
mate tenuiore, infrd subsinuato ; columelld triplicatd, plied supe- 
riore maximd, bilobatd, inferiore minimd : long. 2-xV, lat.l^poll. 
Hab. ad oras America? Centralis. (Gulf of Dulce.) 
When young, this shell is prettily decussated with rather prominent 
though very narrow ribs ; but with age it becomes nearly smooth, 
with obsolete strice. 

Two young ones were brought from Puerto Portrero, and an aged 
specimen was dredged in fifteen fathoms in the Gulf of Dulce. — G.B.S. 

Cancellaria brevis. Cane, testd subglobosd, albidd, brunneo- 
varid; spird brevi, contabulatd; anfractibus^ — 5, superne angulatis, 
crenatis, spiraliter sulcatis, et longitudinaliter costatis ,• aperturd 
obtuse trigond ; labio externo intils sulcato ; peritremate obtusius- 
culo, crenulato ; columelld biplicatd ; umbilico magno, margine cre- 
natd : long. W> lat. -,V poll. 
Hab. ad oras America Meridionalis et Centralis. 
Another of those interesting species which form as it were the 
passage from the typical Cancellarice to the species which Lamarck 
has placed among the Delphinulee under the name of Delph. trigo- 
nostoma. 

Two specimens were found, one at Puerto Portrero, the other at 
St. Elena.— G. B. S. ■ 



m 

Cancellaria rigid a. Cane, testd ovatd, rigidd, pallidd vel brun- 
ned concolore ; spird brevi, acuminatd, contabulatd ; anfractibus 5, 
superne angulatis, spiralitef striatis, ct longitudinaliter costatis, 
costis rariusculis, sublamellosis, acutis ; aperturd subtrigonali, in- 
frct in canalem brevissimam desinente ; labio externo intils sulcato ; 
peritremate acuto ; columelld triplicatd, plied inferiore minimd ; 
labio interno corrugato ; umbilico mediocri, margine elevatiusculd ; 
long. iV> lat. n V poll. 
Hab. ad Puerto Portrero, Americas Centralis. 
A single specimen was dredged in thirteen fathoms with a sandy 
bottom. Mr. Sowerby has several much larger specimens, with whose 
locality he is unacquainted. — G. B. S. 

Cancellaria Cassidiformis. Cane, testd ovali, fulvd ; spird brevi, 
apiee acuminato ,• anfractibus 6, spiraliter sulcatis, superioribus 
angulato-nodulosis, ultimo maximo, prope suturam serie unicd tu- 
ber culorum, infra fascid pallidd, instruct o ; suturd distincld, infrh 
subcanaliculatd ; aperturd oblongd, infra in canalem brevem desi- 
nente; peritremate obtuso; labio interno expanso; columelld tripli- 
catd, plied superior e major e : long. l-rV, lat. 1 poll. 
Hab. ad Panamam. 

The young shells of this species resemble those of the Cane, nodu- 
lifera, in the Appendix to theTankerville Catalogue, p. xv. The full- 
grown shell is here described from a specimen in Mr. Sowerby's col- 
lection, all those obtained by Mr. Cuming being young. 

Dredged from a sandy muddy bottom in sixteen fathoms water. — 
G.B.S. 

Cancellaria ovata. Cane, testd ovali, lavigatd, brunned, epider- 
mide tenui fused indutd ; spird brevi, subacuminatd ; anfractibus 7, 
spiraliter sulcatis, ultimo maximo, ventricosiusculo ; suturd di- 
stinctd ; aperturd elongatd, superne angusiiore, acuminatd, infrh 
emarginatd, canalem brevissimam efformante ,• peritremate acuto, 
prope basin sinuato, labio externo intils sulcato ; columelld plicis 
duabus, validis, tertid inferiore obsoletd ; umbilico minimo vel nullo : 
long. liV, lat. T V poll. 
Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam, Columbia? occidentalis. 
This species resembles Cane, reticulata more nearly than any other; 
its proportions are however very different, and it is a much smoother 
shell : the smaller volutions are somewhat cancellated. 

Found in from eight to ten fathoms water with a sandy bottom. — 
G.B.S. 

Cancellaria acuminata. Cane, testd ovato-oblongd, lecvigatd, 
fulvescente, pallidiore subfasciatd ; spird mediocri, subulato-acu- 
minatd; anfractibus § — 7, spiraliter sulcatis et longitudinaliter ob- 
solete costatis, ultimo magno ; aperturd mediocri, superne acumi- 
natd, infra emarginatd, canalem brevem efformante ; peritremate 
acuto, crenulato, prope basin sinuato ; labio intils sulcato ; colu- 
melld plicis duabus validis, tertid obsoletd inferiore ; umbilico mi- 
nimo vel nullo : long. iV> lo>t. \h- poll. 

Hab. ad Guacamayo, Americae Centralis. 



54 

Found in a sandy muddy bottom at a depth of about twelve fathoms. 
It may easily be distinguished from the last by its proportions as well 
as by the form of the spire. — G. B. S. 

Cancellaria buccinoides. Cane, testa oblongd, corrugatd; spird 
mediocri, acuminata; anfractibus 7, subventricosis, longitudina- 
liter granoso-costatis, et spiraliter sulcatis, (nonnunquam ex cetate 
varicosis) ; aperturd ovato-oblongd, obliqud, ad basin emarginatd, 
brevissime canaliferd ; peritremate obtusiusculo , prope basin subsi- 
nuato ; labio externo intus Icevi, nonnunquam leviter denticulato ; 
columelld biplicatd, plicis parvis : long. l.V, lat. -^ poll. 
Hah. ad oras America? Meridionalis et Centralis. (Real Llejos, 
Iquiqui, Callao, and Puerto Portrero.) 

This species has very much of the appearance of a Bucclnum, from 
which genus it is only distinguished by the two folds on the columel- 
la ; it varies in colour, some specimens being of a very pale, others 
of a darker fawn colour j some again are of a dark brown colour all 
over, while others are of a dark brown with a light band perceptible 
within the aperture. 

Found in from seven to fifteen fathoms with a sandy muddy bottom. 
— G.B.S. 

Cancellaria indentata. Cane, testd oblongd, clathratd, fused; 
spird mediocri, acuminatd ; anfractibus 6, decussatim costatis, cos- 
tis noduliferis ; aperturd ovato-oblongd, obliqud, ad basin subca- 
naliferd ; peritremate indentato ; columelld triplicatd, plied inferi- 
ore minimd; umbilico parvo, margine distinctd: long. l^V, lat. T V 
poll. 
Hab. ad Panamam. 

Nearly like the last in shape, but not having a distinct canal ; — its 
having three folds on the columella, and an umbilicus with a strongly 
raised border, also distinguish it. — G. B. S. 

Cancellaria hjemastoma. Cane, testd ovato-pyramidali, albicante, 
fusco-fasciatd, ore aurantiaco ; spird pyramidali ; anfractibus 6, 
rotundatis, superne obtuse angulosis, spiraliter striatis, longitudi- 
naliter costatis, costis paucis, obtusis, prope suturam elevatis; aper- 
turd subrotundd, in canalem brevem desinente ; peritremate acuti- 
usculo, crenulato ; labio externo intus sulcato, interno corrugato; 
columelld triplicatd; umbilico mediocri, margine elevatd : long. 
l-rV> lot. -tV poll. 

Hab. ad insulas Gallapagos. 

A very beautiful species -, nearly white, with a broad dark-brown 
band surrounding the upper part of the volutions : its brilliant 
orange- coloured mouth is also remarkable. 

Taken in from ten to sixteen fathoms with a sandy bottom. — G.B.S. 

Cancellaria chrysostoma. Cane, testd globoso-pyramidali, albi- 
cante, fusco-fasciatd, ore aurantiaco; spird brevi, acuminatiusculd ; 
anfractibus 6, rotundatis, spiraliter sulcatis, longitudinaliter cos- 
tatis, costis plurimis, obtusis , prope suturam elevatis; aperturd sub- 
rotundatd, superne subacuminatd, infra in canalem brevem reflexam, 
desinente ; peritremate crenato; labio externo intus sulcato, interno 



55 

corrugato ; columelld triplicatd ; umbilico mediocri, margine ele- 
vatd : long. l-rV» fat. 44 poll. 
Hab. ad Panamam et Sanctara Elenam. 

This species somewhat resembles the last , it may however be di- 
stinguished by its more globose form, its more numerous longitudinal 
ribs, and its more distinct recurved canal : there are other minor dif- 
ferences. 

Dredged in from eight to ten fathoms with a sandy bottom. — G.B.S. 

Cancellaria gemmulata. Cane, testd ovato-ventricosd, albidd; 
spird brevi, obtusiusculd ; anfractibus 5 — 6, longitudinaliter gra- 
noso-plicatis et spiraliter sulcatis ; suturd distinctd, crenatd; 
aperturd oblongd, superrie acuminatd, infra in canalem brevem de- 
sinente ; peritremate indentato ; labio intils sulcato j columelld tri- 
plicatd, plied inferior e minimd; umbilico minimo, margine elevatd : 
long. 1 , lat. 44 poll. 

Hab. in Sinu Nocoiya, America? Centralis. 

A very elegant species, of which a few specimens were dredged 
from a sandy muddy bottom. — G. B. S. 

Cancellaria decussata. Cane, testd ovato-acuminatd, brunne- 
scente ; anfractibus 6, decussatim costellatis, costellis granulosis ; 
' suturd crenulatd ; aperturd oblongd, superrie acuminatd, infra in 
canalem brevem, acuminatam desinente ; peritremate acutiusculo ; 
labio intixs leviter sulcato ; columelld triplicatd, plied inferiore mi- 
nimd ; umbilico minimo, margine elevatd : long. l-fV> tat> -tit poll. 
Hab. ad oras America? Meridionalis et Centralis. (Panama and 
Puerto Portrero.) 

Found at various depths from ten to thirteen fathoms, with a sandy 
muddy bottom. — G. B. S. 

Cancellaria Bulbulus. Cane, testd oblongd, medio ventricosd, 
apice acuminatd; anfractibus 6 — 7 , superioribus carinato-decussatis, 
ultimo ventricoso, Icevi, infra sulcato ; aperturd oblongd, infra in 
canalem brevem decurrente ; peritremate acuto ; columelld tripli- 
catd, plied superiore majore, infimd subobsoletd ; labio interno su- 
perne incrassato, subtus subgranoso : long. 1-xV, lat. 44 poll. 

Hab. ad littora America? Centralis. 

Two young specimens of this species were found in company with 
Cane, solida at Real Llejos. — G. B. S. 

Genus Scalaria. 
Scalaria Diadema. Seal, testd oblongd, subcylindraced, albd ; an- 
fractibus 7, Icevibus, superioribus longitudinaliter costatis, superrie, 
anguliferis, angulo crenulato ; ultimo costis obsoletis, carind ob- 
tusd prope basin : long. VV* fat. -^ poll. 
Hab. ad insulas Gallapagos. (James's Island.) 
A very neat and curious small species, of which Mr. Sowerby had 
seen but one individual until Mr. Cuming's arrival. A fluid secreted 
by the animal produces a bright purple dye. — G.B. S. 

Genus Cardita. 
Cardita Cuvieri. Card, testd subcordatd, albidd, rufo-varid; ' 



56 

costis radiantibus latis, valde elevatis, complanatis, geniculato-no- 
dosis ; intils albd; epidermide fused : long. 2 T V, lat. 2,V, alt. 2-iV 
poll. 
Hub. in Sinu Fonseca, America? Centralis. 

This fine species, far exceeding in size and beauty any Cardita 
hitherto discovered, was dredged from sandy mud in eleven fathoms 
water, about seven miles from the shore. After its capture the dredge 
was kept at work for some hours, but no other specimen could be pro- 
cured. The ribs are broad, flattened on their superior surface, but 
very elevated and strongly geniculated, the geniculations being, for 
the most part, three-tenths of an inch from each other. The shell is 
a very striking object, and has almost the appearance of a carved work. 
— W. J. B. 

Cardita tumida. Card, testd subtrigond, tumidd, costis radianti- 
bus latis, subdepressis ; earned vel fulvd, maculis purpureo-spadi- 
ceis et flavis varid ; umbonibus reeurvis, subacuminatis ; lunuld de- 
pressd; epidermide fused ; long. 2, lat. l£, alt. 2^ poll. 
Hub. ad Americse Centralis et Meridionalis oras. 
Found in a young state at Puerto Portrero, at a depth of eleven 
fathoms, in fine sand and gravel ; and in a full-grown state at the Isle 
of Plata, in coral sand, at the depth of seventeen fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Cardita varia. Card, testd subtrigond, costis radiantibus depres- 
sis ; violaceo-spadiced, maculis albis varid: long. 1-fr, lat. -j-j-, alt. 
l^rpoll. 

Hah. ad insulas Gallapagos. 

Dredged in fine sand at the drpth of six fathoms. — W. J. B. 

This resembles Fenericardiajlammea, (tab. 6 in Guerin's * Magazin 
de Conchyliologie',) but is undoubtedly distinct. 

Genus Crassatella. 

&% ^/3 Crassatella undulata. Crass, testd ovali, brunned, fusco-macu- 
latd, epidermide fused indutd ; intiis brunned, prope marginem an- 
ticam albicante ; umbonibus undulatis -, latere antico inclinato ro- 
tundato, postico longiore, acuminate, angulifero : long. 2 T V» lat. 1, 
alt. 1-rV poll. 
Hab. ad Puerto Portrero, America? Centralis. 
Dredged from sandy mud in eleven fathoms water. The young 
shell is of a lighter colour than that which is fully grown - } the undu- 
lations, moreover, extend over its entire surface. — G. B. S. 

Crassatella gibbosa. Crass, testd subovali, gibbosd, pallescente, 
epidermide fused indutd ; intiis albicante, latere postico brunneo ; 
umbonibus undulatis, compressis ,• latere antico inclinato, rotundato, 
sulcis nonnullis brevibus ; postico arcuato, elongate, acuminato : 
long. 1-rV, lat. 1, alt. 1 T V poll. 
Hab. ad oras America? Meridionalis. (St. Elena and Xipixapi.) 
Dredged from sandy mud in eleven fathoms water. This is the 
most ventricose species known to Mr. Sowerby; its young is neverthe- 
less exceedingly compressed, and is, moreover, covered with undula- 
tions, — G. B. S. 



57 

Genus Amphidesma. 

Amphidksma pulchrum. Amph. testd ovali, pallidd, superficie 
concentrice striatd ; intus albidd, purpureo-varid ; latere postico 
breviore ; margine anticd inclinatd, striis nonnullis radiantibus, 
strias incrementi decussantibus : long. l-^V, lat. yV> alt. 1 poll. 

Hab. in Sinu Caraccensi, American Meridionalis. 

This species resembles Amph. variegatum, Lam., in form \ it is 
white within, very prettily mottled with purple. — G. B. S. 

Genus Marginella. 

Marginella Cypr^ola. Marg. testd ovali, asperd, purpureo-ni- 
gricante -, spird brevissimd, obtusd -, anfractu ultimo superne ven- 
tricoso, lined dorsali lavi ; labio externo incrassato, involuto, intus 
denticulato ; labio columellari transversim plicato : long. -fV, lat. 
W poll. 
Hab. sub lapidibus et in locis arenosis ad littora Acapulcse et 

Sanctae Elense. 
A most interesting species, inasmuch as it appears to be the link 
connecting Marginella with Cyprcea : though covered nearly ail over 
with a fine asperity, it has nevertheless a polished surface j the spire 
is very small, and the mantle of the animal must have been almost 
equal on both sides, since there is a nearly central dorsal line which 
is quite smooth and free from the asperity which covers the remainder 
of the last volution. — G. B. S. 

Marginella Frumentum. Marg. testd ovali, politd, pallescente, 
lineis undulatis per series tres dispositis pictd ; spird retusd, aper- 
turd longitudine testes ; peritremate acuto, Icevi ; columelld infra 
plicis nonnullis: long, -^y, lat. X V, paulb minus, poll. 
Hab. ad oras Americae Meridionalis. (St. Elena and Salango.) 
A very pretty little species, dredged in from eight to ten fathoms 
with a sandy bottom. — G. B. S. 

Genus Chiton. 

* Ligamento margin is laevi. 

Chiton pusillus. Chit, testd minimd, obovatd, albicante ; dorso 
elevato ; valvis intermediis angustis, minutissime punctulatis, areis 
lateralibus subdistinctis ; valvd posticd majori, vertice centrali, 
postice inclinato : long, -^j^lat. -rV poll. 
Hab. ad littora Peruvian (Pacasmayo.) 

Distinguished from all the other Chitons by the comparative height 
and proportions of the posterior valve, which has a central vertex in- 
clined backwards. 

Found on a coral reef in seventeen fathoms water nine miles from 
land.— G. B. S. 

Chiton Grayii. Chit, testd oblongd, pallidd, rufescente fuscoque 
varid ; valvd anticd, valvarum intermediarum areis lateralibus et 
valvce posticce ared posticd radiatim granoso-striatis ; arearum la- 
teralium marginibus anticis elevatis, posticis crenulatis ; valvarum 
intermediarum areis centralibus et valves posticce ared anticd ob- 



58 

lique longitudinaliter granuloso-striatis ; valves Ztiee, Atee, btee, 
6teeet 7mee medio longitudinaliter bisulcatd: long. 1 T V, lat. -Jvpoll. 
Hab. in Insula S li Laurentii in Sinu Callao, Peruviae. 
This species resembles Chit, crenulatus, but may be distinguished 
by attention to the above characters. 

Two specimens only were found on shells in seven fathoms water. 
-G.B.S. 

Chiton Chiloensis. Chit, testd oblongd, leevi, coloribus luridis 
varid; valvd anticd, valvarum intermediarum areis lateralibus et 
valvee posticee ared posticd radiatim punctato-striatis ; valvarum 
intermediarum areis centralibus et valvee posticee ared anticd lon- 
gitudinaliter punctato-striatis : valvis sex posticis prope medium 
longitudinaliter sulcatis : long. 2 T V> lat. 1 T 8 U poll. 

Hab. sub lapidibus ad littora Insulae Chiloe. 

Somewhat similar to, but very distinct from Chit.Chilensis, Frembl. 
-G. B. S. 

Chiton roseus. Chit, testd ovato-oblongd, leevi, rosed; dorso ro- 
tundato ; valvd anticd, et valvarum intermediarum areis lateralibus 
longitudinaliter, areis centralibus transversim sulcatis ; valvee pos- 
ticee vertice centrali, sulcis concentricis : long, -^y, lat. tV poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Platse, Columbian occidentalis. 

Found on dead shells in seventeen fathoms water. — G. B. S. 

** Ligamento marginis granoso. 

Chiton dispar. Chit, testd ovali, leevigatd, cinered, albido nigroque 
varid ; valvarum areis centralibus leevibus, postice longitudinaliter 
subsulcatis ; valvd anticd, valvarum intermediarum areis laterali- 
bus et valvee posticee ared posticd granulosis : long. I, lat. -rV> poll. 
Hab. sub lapidibus ad littora Insulse Sabogae in Sinu Panama?. 
The name has been suggested by the circumstance of the central 
areae being quite smooth, while the lateral areas are covered with 
granules. — G. B. S. 

Chiton rugtjlatus. Chit, testd oblongd, leevigatiusculd, olivaced, 
albicante varid ; valvd anticd, valvarum intermediarum areis late- 
ralibus et valves posticee parte posticd concentrice undulato-rugu- 
losis ; areis centralibus leevibus, marginibus rugulosis : long. iV, 
lat. -xV poll. 

Hab. ad oras Americas Centralis. (Puerto Portrero and Inner Lo- 
bos Island.) 

Found under stones at low water. — G. B. S. 

Chiton Columbiensis. Chit, testd ovatd, depressiusculd, cinera- 
scente ; valvd anticd, valvarum intermediarum areis lateralibus et 
valvee posticee ared posticd sparsim granulosis; intermediarum 
areis centralibus et posticee ared anticd longitudinaliter granoso- 
lineatis : long. 1 T V» lot. •£-§- poll. 

Hab. in Sinu Panamae. 

Found under stones at low water. — G. B. S. 

Chiton functulatissimus. Chit, testd ovato-oblongd, leevi, colo- 



59 

ribus variis pictd ; valvis omnibus omnirib minutissime punctulatis, 
squamulis marginalibus perexiguis : long. -,V, lot. X V poll. 
Hab. ad oras America? Meridionalis. (Bays of Mexillones, Iquiqui, 

and Arica.) 
Found on dead shells in from six to ten fit thorns water. A white 
variety with a black border and somewhat varied with black has been 
very rarely found. — G. B. S. 

*** Ligamento marginis velutino et fasciculato. 

Chiton hirudiniformis. Chit, testd oblongd, planiusculd, nigre- 
scente-viridi ; valvis rotundalis, granulosis ; valvarum areis centra- 
libus elongatis, postice acuminatis, l&viusculis ; margine densis- 
sime pilosd, quasi velutind, fasciculis pilorum 9, concoloribus : 
long. 1, lot. ^ poll. 

Hab. ad littora Peruvian (Ancon, Lobos Island, and Payta), et ad 
insulis Gallapagos. (Chatham Island.) 

Found under stones at low water. — G. B. S. 

**** Ligamento marginis squamoso. 

Chiton l^evigatus. Chit, testd ovato-oblongd, planiusculd, lcevi~ 
gatd, subfuscd, nigro rufoque longitudinaliter variegatd ,- carind 
marginali obtusd, elevatiusculd inter areas laterales et centrales 
valvarum intermediarum : long. 1 T V, lat. iV, poll. 
Hab. sub lapidibus in Sinu Californiensi. 

Found under stones at low water, by Mr. Ealing of H. M. S. Sap- 
phire, at Guaymas. — G. B. S. 

Chiton articulatus. Chit, testd ovatd, Icevigatd, viridescente- 
fuscd, pallescente longitudinaliter variegatd-, dorso elevatiusculo, 
rotundato, carind marginali inter areas laterales et centrales val- 
varum intermediarum fere obliteratd ,• limbo olivaceo pallide ar- 
ticulato : long. 2-?\, lat. l-^- poll. 
Hab. sub lapidibus in Sinu Californiensi. (St. Bias.) 
Found under stones at low water. In many characters it resembles 
Chit, lavigatus, but differs in its proportions as well as in the parti- 
cular form of each valve. — G. B. S. 

Genus Cyclostoma. 

Cyclostoma flavum. Cycl. testd subglobosd, Jlavd, crassiusculd 9 
anfractibus 5, creberrime fasciato- stria tis ; striis elevatis, umbi- 
lico parvo ; operculo corneo : long. ■&■, lat. A poll. 

Hab. in Annaa. 

This, at first sight, has all the aspect of a marine shell, and even 
when examined more accurately bears a close resemblance to Litto- 
rina, especially in its operculum. But it was found alive, by Mr. Cu- 
ming, buried in the earth under the roots of a palm-tree, which was 
surrounded with vegetation, and at a considerable distance from high 
water mark. May it not be one of the links which connect the marine 
with the terrestrial Mollusca? I have placed it with the Cyclosto- 
mata, to which genus among the land shells it seems to be most 
nearly related.— W. J. B. 



60 

Genus Stilifkr. (Brod.) 

Testa hyalina, turbmata, apice spirae stilum mentiente. Apertura 
subovata, superne acuminata. Labrum acutum, sinuatum. 

Pallium crassum, carnosum, cyathiforme, testae anfractus ultiraos 
obtegens. Proboscis longissima, retractilis. Ten tacu la rotunda, crassa, 
subacuminata, ad basin proboscidis posita. Oculi ad basin tentacu- 
lorum, sessiles, minimi. Branchiae stirps solitaria. 

Animal marinum. 

Stilifek Astebicola. Stil.testd subglobosd,diaphand, lactescente; 
anfractibus ventricosis, longitudinaliter leviter striatis y ultimo 
viaximo; apicis anfractibus duobus : long. i\, lat. T V poll. 
Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos, Asteria Solaris cutem penetrans. (Lord 
Hood's Island.) 

The arrival in this country of the shell above recorded, with the soft 
parts, has afforded data for a generic character indicating a distinct 
family among the Pectinibranchiata, the form and disposition of whose 
mantle differs from that of any other genus in the order. This man- 
tle (which in Stil. Astericola is of a green hue,) is thick, fleshy and cup- 
shaped, with a small aperture at its base and a free posterior margin, 
enveloping the soft parts and the last whorls of the shell, which has 
thus somewhat the appearance of a small acorn set in its cup. On 
the ventral aspect of this mantle is the rudiment of a foot; and from 
the small basal aperture a retractile proboscis (which when exserted is 
as long as the whole animal) is protruded. At the base of this pro- 
boscis are two thick, round, somewhat pointed tentacula; and at the 
base of them are the eyes or rather ocular specks without pedicles. 
The bronchia is placed on a single stem. At the base of the proboscis 
is a spherical muscular stomach, and the intestine ascends into the 
spire, of the shell, where it becomes attached to the liver, which, in 
the present species, is of an orange colour. 

Mr. Cuming found this elegant parasite burrowed in different parts 
of the rays of the oral disk of Asterias Solaris, Gray, where it is 
almost hidden from sight, so deeply does the animal penetrate into 
the substance of the Starfish, in which it makes a comfortable cyst for 
itself, wherein it most probably turns by the aid of its rudimentary 
foot. All the specimens infested with Stiliferi appeared to be in the 
best health, though there is reason to believe that these Molluscafeed 
upon the juices of the Starfish. With that instinct of self-preservation 
imparted to all parasites whose existence depends upon that of their 
nidus, the Stilifer, like the Ichneumon among insects, appears to avoid 
the vital parts j for, in no instance did Mr. Cuming find it imbedded 
anywhere save in the rays, though some had penetrated at their base 
and very near the pelvis. When extracted, the older shells have much 
the appearance of a milky-clouded glass bubble ) the younger shells 
are of an unclouded transparency. 

Dr. Turton, in the second volume of the \ Zoological Journal' 
(p. 367, pi. xl.), described and figured a shell under the name of Pha- 
sianella s-t?jlifer<i, adding that he found a dozen attached to the spines 
of Echinus esculentus dredged up in Torbay. It is clear that Dr. Tur- 



61 

ton's shell is not a Phasianella, for it is described as having no oper- 
culum ; and the similarity of the shell leaves no doubt, when joined to 
the parasitic habits of the animal, that it is one of the congeners of 
Stilifer Astericola : I, therefore, propose to name it Stilifer Turtoni. 

Mr. Sowerby possesses a third species, which, although its habits 
are unknown, may be referred to this genus with the name of 

Stilifer subulatus. Stil. testd turritd, subulatd, attenuatd, dia- 
phand, anfractibus numerosis, subrotundatis } apice longissimo : 
long. T V, lat.-^- poll. 
Hab. in Indis Occidentalibus. 

This shell is so beautifully transparent that the columella in fine 
specimens can be as distinctly seen as if there were no intervening 
medium. The long apex, which consists of many close-set whorls, 
is generally out of the perpendicular. — W. J. B» 

Mr. Owen, to whom Mr. Broderip acknowledged himself indebted 
for the anatomical particulars which he had recorded of Stilifer As- 
tericola, subsequently exhibited a series of drawings of the animal 
and of its various parts, so far as he had been enabled to observe them 
in the specimens brought home by Mr. Cuming. He also read a more 
detailed description of the peculiarities remarked by him during the 
dissection of the individuals which had been entrusted to him for 
that purpose. 



62 



April 10, 1832. 

Joseph Cox Cox, Esq., in the Chair. 

A Report from Devereux Fuller, the Head Keeper, was read. It 
was communicated to the Committee by the President. 

It stated that the period of gestation of the Puma, Fel'is concolor, L., 
had been ascertained to be 96 or 97 days, the female in the Society's 
Menagerie having admitted the male on Dec. 28, and brought forth 
on the night of April 2 two young. The ground-colour of these is of 
a paler fawn than that of either of the parents, and they are deeply 
spotted, as was noticed on the former occasion (Part I. p. 158). The 
eyelids of one of them were partially unclosed on April 9. The mother, 
whose temper was always mild, has since become remarkably gentle, 
purring when the keeper goes into her den, and allowing her young 
ones to be handled and carried about without appearing to be annoyed 
by such treatment. The young, on the contrary, were when first born 
extremely fierce, hissing and scratching with all their might ; they 
have, however, since become better tempered, though they are still 
spiteful. The manners of both the mother and the young are similar 
to those of the domestic Cat and her kittens, the former carrying the 
latter about from place to place in her mouth. For a day or two previ- 
ously to her littering she pulled the straw in her inner den into pieces 
and thus formed a nest. 

On the former occasion the period of gestation could not be deter- 
mined, the female having admitted the male several times j the last 
of which was 97 days prior to her parturition j a month after this 
latter occurrence (her single young one having been born dead,) she 
admitted the male once only, and became pregnant with her present, 
litter. 

A Note was read from Mr. Henry Tripp, of Orchard Wyndham, 
Somersetshire, respecting the provision made by a male Hawk, after 
the destruction of its female, for the nourishment of their young. On 
the morning after the first night of her absence five small birds were 
found placed on the side of the nest. These having been taken away, 
nine others were found on the second morning ; among them were 
a Blackbird and a Thrush. All of them were picked but not in the 
least broken. On the third night the male bird was caught in a gin 
set in the nest for that purpose. He had previously been so shy as to 
evade all attempts at shooting him, while the female, on the contrary, 



63 

was got at so readily as to induce the keeper to destroy her, notwith- 
standing his wishes first to destroy her mate. 

Specimens and drawings of numerous animals referable to the 
genus Paradoxurus were laid upon the table -, and Mr. Gray entered 
into a detailed account of the distinguishing characters of the group, 
which he prefaced by some observations on the family of Viverridce in 
general, and concluded by the description of several new species. He 
observed that the family may be divided, independently of the cha- 
racters furnished by the teeth, into three sections, distinguished by the 
baldness or hairiness of the soles of their hinder feet, and by concur- 
rent differences in the structure of their odorous glands. The first 
of these is limited to the true Civets, the genus Viverra, in which the 
under part of the hind-feet is entirely covered with hair, except on the 
tips of the toes and the large tubercles at their base ; and the pouch 
secreting the civet forms a deep cavity on each side near the anus. 
The species of this group are : 1 , the African Civet, Viverra Civetta, 
L. ;— 2, the Zibet of Buffon, Hist. Nat. torn. ix. t. 34, Viv. Zibetha,L., 
which is the Viv. undulata, Gray, Spic. Zool. p. 9, t. 8 ; — 3, the spotted 
Civet, Viv. Tangalunga, Gray, which is the Viv. Zibetha of M. F, 
Cuvier, Dr. Horsfield, and Sir Stamford Raffles, and is readily distin- 
guished from the last-mentioned species by a continuous longitudinal 
band occupying the upper surface of the tail, the numerous irregular 
rings being separated only on its inferior half; — 4, the Gunda Civet, 
Viv. Rasse, Horsf., Viv. Gunda, Ham. MSS., which Dr. Horsfield be- 
lieves to be distinct from Viv. Indica, Geoffr. ; — 5, the pale Civet, Viv. 
pallida, Gray;— and 6, the Delundung, Viv. Linsang, Hardw., Felis 
gracilis, Horsf. Of these the last three have the slender form of the 
Gennets ; and one, the last, has been formed into a separate genus by 
Dr. Horsfield ; the teeth however, according to the figure of that na- 
turalist, agree exactly with those of the Civets, except in the deficiency 
of the last upper molar. 

The second section is likewise limited to a single genus, Genetta, 
in which the soles of the hinder feet have a narrow bald line extending 
from the heel and bifurcating, so as to inclose a small triangular hairy 
pad near the toes, the basal tubercle of which, and the tips of the 
toes themselves, are bald. In this section also the anal pouches exist, 
and the animals belonging to it, as well as to the former, when in con- 
finement, frequently retrovert their tails, in order to press out, by rub- 
bing against any hard substance within their reach, the odorous secre- 
tion contained in the pouches. The species are: 1 ,theFossane, Viv. Fossa, 
Erxl. ;-^2, the Senegal Gennet, Viv. Senegalensis, Fisch., from M. F. 
Cuvier's ' Mammiferes Lithographies' ;— 3, the feline Gennet, Viv.fe- 
Una, Thunb., which has certainly no affinity with the Civette de Ma- 
lacca of Sonnerat, doubtfully referred to it by M. Fischer ; — and4, the 
common Gennet, Viv. Genetta, L. 

In the third section, which includes two very distinct subdivisions, 
the entire sole is bald from the toes to the heel. One of the subdi- 
visions has long, slender, and nearly free toes; anal pouches of greater 
or less depth ; and hair of a peculiarly harsh character and grizzled 



64 

appearance : this incltides the genera Herpestes and Ryzana, and 
probably also Crossarchus and Atilax ; but as Mr. Gray had not seen 
the two latter, he could not speak confidently with respect to them, 
Crossarchus and Ryzana differ in having one false molar tooth less 
than the other genera. The remaining subdivision has the toes short, 
and united by a membrane as far as the base of the claws j it has no 
anal pouch, but in place of that organ a bald secreting fold over the 
sheath of the penis ; and its fur is rather rigid with a woolly under- 
coat. In most cases the tail has the faculty of rolling itself up spirally 
from the tip, from which circumstance M. F. Cuvier deduced the ge- 
neric name of Paradoxurus applied by him to the animals of this sub- 
division. One species, the Benturong of Major Farquhar, has since 
been separated by M.Valenciennes under the generic name of Ictides. 

All the animals of this subdivision which Mr. Gray has seen living, 
agree in having a very narrow linear perpendicular pupil, but this 
character he considered as only of secondary importance -, the Foxes 
having linear, while all the other Dogs have round pupils, and the 
common Cat, and some others of the genus Felis, having them perpen- 
dicular, while the Lion, Tiger, Leopard, Jaguar, Puma, and hunting 
Leopard, have them circular. The naked space extending the whole 
length of the freenum of the penis from the anus to the tip of the sheath, 
and secreting a brown odorous substance, appears to have been first 
noticed by Pallas in his description of the Viv. hermaphrodita, to which, 
by a not unapt comparison, it gave a name. It appears to have been 
entirely overlooked by M. F. Cuvier, but is readily seen even in the 
dried skin, and most probably exists in the genus Ictides also. In this 
latter, according to Major Farquhar, the tail is truly prehensile, and 
is used by the animal in climbing trees, but, like that of the Kinka- 
jou, it has no bald portion near the tip. The degree indeed in which 
the convolutive peculiarity of this organ manifests itself, appears to 
vary greatly in the different species. When not twisted up, the tail is 
generally trailed along the ground with a slight turning over at the 
tip, which occasions the hair, especially on the older specimens, to be 
more or less worn away on either surface. 

The teeth of the genus Paradoxurus agree in number and struc- 
ture with those of Viverra, Genetta, and Herpestes, but differ in the 
form of the cheek-tooth and tubercular molars, which in both jaws 
are shorter, broader and more bluntly tubercular, indicating more 
frugivorous habits. In their examination, not only in this genus but 
in the whole order, it is necessary to observe the change that takes 
place both in their distribution and form on the shedding of the milk- 
teeth, which are widely different from those by whicli they are suc- 
ceeded. In the young of Paradoxurus there are in the upper jaw 
only four molars on each side, viz. two false molars, one cheek-tooth, 
and one tubercular j while the adult animal has one additional false 
molar, and a second tubercular, the third false molar taking the place 
of the cheek-tooth, and the cheek-tooth that occupied by the tuber- 
cular, of the young animal. The teeth of the adult are also much 
stronger and larger, the anterior ones becoming less, and the poste- 



65 

rior more, lobed and tubercular. In the first set, the false molars are 
thin and compressed, and the second is distinctly three-lobed; this 
last is replaced by a strong thick conical tooth with a slight raised 
margin behind, and the third or new false molar is nearly similar, 
but furnished with a very small tubercle in the middle of the inner 
side of the base of its crown. The cheek-tooth of the first set is also 
compressed and has a small lobe in the middle of the inner side j 
while in the second set this tooth is triangular, broad in front and 
narrow behind, with a large distinct lobe on the front of its inner 
margin. It is much larger than the tubercular tooth of the first set 
which it replaces, and which is little different in form from the first 
tubercular of the second set, although the latter is also larger and has 
more prominent and distinct tubercles. 

Mr. Gray observed that it was on this discrepancy between the 
milk and second teeth that the generic character of Paguma, described 
by him in the • Proceedings' of the Committee, Part i. p. 95, was 
founded, he not having at that period noticed the change that takes 
place on the shedding of the former set. The description there given 
was taken from a skull belonging to a young animal about to part 
with its milk-teeth, which still however remained perfect, while the 
jaw had elongated sufficiently to allow of the partial development of 
the two tubercular teeth of the new set, which were rendered visible 
by scraping. In this state the true number of teeth belonging to the 
family was present, the tubercular tooth of the first set still retaining 
the place of the cheek-tooth of the second, for which it was described. 
Subsequently, however, Mr. Gray has been enabled, by cutting away 
the bone below this tooth, to lay bare the true cheek-tooth, which 
resembles that of the other species of Paradoxurus, to which genus 
the animal in question must therefore revert. The explanation of 
this change is the more interesting inasmuch as the Civets in gene- 
ral appear to attain nearly their full size previous to its occurrence, 
and consequently do not offer the usual indications of immature age. 

Mr. Gray then proceeded to enumerate the following species of the 
genus Paradoxurus, all of them, as far as their habitat has been as- 
certained, natives of India and the Indian Islands. 

1. Paradoxurus Typus. F. Cuv., Mamm. Lith. 
Genette de France. Buff., Hist. Nat. Suppl. iii. t.47. 
Viverra nigra. Desm., Mamm. p. 208* 

This species appears to be the Musk and Musky Weasel of Pen- 
nant's Quadrupeds, both taken from Sir Elijah Impey's drawings, but 
not the Piloselle Weasel of the same author, which has. hairy soles. 
There is a variety now living in the Gardens of the Society, which 
may be called fuliginosus, it being nearly black in consequence of the 
length and number of the black hairs, which only show the fulvous 
under-fur between their roots. It has a very distinct pale spot above, 
and another beneath, the eye. 

The three following species are only known by the drawings of Dr. 
Hamilton and Gen. Hardwicke, the former of which were liberally 
lent to Mr. Gray by Dr. Wilkin and Dr. Horsfield, in order to enable 



66 

him to determine by actual comparison the species described from 
them by M. de Blainville. The first two appear to agree with Par. 
Typus in having nearly naked ears, and may possibly be only varie- 
ties of that species j the third approaches more nearly to Par. Mu- 
angas. ^ 

2. Paradoxurus Pennantii. Par. pallide cinerascenti-brurineus, 

fasciis obscuris saturatioribus lateralibus ; auriculis nudiusculis ; 
orbitis albidis; artubus caudceque dimidio apicali nigrescentibus. 
This animal is stated by Gen. Hardwicke, from whose drawings the 
character is taken, to be found in the upper provinces of Bengal, and 
to be very destructive to poultry and game. Its head and body mea- 
sure 21, its tail 23, — making a total length of 44 inches. The ears 
and sides of the nose are pale flesh-coloured. 

3. Paradoxurus Bondar. 
Ichneumon Bondar. Ham., MSS. 

Viverra Bondar. Blainv., in Desm. Mamm. p. 210. 
This species inhabits Bengal, where it is called the Musk-Cat. Its 
head and body measure 25, its tail 24, — making a total length of 49 
inches. Dr. Hamiltoa's reduced figure, from which this animal was 
described by M. de Blainville, agrees with Gen. Hardwicke's drawing 
in almost every particular, except that in the former the nose is rather 
sharper, and the tail not quite so bushy, as in the latter. 

4. Paradoxurus prehensilis. 
Ichneumon prehensilis. Ham., MSS. 

Viverra prehensilis. Blainv., in Desm. Mamm. p. 208. 
This species is only known from Dr. Hamilton's drawings it ap- 
pears distinct from any of the others, more especially in the bands of 
the sides of the back being formed of oblong nearly confluent spots, 
and in the length of the tail, which has a long white tip. The central 
dorsal streak is not very distinctly marked, and the dark line in the 
drawing may perhaps be intended for the shadow. 

5. Paradoxurus Musanga. 

Viverra Musanga. Horsf., Zool. Res. t. 5. 

Viverra fasciata. Desm., Mamm. p. 209 ? 
The very young animal is pale ash-coloured with three distinct 
black dorsal bands, and the sides spotted. Its fur is very close and 
soft, mixed with scattered very rigid rather longer black hairs. 

6*. Paradoxurus dubius. Par. pallide Jlavescenti-cinereus, pilis 
dorsi longioribus apice brunneis, subtus Jlavescenti-albidus ; 
dorso fasciis centralibus tribus, lateribusque maculis brunneis 
inconspicuis ; capite, auriculis pilosis, pedibusque castaneis ; 
caudd prater imam basin nigro-brunned ; macula uirinque ad 
nasum, alterius supra genas, fasciceque inter auricular is trans- 
versa pilis albo-apiculatis. 
This species is described from a young specimen sent to the Bri- 
tish Museum by Dr. Horsfield : it maybe only a variety of Par. 
Musanga, but cannot be the general state of the young of that species, 



67 

which is described above. It is probably the Javanese variety of the 
Musang described and figured by Dr. Horsfield. 

7. Paradoxurus hermaphroditus. 

Viverra hermaphrodita. Pallas, in Schreb. Sdugth. p. 426. 
The description of the glandular fold between the anus and penis 
proves this species, which is only known by Pallas's description, to 
be a Paradoxurus. It appears to resemble the preceding, but differs 
in having the entire throat black, and in its black dorsal bands. 

8. Paradoxurus Pallasii. Par. nigrescenti-griseus, nigro alboque 

intermixlus, infra pallidior; dorso fascid latiusculd maculisque 
parvis utrinque biserialibus nigris ; artubus, lateribus inferne, 
cauddque nigrescentibus ; facie nigrd, maculd utrinque ad na- 
sum, alterd sub oculos, fascidque transversd per frontem pone 
genas ad gulam usque ductd, albis ; auriculis nudiusculis; guld 
antice nigrescenti-cinered, postice cinereo-albidd ; caudd cor- 
pore longiore. 

Par. albifrons. LAsL.in Report of Council Zool. Soc. 1831., haud F. 
Cuv., Mem. Mus. ix. 

This species is described from a living specimen in the Gardens of 
the Society, brought from India, and presented by Mr. Buchanan. 

9. Paradoxurus Crossii. Par. supra nigrescens, pilis plumbeis 

nigro-apiculatis, infrdjlavescens, pilis albo-apiculatis ; auriculis 

apice nudiusculis ; facie, auriculis externe ad basin, pedibus, 

caudceque dodrante apicali nigro-brunneis; maculd rotundd pal- 

lidd ad nasum utrinque, alterdque minore sub oculos ; fronte 

Jiavescente. 

The length of the head and body is 21 inches, of the nose to the 

front of the ear c 6\, of the tail 16, of the fore-foot to the elbow-joint 

A\, and the distance from the back of the fore-foot to the front of the 

hind-., 8 inches. The species is described from a specimen lately 

living in the Surrey Zoological Gardens, and since presented by Mr. 

Cross to the British Museum, where both the skin and skeleton are 

preserved. 

10. Paradoxurus leucopus. Ogilby, in Zool. Journ. iv. p. 304. 

1 1. Paradoxurus Hamiltonii. Par. auriculis pilosis ; dorso griseo- 
cinerascente, pilis nigro-apiculatis inter mixtis, seriebus sex vel 
septem macularum rotundarum nigrarum ; facie dorso concolore, 
strigd angustd nigrd inter, alterdque utrinque supra, oculos ; fascid 
nuchali medid nigrd, laterali utrinque breviore pallide brunned; 
pedibus dorso concoloribus ; caudd corpore sesquilongiore, rufes- 
centi-brunned, annulis angustis subcequalibus nigris versus apicem 
remotioribus. 

This species is described from a living specimen in the Surrey Zoo- 
logical Gardens, which has been in Mr. Cross's possession about 
two years. 

12. Paradoxurus larvatus. 

Gulo larvatus. Ham. Smith, in Griff. An. Kingd. ii. p. 281 . 



Viverra larvata. Gray, Spic. Zool. p. 9. 

Paguma larvata. Gray, Proc. Coram. Zool. Soc. i. p. 96. 

13. Paradoxurus trivirgatus. Par. nigrescenti-griseus, iafrd 
griseus ; capite saturatiore ; dorso fasciis iribus longitudinalibus 
raedils nigrescentibus ; pedibus cauddque corpore longiore nigris ; 
facie immaculatd. 

Viverra trivirgata. Reinw., Mus. Leyd. 

This species is described from a specimen in the Leyden Museum, 
sent from the Moluccas. The teeth agree with those of the genus in 
every particular, except that the cheek-teeth are rather shorter. 

14. Paradoxurus? binotatus. 

Viverra binotata. Reinw'., Gray, Spic. Zool. p. 9. 

Mr. Gray referred this animal to the genus Paradoxurus with some 
doubt, he not having seen the teeth. Its walk, however, is truly 
plantigrade. The habitat of Ashantee, given to it in the Leyden Mu- 
seum, may be questioned : it was obtained from an old Dutch col- 
lection, in which it is possible that the localities were not strictly 
preserved. 

To this enumeration Mr. Gray added the indication of an animal 
known only by a rough sketch brought by Mr. Finlayson from Siam, 
and deposited in the Library of the East India Company. This he 
proposed to call Paradoxurus Finlaysonii, and described as being pale 
brown j with a band across the middle of the muzzle, and another 
across the orbits (including the eyes and expanding on the back of 
the cheek), the ears, and three continuous narrow lines along the 
middle of the back, blackish brown - } the feet blackish ; and the tail 
cylindrical. He also considered it probable that the Civette de Ma- 
lacca of Sonnerat, Voy. t. 91, the Viverra Malaccensis of Gmelin, be- 
longed to this genus, with which it agreed in several particulars of 
its mode of colouring, although it differed in having a black streak 
along the middle line of its belly, a character confined to few among 
the Mammalia. 

With respect to the Paradoxurus aureus of M. F. Cuvier, he stated 
that he was inclined to believe that it really belonged to'the genus on 
account of its naked soles, but was certainly not, as had been ima- 
gined, the young of Par. Typus. 

Mr. Gray added, that figures of the Parr. Pennantii, Bondar, pre- 
kensilis, Pallasii, and Hamiltonii, are engraved for the forthcoming 
No. of the ' Illustrations of Indian Zoology'. 

Preparations were exhibited of the stomach and caicum of a Ca- 
promys which had recently died at the Society's Gardens, and Mr. 
Owen read his notes of the dissection of the animal. He commenced 
by remarking that its external characters agreed with those described 
by M. Desmarest as existing in his Capromys Fournieri; while its ad- 
measurements, especially those taken from the osseous system, cor- 
responded closely with those given by Mr. Say in the Journal of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, when describing his 



69 

Isodon pilorides, the species on which the generic characters were first 
pointed out. He further observed that the affinity of this genus to 
Cavia, indicated by Mr. Say from the comparison of crania, received 
corroboration from various particulars of the anatomy of the animal } 
an affinity, he conceived, not to be denied on account of the exist- 
ence in Capromys of perfect clavicles, and their absence in Cavia; for 
an anatomical character, he observed, is not the less artificial if taken 
without reference to the rest of the organization. 

" The individual examined was a fully grown male, and measured 
1 foot 6 inches from the end of the nose to the setting on of the tail, 
the length of the tail being 7\ inches. 

<f On the abdomen being laid open the viscera were found covered, 
as in the Agouti^ith an extensive omentum, which was loaded with 
lardaceous fat. The sternal layers of the omentum extended along 
the stomach and spleen across the whole of the abdomen; but the 
dorsal layers, which were continued from a fold of the colon, extend- 
ed from the right side only to the mesial line, where they terminated 
by a free edge without adhering to the sternal layer, and conse- 
quently left at that part a large orifice by which the fingers could 
be introduced into the omental bag. The liver, stomach, and spleen, 
occupied as usual the hypochondriac and epigastric regions, and the 
gall-bladder was also distinctly visible lying between two separate 
lobes and not in a partial fissure at the under surface of the liver. 
The ccecum, a capacious, elongated and sacculated bag, extended, as 
in the Cavies, from below the stomach down the left side and across 
the lower part of the abdomen, terminating in the right iliac region 
with its apex directed towards the diaphragm. A long and loose fold of 
the colon extended obliquely across the abdomen from the right hypo- 
chondriac to the left iliac region, and the remaining space above 
the cacum was occupied by convolutions of small intestine. In the 
regio pubis the testes were situated, of the large size which seems pe- 
culiar to this fertile order of Mammalia, with the globus major of the 
epididymis only projecting through the abdominal ring : these pro- 
jecting portions were about the size of kidney- beans and appear to 
have been mistaken by M. Desmarest for the testes themselves, which, 
however, are rather larger than olives. The abdominal ring is large 
enough to permit the whole of the gland to be protruded, and from 
the attachment of the inferior fibres of the internal oblique and trans- 
versalis muscles to the globus major, and their capability of forming a 
cremasteric bag for the testes when these are pushed out of the ab- 
domen, it is most probable that they are so protruded, as in other 
Rodentia, during the rutting season. 

" The stomach is of an oblong shape, pretty equally rounded at 
both extremities. The oesophagus is narrow, and after a short course 
in the abdomen terminates at 2 inches 2 lines from the left extre- 
mity of the stomach ; a pouch of the same extent is continued from 
the right of the pylorus, which is situated only 1 \ inch to the right of 
the cardia. The length of the stomach when distended is 6 inches, 



70 

the circumference at the widest part 8 inches, at the narrowest part 
6 inches. 

" The duodenum is wide at its commencement, as in Ancema and 
Dasyprocta, but has not a capacity so considerable as in Ceeloge- 
nus, where, according to Sir E. Home, it projects like a ceecum 
above the pylorus : its circumference at this part is 2 inches j but 
where it receives the biliary secretion, viz. at a distance of 1 inch 
from the pylorus, its circumference is diminished to one half that size. 
It is a loose intestine, having a mesentery through the whole of its 
course. It rises at first towards the liver, then descends in a curved 
form behind the colon and in front of the right kidney, a process of 
peritoneum passing off from the lowest part of the curvature and at- 
taching the intestine to the right psoas muscle; it then ascends again 
as high as the liver and is continued without crossing the spine into 
the jejunum ; the mesentery which attaches it to the spine is narrow- 
est at the commencement and at the termination of this intestine, 
and between its layers is situated the pancreas, beautifully ramified, 
much flattened, and of a minutely granular structure. The circum- 
ference of the small intestines is nearly uniform throughout, being 
about 1 inch j but the ileum, after becoming gradually and slightly 
contracted, widens just at its termination : the expanded orifice is 
applied, as it were, to the side of the ceecum over a much smaller 
orifice in that gut j the parietes of the ceecum so included forming 
a semilunar valve. The length of the small intestines was 17 feet 
10 inches j that of the ceecum 13 inches ; and its circumference at the 
widest part 6 inches. 

" The parietes of the ceecum are puckered up by two longitudinal 
muscular bands, one of which is continued along the colon for a short 
distance. The extent of the ceecum above the orifice of the ileum is 
very clearly indicated by two lateral dilatations or sacculi, which are 
separated from the colon by a valvular structure similar to that at the 
termination of the ileum; the two orifices of the blind intestine being 
analogous to the cardia and pylorus of the stomach. This structure 
I have had occasion also to observe very distinctly in the Beaver, the 
Cavies, and in some Monkeys, as Macacus Cynomolgus. The colon is 
widest at its commencement, but not' sacculated j its circumference 
here is 3 inches 4 lines ; but it soon diminishes to less than half that 
extent. It ascends obliquely from the left lumbar to the right hypo- 
chondriac regions, then makes the long and loose fold before de- 
scribed, and, after having thus returned upon itself, performs many 
small convolutions along the middle line and back part of the abdomen, 
to which it is attached by a broad meso-colon 3 and is thus continued 
into the rectum. The fceces begin to be separated at the commence- 
ment of the long fold, and there also the colon is connected, by conti- 
nuity of peritoneum, with the duodenum. 

" The liver presents a singular structure, being subdivided into 
almost innumerable angular lobules, varying in size from 3 to 5 lines : 
nevertheless these lobules are so compacted, that the viscus presents 



71 

a uniform smooth convex surface towards the diaphragm ; and they 
are so grouped together that the usual larger divisions or lobes are di- 
stinctly recognisable. The number of these may be reckoned five ; 
the first on the right side is the smallest, and projects in the situation 
of the lobulus Spigelii. The gall-bladder is situated as above de- 
scribed between the third and fourth lobes, having an entire invest- 
ment of peritoneum. The coronary ligament is attached to the fourth 
lobe ; it does not extend to the sternal margin of the lobe, nor does 
it dip down into a deep cleft, but the lobules closely adhere to it as 
soon as it reaches the surface of the viscus : the trace of the oblite- 
rated umbilical vein was very slight. The lobules, though closely in 
contact, are quite detached from each other, being appended, as it 
were, by their apices to the larger branches of the vena porta and he- 
patic arteries and veins. Each of the lobules is partially subdivided 
into still smaller lobules, the whole structure approximating to a 
complete natural unravelling of this conglomerate gland to its com- 
ponent acini. 

"The gall-bladder is about the size of a pigeon's egg; its contents 
were limpid and of a greyish green colour, and had not stained the" 
surrounding parts. This departure from the usual colour and con-, 
sistency of the bile might have led to the idea that it was connected 
in some way with the peculiar structure of the secretory organ just 
described ; but I hadpreviously noted a limpid and almost colourless 
state of the bile in some other Glires, viz. the Guinea Pig, the Acou- 
chy, and the crested Porcupine, which had a small gall-bladder, and 
in none of which did the liver deviate from the ordinary configuration. 
Mr. Say, who described and very correctly figured the peculiar liver 
of Capromys, makes no observation on the bile. The cystic duct in 
the present instance was joined by the hepatic duct at an acute angle 
after the course of an inch j the ductus choledochus terminated di- 
stinctly from the pancreatic at the upper part of the duodenum lying 
upon the gut, and becoming a little larger and making a bend at a 
right angle near its termination. 

"The pancreas consists of two parts, one more compacted extend- 
ing behind the stomach from the spleen 5 the other thin and ramified 
in the duodenal mesentery. 

f The spleen is loosely attached to the left end of the stomach', of 
an elongated trihedral form, 2\ inches in length, and 8 lines across 
at the lower extremity, which is the broadest part. 

" The kidneys are of a simple form and structure, having a single 
papilla in each, which is broad and projecting : the pelvis is small. 
On injecting them with size and vermilion, the former substance 
passed through the iubuli uriniferi into the pelvis, the colouring 
matter stopping at a line's distance from the termination of the tubes. 
Their shape being more globular than in Man, they were more promi- 
nently situated in the lumbar regions, and had a greater investment 
of peritoneum. The right kidney was higher than the left by its 
whole length; in the Acouchy, Agouti, and Rat, there is less difference 
in the relative height of these glands. The supra-renal glands are of 



72 

an oblong rounded form, nearly as large as hazel-nuts. The right, as 
usual, was closely attached to the vena cava inferior, and both were 
situated mesiad of the upper extremities of the kidneys. The above 
structure of kidney and large size of the supra-renal glands appear 
to be common to all the Glires that have been hitherto examined. 

° The lungs were divided into three lobes on the left side and four 
on the right, the additional lobe or lobulus impar occupying the usual 
situation between the pericardium and diaphragm ; having the esopha- 
gus behind and the vena cava inferior in front of it. 

"The heart was more pointed at the apex than in the Acouchy, and 
the great vessels were given off from the arch of the aorta in a diffe- 
rent manner; the left subclavian arising separately, the right sub- 
clavian and carotids by a common trunk : in the Rat these ves- 
sels arise as in Man. Nothing unusual was observed in the 
structure of the heart, but the coagulated fibrine in the cavities 
was firmer, and adhered more strongly to the parietes than ordi- 
nary. This organ had evidently been in a state of inflammation, for 
the pericardium had contracted an adhesion to the base of the right 
ventricle, and the serous covering of that cavity was thickened and 
opake. The contour of both auricles was rounded and entire ; there 
being a great similarity between them, as in the Cavies. The blood 
returned from the head and anterior extremities, was emptied into the 
right auricle by a single vein. In the Rat, Porcupine, Elephant, and 
in all the Marsupiata that 1 have examined, viz. Macropus, Phalan- 
gista, Phascolomys, Phascolarctos, and Perameles, there are two di- 
stinct superior cava entering the auricle, as in Birds and Reptiles. In 
the Hog the left azygos vein enters the auricle near the inferior cava; 
being previously joined by the coronary vein. 

"The thymus gJand is about the size of a pea, of a red colour, 
and of a firm fleshy texture. 

"The transverse section of the trachea is somewhat triangular, the 
cartilages forming the two anterior sides, and a small part of the pos- 
terior; but gradually encroaching upon that side towards the termi- 
nation of the tube, where their extremities are occasionally bifid. The 
bronchia quickly lose their cartilaginous structure after having en- 
tered the lungs : they had been in a state of acute inflammation at 
the time of death. 

" The thyroid gland is proportionally larger in this than in any 
other quadruped I have dissected ; it is composed of two lateral 
lobes, each 10 lines in length, from 3 to 4 lines in breadth, and 
from 2 to 3 in thickness : these lobes are joined by a distinct 
band, 2 lines in breadth, passing obliquely between their lower ex- 
tremities across the third, fourth, and fifth rings of the trachea. When 
these dimensions are compared with those of the animal itself, it will 
be seen that this gland, in proportional magnitude, is even greater 
than in the human subject. Its structure was lobulated, and appa- 
rently healthy. 

' 4 The thyroid cartilage is of a rounded form, bulging out at the 
lower part, and is larger in proportion to the cricoid than in the Acouchy. 



73 

The arytenoid cartilages present the same peculiarity as in the above- 
named animal, being continuous with each other at their apices. This 
adhesion does not of course prevent their being drawn apart at their 
bases where the chorda vocales are attached j the crico- and thyreo- 
arytenoidei being strongly developed for that purpose. The chorda 
vocales are distinct shining ligamentous threads j the crico-thyroidei, 
which render these chords tense, were largely developed, covering the 
whole of the anterior space between the two cartilages to which 
they are attached. They are no doubt materially concerned in pro- 
ducing the sharp cry of this animal. The sacculi laryngis are narrow 
but deep. The epiglottis is broad and of a rounded form j it has a 
linear depression at its base, and a longitudinal ridge along the middle 
of its posterior or laryngeal surface, which fits into the rima glottidis 
when the cartilage is depressed. The margin of the soft palate was 
in close contact with the tongue anterior to the epiglottis, which, to- 
gether with the apices of the arytenoid cartilages, rose into the pos- 
terior nares ; the structure, indeed, seemed to forbid the epiglottis 
passing under the soft palate, although we must suppose it to do so 
when the shrill cry is produced j but the grunting noise appears to be 
emitted by the nose. 

" The tongue corresponds in form to the space between the two 
rows of inferior molares; is compressed laterally, and deeper than it is 
broad. It grows gradually narrower to the apex, which is neatly rounded 
and is impressed with small follicular apertures. Half an inch of the 
extremity only is free. The papilla on the surface are extremely mi- 
nute j towards the dorsum they are conical and retroverted, and nu- 
merous delicate lines converge towards the root of the tongue. Like 
the Acouchy, it wants the elevated or super-imposed portion observ- 
able in the Beaver and Guinea-pig. 

" The parietes of the pharynx are extremely thick ; the isthmus 
fauciumis long, narrow, and conical, diminishing backwards, as in the 
Beaver; the sides are not produced into folds, but the whole of this 
structure is evidently adapted to the same end, as was first pointed out 
by Mr. Morgan in the structure of the fauces of the Capybara. The 
inner membrane of the oesophagus is disposed in longitudinal ruga. 

" The eye is stated by M. Desmarest to be moderately large, but the 
largest diameter of the globe does not exceed 5 lines j the apparent 
magnitude is owing to the great proportion in the cornea, the diameter 
of its base being only one line less than that of the globe itself. This 
large size of the cornea is found in most of the Rodentia, especially 
in those whose habits are nocturnal. It prevails also in the Lemu- 
rid(E ; and is evidently for the purpose of admitting as much light as 
possible into the globe. The loss of refractive power is in most of these 
cases compensated by a greater convexity in the lens; which in Ca- 
promys is 3 lines in the long and 2 in the short diameter. The 
conjunctive membrane has a brown stain round the margins of the 
cornea ; the rest is white and of a firm texture. The sclerotic is so 
thin as to be discoloured by the pigmentum nigrum beneath, so that 
the anterior half is nearly black ; which, when seen through the white 



74 

conjunctive, gives the grey appearance to the white of the eye. The 
membrana nictitans is extremely small, being about a line in length 
and breadth. At the back part of the cavity of the eye there is a little 
light-coloured pigment. 

** The black skin covering the end of the nose is remarkably lax, 
and the muscles going to it are well developed : its motions are said 
to be very free. 

" Among the peculiarities of the muscular system the most remark- 
able is a blending together of the obliqui externi and recti abdominis 
muscles, so that the origin of the latter partook of the character of 
the insertion of the mesial pillars of the abdominal rings j the left rec- 
tus arising thick and fleshy from the right os pubis, and passing through a 
large slit in the origin of the right, which arose in a corresponding man- 
ner from the os pubis of the leftside : as there was no tendon covering 
these fleshy columns, it was doubtful at first whether to consider them 
as fleshy insertions of the external oblique, or decussated origins, of the 
rectus: the latter muscles are however evidently distinct from the ex- 
ternal oblique at the epigastric region of the abdomen, and pass over 
the cartilages of the true ribs to be inserted into the upper part of the 
sternum, and have no other attachment to the pubis but through the 
medium of the fibres before described. The external oblique muscles 
had the usual serrated origins from the ribs, the atlantal fibres pass- 
ing obliquely downwards, and blending with those of the recti, the 
lower fibres being inserted distinctly into the rami of the pubis, and 
forming the lateral or outer pillars of the abdominal opening. The de- 
cussatmg fasciculi of the recti formed the mesial or internal pillars of 
the same opening; through which, as before mentioned, the epididy- 
mis projected, inclosed in a muscular pouch or cremaster, formed by 
the fibres of the internal oblique and iransversalis. 

" The pectoralis major arose from the whole length of the sternum, 
and was continued into the deltoid without any line of separation, and 
inserted with it into the upper and outer half of the humerus. Beneath 
the preceding muscle were two distinct slips, or accessory pectoral 
muscles, one arising from the lowest part of the sternum and inserted 
into the anterior tubercle of the humerus ; the other arising from the 
cartilages of the three lower true ribs, and attached to the posterior 
tubercle of the humerus along w 7 ith the subscapular^ ; between these 
portions the long head of the biceps passed. A distinct slip from the 
latissimus dor si goes over the long tendon of the biceps to be inserted 
on its outer or anterior side, the rest of the tendon being inserted as 
usual. The pectoralis minor is inserted into the acromial end of the 
clavicle, which has also a well-developed subclavius muscle attached 
to it. 

" The situation and form of the testes have been already noticed : 
they are the same as in most of the Glires. The epididymis was at- 
tached throughout its whole length to the testis, following the greater 
curvature of the gland, and measuring 1 inch 9 lines in length. 
The tubuli testis were much more minute and tortuous than in the 
Rat. The fatty processes that arc found hanging from the testes 



75 

loose in the abdomen in some Glires were here developed in an ex- 
traordinary degree, measuring fi inches in length, from 1 to 1J 
inch in breadth, and giving off long conical processes like the ap- 
pendices epiploicce from the human great intestine. The testes in the 
Batrachia, it may be remarked, have similar appendages. The vasa 
deferentia continue slightly tortuous till they reach the vesiculce semi- 
nales, along the mesial aspect of which they pass down to the neck of 
the bladder, and terminate separately at the commencement of the 
urethra : they gradually enlarge, but are not suddenly dilated at their 
extremities. 

" The vesiculce seminales are thin membranous bags, with a white 
glistening exterior, of an elongated farmland give off, on one side 
principally, from fifteen to twenty obtuse blind processes, which are 
more easily unravelled than in Man. The whole length of the vesicle 
in its natural state was 2 inches 3 lines. It becomes gradually 
smaller at the lower extremity, and forms what may be termed a duct 
of 10 lines in length. The prostate gland, as in other Rodentia, takes 
the form of accessory vesiculce, being composed of a number of distinct 
tubes, which are compacted together by cellular texture, and form, in 
this species, four principal masses or lobes. The component tubes 
are flattened, thin, and easily torn, grow smaller towards the urethra, 
and ultimately join so as to terminate by a few small orifices. 

"The manner in which the spermatic fluid and the accessory se- 
cretions from the above tubular glands enter the urethra differs from 
what is generally observed in the Mammalia, but, as far as I have ob- 
served, with some slight modifications, is common to the Glires. The 
urethra at its commencement forms a small cul-de-sac behind the neck 
of the bladder 5 so that on laying open this part, together with the 
urethra anteriorly, the orifice of the bladder is seen to be separated 
from the canal of the urethra by a transverse ridge. Behind this 
ridge, at the distance of 4 lines from the orifice of the bladder, 
there projected a middle rounded process or verumontanum, \\ 
line in length, on each side of which was a cavity, in which termi- 
nated separately the orifices of the vas deferens, vesicula seminalis, and 
accessory vesicles. A white coagulated substance was found project- 
ing a few lines from the duct of the vesicula seminalis. In the Acouchy 
an amber-coloured substance, with a resinous fracture, was impacted 
in the duct of the vesicula seminalis, and projected in a similar man- 
ner into the urethra. Daubenton has noticed a similar circumstance 
in the Agouti. 

"The membranous part of the urethra is 15 lines in length j it 
is closely embraced by a thick stratum of muscular fibres, disposed in 
a penniform manner from a middle posterior raphe. The true acce- 
lerators surround the bulb of the urethra, which is large. The crura 
penis are embraced by short and strong erectores. This organ is also 
provided with small levatores arising from the symphysis jowfos,but ter- 
minating in a single tendon which runs along the dorsum penis, follow- 
ing the curvature, where it is bent backwards, and inserted in an 
elongated flattened bone which lies above the glans. This bone is 8 



76 

lines in length, pointed at either extremity, and concave towards the 
urethra, which terminates just below it. There were no lateral ossicula 
as in the Cavies; neither is the penis provided with the horny appen- 
dages which give it so singular an aspect in Ccelogenus. The glans is 
naturally inverted, but when distended has a remarkable bulbous 
form. The preputial sheath was 1^ inch in length, and distant from 
the anus for the same extent. 

f The urinary bladder when distended approached to a globular 
form. The urachus was continued from the middle of its anterior 
part." 



77 



April 24, 1832. 

N. A. Vigors, Esq., in the Chair. 

Lieut. Colonel Sykes, having brought before the Committee at 
previous meetings various Birds of the Raptorial and Insessorial 
Orders, collected by him during his residence in Dukhun, com- 
pleted on the present evening the exhibition of his collection of 
those Orders. He limited his observations on the several species 
to brief extracts from the copious notes which he had made in 
India respecting their habits, internal anatomy, and geographical 
distribution. In bringing them in succession under the notice of 
the Committee, he observed the order adopted in the following 

Catalogue of Birds of the Raptorial and Insessorial Orders (systema- 
tically arranged,) observed in the Dukhun by Lieut. Colonel 
W. H. Sykes, Bombay Army, F.L.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S., M.R.A.S. 

Order I. RAPTORES, III. 

Fam. Vulturidce, Vigors. — Genus Vultur, Auct. Vulture. 

1. Vult. Indicus, Lath. Vautour Indou, Tenim., PI. Col. 26. Mahah 

Dhoh of the Mahrattas. 
Irides deep brown. Length 42 inches, inclusive of tail of lOj 
inches. A stone half an inch in diameter was found in the 
stomach of one bird. The proportional length of the intestine 
to the body in these birds is 3 to 1, while in the Neophron Per- 
cnopterus it is 5*20 to 1. They congregate in flocks of twenty 
or thirty. On a dead camel, or horse, or bullock being thrown 
out on the plain, numbers of these Vultures are found assembled 
round it in an incredibly short time, although they may not 
have been seen in the neighbourhood for weeks before. Col. 
Sykes's specimens are no doubt referable to M. Temminck's 
species, although the latter bird is described as having whitish 
irides. 

2. Vult. Potiticerianus, Lath. Vautour Royal de Pondicherry, Sonn., 

p. 182. pi. 104. 
The irides are described by Shaw as red, while in two of Colonel 
Sykes's specimens they were of a deep brown, and in the third 
of a bright straw-yellow ; but as the last had allowed itself to 
be captured by hand, had only grass and stalks of herbaceous 
plants in the stomach, and was evidently ill, the pale colour 
of the irides may be attributed to disease. Sexes alike in plu- 
mage. Mostly solitary : Colonel Sykes seldom, if ever, saw 
more than two together. The remarkable flatness of the crown, 
and very great width of the cranium, would seem to indicate 

[No. XVI11.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of SeiENCE. 



78 

a generic difference between this species and the Vult.fulvus 
and Bengalensis. Length of bird 36 inches, inclusive of tail of 
11 inches. 

3. Vult. Bengalensisy Gmel. Bengal Vulture , Lath. Geed of the 

Mahrattas. 
Of a smaller size, and with shorter and stouter legs than Vult. 
Indicus. Habits similar. Sexes alike. Length 30 inches, 
inclusive of tail of 10 inches. Colonel Sykes was induced to 
consider this species of Gmelin as distinct from Vult. citiereus, 
with which it has been classed by M. Temminck, in his 
Manuel d'Ornithologie, p. 4. 

Genus Neophron, Sav. 

4. Neophron Percnopterus. Vultur Percnopterus, Linn. Rachamah y 

Bruce, Trav. Append, p. 163. 
Irides intense red brown. Gregarious. Sexes alike in adult birds ; 
but non-adult birds vary in plumage from fuscous to mottled 
brown and white. These birds are always found in canton- 
ments and camps. For the most part of the day they continue 
on the wing, soaring in circles. When on the ground, they 
walk with a peculiar gait, lifting their legs very high. They 
are efficient scavengers. Length 29 inches, inclusive of tail of 
11 inches. 

Fam. Falconidce, Leach. 

Sub-Fam. Aquilina. Eagles. 

Genus Haliaetus, Sav. Sea Eagle. 

5. Hal. Ponticerianus. Falco Ponticerianus, Lath. Aigle de Pondi- 

cherry, Buffon, p. 136. PI. Enl. 416. Called Bruhmuny Kite 
by Europeans in India. 
Irides reddish brown. It is seen constantly passing up and down 
rivers at a considerable height, but prepared to fall at an instant 
on its prey. Usually it seizes while on the wing, but occasionally 
dips entirely under water, appearing to rise again with difficulty. 
It is quite a mistake to suppose it feeds on carrion. Colonel 
Sykes has examined the contents of the stomach and craw of 
many specimens, and always found fish, and fish only, except- 
ing on one occasion, when a crab was met with. Sexes alike. 
Female lays two large white eggs. Length, inclusive of tail, 
19 to 21 inches : tail 9 inches. 

Genus Circaetus, Vieill. 

6. Circ. brachydactylus. Falco brachydactylus. Wolf. Aquila bra- 

chydactyla, Meyer. Falco Gallicus, Gmel., p. 295. sp. 52. Le 
Jean le blanc, PI. Enl. 413. 
Colonel Sykes's specimen was a female. Irides deep orange 
at the external margin, passing to straw-yellow at the internal 
margin. The remains of a snake and two rats were found in 
the stomach. Length, inclusive of tail, 30 inches: tail 11 
inches. 



79 

- Genus Aquila, Auct. 

7. Aq. chrysaeta. Falco chrysaetos, Linn. Golden Eagle, Lath. 
Colonel Sykes's specimen differs so slightly from the European 

bird as not to justify its separation. 

8. Aq. bifasciata, Hardwicke and Gray's Ind. Zool. 

Irides brownish yellow ochre. Sexes alike in plumage; non- 
adult birds paler than adults. A whole rat found in the 
stomach of one bird. A second bird was shot by Colonel 
Sykes at the dead carcase of a royal tiger ; but it had not 
tasted the banquet, as the stomach was empty. Length, in- 
clusive of tail, 30 inches: tail 11 inches. 

Genus Hccmatornis , Vigors. 

9. Hcem. Bacha. Falco Bacha, Daud. pi. 22, Le Bacha, Le Vaill., 

Ois. d'Afr. pi. 15. 
Colonel Sykes does not possess a specimen, but he identified a 
specimen in the possession of a friend, shot in the Dukhun. 

Sub-Fam. Accipitri?ia. Hawks. 
Genus Accipiter, Ray. Sparrow Hawk. 

10. Accipiter Dukhunensis. Ace. supra fusco-brunneus, pluma- 

rum marg'mibus pallidioribus,capite postico nuchdque albo varie- 
gatis ; subtus albus, pectore abdomineque notis subrotundatis 
grandibus, femorum tectricibus parvis, rufescentibus striatis ; 
rectricibus fusco Jasciatis, Jasciis externarum confertioribus ; 
tarsis subbrevibus. 

Irides stramineo-flavae, margine gracili nigro circumdatae. 
Longitudo corporis 14J unc, caudce 6|, tarsi l£. 
Sexes alike in plumage. Resembles the Ace. fringillarius, but 
differs in the longitudinal broad reddish patches on the breast, 
in less red on the sides, in a black narrow streak down the 
throat, in shorter wings, in the tail having six broad bars in- 
stead of four, in the male bird being as large as the European 
female, and finally in the shorter tarsi and centre toes. 

1 1 . Ace. Dussumieri. Falco Dussumieri, Temm., PI. Col. 308. female. 
Jrides bright yellow, with an exterior narrow margin of black. 

Wings short. Tail long and narrow, being only the width of the 
upper feather. M. Temrainck's specific characters are taken 
from a female, the male being unknown. Colonel Sykes has 
but one specimen, and that a female, the male being unknown 
to him. Length, inclusive of tail, 12j inches: tail 6| inches. 

Genus Astur, Auct. Goshawk. 

12. Astur Hyder. Ast. corpore supra et subtus brunneo, dorso imo 

rufescenti, plumarum r hack? bus Juscis, alarum tectricibus albo 
notatis ; abdomine maculis albisfasciato ; Jrontis fascia gracili 
guttureque albis, hoc lineis tribus latisfuscis, una in medio, cce- 
teris utrinque ad latera, notato ; femorum tectricibus crissoque 
albis, rufo fasciatis ; cauda suprh rufa , fasciis quinque graci- 
Hbus,fere obsoktis, alteraque prope basin latd, fuscis notatd / 



80 

remigibus fusco-brunneis ad apicem Juscis, pogoniis internis 
Jasciis quinque Juscis gracilibus, alboque ad basin notatis. 
Rostrum ad basin flavum, ad apicem nigrum. Pedes flavi ; 
unguibus nigris. Longitudo corporis 16| — 17 una, caudce 
6±— 7. 
This bird has the three stripes upon the throat, and the aspect 
of Falco trivirgatus, Temm., fig. 303, but it is a much larger 
bird than M. Temminck's, and has otherwise characters in the 
plumage to entitle it to a specific distinction. A couple of mice 
were found in the stomach of one bird. Sexes alike in plumage. 
Female a little larger than the male. 

Sub-Fam. Falconina. 
Genus Falco, Auct. Falcon. 

13. Falco Tinnunculus, Linn. Kestril. 

Irides intense brown. A very abundant bird in the Dukhun. 
Both sexes are absolutely identical with the European birds 
in their characteristic plumage. Colonel Sykes, nevertheless, 
mentions his being in possession of a male bird exactly like the 
female of the Kestril in plumage and size, and, consequently, 
larger than the male Kestril: and as this was shot from a party 
of five or six, perched on the same tree, and without a male 
Kestril in company, he is induced to believe there is a distinct 
species, in which both sexes have the plumage of the female 
European Kestril. Remains of rats, mice, lizards, grasshoppers, 
and a bird, were found in the stomach of several specimens. 
In one stomach theremains of no less than four lizards were 
met with. 

14. Falco Chicquera, Lath. Le Chicquera, Le Vaill., Ois. d'Afr. pi. 22. 
Irides sanguineous. A common bird in the Dukhun. Sexes alike 

in plumage. Female usually the larger bird j but Colonel 
Sykes has a male quite as large as any female. A sparrow 
was found in the stomach of one male bird, and a young bat in 
the stomach of another. 

Sub-Fam. Buteonina. Buzzards. 
Genus Circus, Auct. Harrier. 

15. Circus pallidus. Circ. pallide griseus, alis dorsoque satura- 

tioribus ; subtus albus ; uropygio albo, griseo Jasciatim notato ; 

rectricibus, duabus mediis exceptis, griseo alboque Jasciatis ; 

remigibus tertid quarta quint aque Juscis. 

Irides viridi-flavae. $. Longitudo corporis 19| una, caudce 
9| ', 9 corporis 21^ ; caudce 10. 
This bird has usually been considered the Circ. cyaneus of Eu- 
rope ; but it differs in the shade of its plumage (male and fe- 
male) j in the back-head of the male not being white spotted 
with pale brown ; in the absence of dusky streaks on the breast; 
in the rump and upper tail-coverts being white barred with 
brown ash ; in the inner webs of four of the tail-feathers not 
being white; and in the bars of the under tail being seven instead 
of four. The female resembles the female of Circ. cyaneus, but 



81 

the plumage is two shades lighter, the tail is barred with 
six broad fuscous bars, instead of four, and the tail-feathers 
are much more pointed. The remains of six lizards were found 
in the stomach of one bird. Colonel Sykes never saw these 
birds perch on trees. They frequent the open stony plains 
only. The sexes were never seen together. 

16. Circus variegatus. Circ. capite supra, nucha, ptilis, pecto- 

reque rufis, plumis in medio late brunneis ; dorso, scapularibus, 
remigibusque externis intense brunneis ; pteromatibus, remigi- 
bus internis, cauddque griseis ; abdomine Jemorumque tectri- 
cibus rujis; caudce tectricibus superioribus rufo albo brunneoque, 
inferioribus griseo saturatiore, notatis. 
Longitudo corporis 21 una, caudce 10. 
This is a very remarkable bird, and in its plumage seems to pos- 
sess much of the united characters of the sexes of this genus, 
which are known generally to exhibit a marked difference. 
Colonel Sykes possesses but one specimen, a male. 

Sub-Fam. Milvina. 
Genus Milvus, Auct. Kite. 

17. Milvus Govinda. Milv. capite, nucha, corporeque subtus ru- 

Jescenti'brunneis, plumis in medio Jusco lineatis ; dorso 3 alis, 
cauddque satis furcatd saturate brunneis, illarum pteromatibus 
pallidioribus, hac Jusco obsolete Jasciato. 
Longitudo corporis 26 una, caudce 11. 
This bird differs from the Falco Cheele in the want of white spots 
on the wing-coverts, white before the eyes, and white bar on the 
tail ; in having the inner webs of the tail-feathers barred with 
numerous narrow bars, and in the shafts of the feathers about 
the head and neck, and generally underneath, being very dark. 
Sexes alike. Constantly soaring in the air in circles ; watching 
an opportunity to dart upon a chicken, upon refuse animal 
matter thrown from the cook-room, and occasionally even 
having the hardihood to stoop at a dish of meat carrying from 
the cook-room to the house. 

Fam. Strigidce, Leach. — Genus Otus, Cuv. 

18. Ot. Bengalensis, Franklin, Proceed. Zool. Soc. I. p. 115. Goobur 

of the Mahrattas. 
Irides, external margin dark orange, gradually changing to yel- 
low at the internal margin. Very common^ in the Dukhun. 
Generally found on the open rocky plains. A whole rat, (the 
tail hanging out of the mouth, and the head and most part of 
the body in the stomach, and partly decomposed,) was found 
in one bird : another had a crab, a third a Pastor ; but the 
usual food appeared to be rats. 

Genus Strix, Auct. 

19. Strix Javanica, Horsf. 

Although at a superficial view this species appears to be the barn- 



82 ' 

door Owl of Europe (Strix Jlammea), a comparison of several 
specimens with the European bird satisfies Colonel Sykes that 
Dr. Horsfield was right in separating it. Neither sex is un- 
spotted white underneath, nor has the Indian species a white 
disc. Sexes alike, with the exception of the plumage of the 
female being a shade or two lighter than that of the male. 
Length, inclusive of tail, 17 inches: tail 5 inches. One of 
Colonel Sykes's specimens was captured alive while lying on 
its back on the ground, defending itself against the attacks of 
a body of crows. Irides reddish dark brown. 

20. Strix Indranee. Strix capite supra pallide brunneo, plumis 

albido marginatis ; dorso imo, pteromatibusque rujescenti-brun- 
neis , fasciis albisfusco marginatis notatis ; dorso medio, ptilis, 
remigibus cauddque brunneis, his rifescentifasciatis, hac fasciis 
albidis gracilibus notatd % ad apicem albo marginatd ; guld cris- 
soque albescentibus ; abdomine subrujb, brunneo graci titer fas- 
ciato ; regione circumoculari nigra ; disco rufo, brunneo mar- 
ginato. 

Irides rufo-brunneae. Longitudo corporis 21 uric, caudcz 9. 
Inhabits the woods of the Ghauts : rare. The specimen de- 
scribed is a young bird, and a female. 

Genus Ketupa, Less. 

21. Ketupa Leschenaulti. Less., Traite d'Ornith. p. 114. Strix 

Leschenaulti, Temm., PI. Col. 20. Scops? Leschenaulti, Steph., 

vol. 13. p. 53. 
A rare bird in the Dukhun. Independently of the naked legs of 
this bird, its aquiline aspect authorizes its separation from the 
genera with which it had been placed previously to M. Les- 
son's arrangement. 

Genus Noctua, Sav. 

22. Noct. Indica, Frankl. Peenglah of the Mahrattas. 

Irides King's yellow. Sexes alike. Mice and beetles found in 
the stomach. An exceedingly noisy bird, and frequently heard 
chattering during the day-time in dense trees. The Mahrattas 
have a superstition respecting this species j and a class of per- 
sons, called from it Peengleh, live on the credulity of the people 
by pretending to consult it, and predict events. Length, in- 
clusive of tail, 9| to II inches: tail 1\ to 3 inches. Numerous 
in the Dukhun, and found in families of four or five. 

Order II. INSESSORES, Vigors. 

Tribus Fissirostres, Cuv. 

Fam. Meropidce. — Genus Merops, Linn. 

23. Merops viridis, Linn. Indian Bee-eater, Lath. Guepier a collier 

de Madagascar, Buff. 



83 

Fam. Hirundinidce, Leach. — Genus Hirundo, Auct. 

24. H ir undo fJif era, Steph., vol. 13. p. 79. Hir. Jilicau data, Frankl. 
Very abundant in Dukhun, and very beautiful, with its thread- 
like tail-feathers floating behind when in flight. 

25. Hirundo Jewan. Mas. Hir. capite, dorso, tectricibus alarum, 

uropygio, rectricibus mediis Jascidque lata pectorali metallice 
nigris ; corpore subtus rosaceo-albo ; gutture rufo ; remigibus 
rectricibusque lateralibus fusco-nigris, his interne albo macu- 
latis. 

Foem. et jun. Gutture magis rufo notato. 
Irides intense rufescenti-brunneae. Longitudo corporis 6 
unc, caudce 3yV« 
This bird differs from the common English Swallow, (Hir. rustica,) 
only in its somewhat smaller size, larger bill, and in the lateral 
tail-feathers not being equally elongated. The tail is less 
forked, and the rufous colour of the throat extends more on 
the breast. 

26. Hirundo concolor. Hir.fuliginoso-brunnea, sericea ; caudd 

cequali, rectricibus, externis mediisque exceptis, interne albo 
guttatis. 

Longitudo corporis 5 unc, caudce 2£. 
These birds live on the banks of rivers. The plumage of the sexes 
does not differ. 

27. Hirundo erythropygia. Hir. metallice nigra; nropygio 

collarique nuchali rujis ; corpore subtus albo, pallide rosaceo 
tincto, plumis in medio graciliter brunneo striatis. 
Longitudo corporis 6 unc, caudce 3. 
This species appeared in millions in two successive years in the 
month of March on the parade-ground at Poona : they rested 
a day or two only, and were never seen in the same numbers 
afterwards. 

Genus Cypselus, 111. 

28 Cypselus qffinis, Hardw. Allied Swift, Hardw. 

These birds are so rare in Dukhun that Colonel Sykes obtained 
only two specimens. 

• Fam. Caprimulgidce, Vigors. — Genus Caprimulgus, Auct. 

29. Caprimulgus monticolus, Frankl. Great Bombay Goatsucker t 

Lath. 

30. Caprimulgus Asiaticus, Lath. Bombay Goatsucker, Id. 

31. Caprimulgus Mahrattensis. Capr. pallide cinereo-griseus, 

brunneo ferrugineoque undulatus variegatusque ; thorace, remi- 
gibus tribus externis in medio, rectricibusque duabus lateralibus 
ad apices, albo notatis. 
Longitudo corporis 8 ,%■ unc, caudce 5 ,V» 
This species differs from the two preceding in the prevalent 

grayness of the plumage, and in the absence of the subrufous 

collar on the nape of the neck. 



8* 

Fam. Halcyonidce, Vigors. — Genus Halcyon, Swains. Crab-eater, 

32. Halcyon Smyrnensis. Alcedo Smyrnensis, Linn. Smyrna Kings- 

Jisher. 
In the description of this bird authors appear to have omitted to 
mention the chestnut small wing- coverts, and fine rich choco- 
late black medial wing-coverts. This species frequents well 
irrigated gardens and old wells rather than brooks or rivers. 
Grasshoppers were frequently found in the stomach. 

Genus Alcedo, Auct. Kingsfisher. 

33. Alcedo rudis, Linn. Black and White Kingsfisher, Edw., pi. 9. 
In all Colonel Sykes's specimens the male bird is distinguished 

from the female by a single or broken double black bar across 
the breast. 
34?. Alcedo Bengalensis, Gmel. Little Indian Kingsfisher, Edw., pi. 11. 
This species affects brooks : it is never seen in gardens. 

Genus Ceyx, La Cep. 

35. Ceyx tridactyla, La Cep. Buff., PL Enl. 778. fig. 2. 

This very beautiful bird differs from Buffon's drawing only in a 
purple spot terminating the ridge of the bill, and in a reddish 
spot on each side of it. 

Tribus Dentirostres, Cuv. * 

Fam. Muscicapidce, Vigors. — Genus Muscipeta, Cuv. 

36. Muse. Paradisi, Cuv. Mas. Muse, alba ; capite cristato colloque 

violaceo - atris ; pteromatibus remigibusque atris albo marginatis; 
rhachibus rectricum atris. 

Fcem. Dorso, alis, cauddque castaneis ; corpcre subtus albo; 
gutture, collo, pectore, nuchdque griseis, hdc saturation; capite 
cristato violaceo - atr o ; remigibus Juscis* 
Longitudo corporis 10J unc, caudce 6. 
Muscicapa Paradisi, Linn. Paradise Flycatcher, Lath. Avis 
Paradisiaca orientalis, Seba, 1. 1. 52. f. 3. Pied Bird of Pa- 
radise, Edw., pi. 113. 

37. Muscipeta Indica, Steph., vol. 13. p. 111. Mas. Muse, corpore 

supra castaneo, subtus albo ; pectore grisescenti; capite cristato 

colloque violaceo-atris. 

Fcem. mari similis, rectricibus duabus mediis paullum elongatis. 

Statura praecedentis. Irides intense rufo-brunnese. 
Avis Paradisiaca cristata, Seba, 1. t. 30. f. 5. Upupa Paradisea, 

Linn. Promerops Indicus cristatus, Briss. Crested long-tailed 

Pie, Edw., pi. 325. 
These two birds have lately been erroneously considered to be- 
long to one species. They were never found however by 
Colonel Sykes (who shot many,) in the same locality, nor did 
he observe any intermediate stage of plumage. The difference 
between the females of the two birds noticed above at once 
decides the distinction of species. The two central tail- 



$5 \ 

feathers of the males (not of the females) are elongated to three 
or four times the length of the body : in one specimen they 
are 15f inches long. They feed principally on the ground, 
and on very minute insects. 
There has been much confusion among the early descriptions of 
these birds. Linnaeus describes the Muse. Indica as an Upupa ; 
Brisson as a Promerops ; and others as a Pica, Icterus, Todus, 
Manucodiata, &c. The specific name of Indica seems to have 
the right of priority over that of castanea given by M. Tem- 
minck, (See M. Kuril's 'Systematic Catalogue of the PI. Enlu- 
minees,' page 5,) as having originally been assigned to the bird 
by Brisson. Other well marked species, nearly allied to the two 
preceding, the males of which have similarly elongated tail- 
feathers, are found in Africa and China. 

38. Muscipeta Jlammea, Cuv. Gobe-mouche Jtammea, Temm., PI. 

Col., 263. Male and Female. 
The cry of this bird is xvheet, wheet, toheet. In the colours, the 
female has yellow where the male has scarlet. Irides brown- 
black. 

39. Muscipeta per egrina. Parus peregrinus, Linn. Crimson-rumped 

Flycatcher, Lath. 

Genus Muscicapa, Auct. 

40. Muscicapa melanops, Vigors. Figured in Gould's l Century of 

Himalayan Birds.' 
•11. Muscicapa Banyumas, Horsf. Banyumas Flycatcher, Lath. 
Gobe-mouche chanteur, Temm. 

42. Muscicapa Poonensis. Muse, supra cinereo'brunnea ; subtus 

sordide alba ; mandibula superiori nigra, inferiori ad basin 
alba. 

Longitudo corporis 4 X 5 T una, caudce 1 T %, 
These birds sit on the extreme twigs of trees, and dart on passing 
insects in the manner of the Merops viridis. 

43. Muscicapa cceruleocephala. Muse, cinereo-brunnea, cceruleo 

leviter tincta ; capite thoraceque lazulinis; pectore sublazulino; 

abdomine crissoque albis. 

Longitudo corporis 5 T V una, caudce 2§* 

44. Muscicapa picata. Muse, supra atra, subtus sordid^ alba; 

strigd a mento ad nucham utririque extendente, fascia alarum^ 
uropygio, crisso, apicibusque rectricum duarum later alium albis. 
Longitudo corporis 5{- una, caudce 2%. 

Genus Rhipidura, Vigors & Horsf. Fan4ailed Flycatcher. 

45. Rhipidura albqfrontata, Frankl. 

46. Rhipidurajuscoventris, Frankl. 

Colonel Sykes has shot both these birds in the same localities. 
The male has a very sweet note. He spreads and raises his tail 
over his head in hopping from bough to bough. Both species 
have the aspect and habits of the Australian bird Muscicapa 

• Jlabellifera, Gmel. Irides deep sepia brown. 



86 

Fam. Laniadce, Vigors. 
Genus Dicrurus, Vieill. — Edolius, Temm. 

47. Dicrurus Balicassius, Corvus Balicassius, Linn. 

48. Dicrurus ccerulescens , Linn. Lanius Fingah, Shaw, t. 7. p. 291. 

Genus Hypsipetes, Vigors. 
49 Hypsipetes Ganeesa. Hyps.griseo-brunnea, subtus pallidior ; 
alis remigibusque brunneis ; capite suprh vix cristato metallice 
atro. 

Longitudo corporis 10 unc, caudce 4. hides intense rufo- 
brunnese. 
Tongue bifid, and deeply fringed ; sexes exactly alike. Stony 
fruit found in the stomach. Neck short, and head sunk into 
the shoulders ; flight very rapid. Found only in the dense woods 
of the Ghauts. The tongue is that of Pastor ■, the legs those of 
Dicrurus. 

Genus Collurio, Vigors. 

50. Collurio Lahtora. Coll. pallide griseus ; strigajrontali per 

oculos utrinque ad nucham extendente, alis, rectricibusque mediis 
nigris ; corpore subtus, fascia alarum, scapularium marginibus, 
rectricibus externis, apicibusque duarum sequentium albis. 
Longitudo corporis 9| unc, caudce 4|. 
This is the variety C. of Lanius Excubitor of Dr. Latham. It is 
closely allied to the North American and European Lan. Ex- 
cubitor, but differs in the black bar extending across the fore- 
head. The male has a sweet note. 

51. Collurio erythronotus , Vigors, Proceed. Zool. Soc. I. p. 42. 
This bird differs from the Lan. Bentet of Dr. Horsfield only in the 

crown being ash-coloured instead of black, and in the defined 
black bar across the forehead. 

52. Jun.? abdomine graciliterjasciato. 

Supposed young of the above. Length 7| inches : tail 3 T V. 

53. Collurio Hardwickii, Vigors, Proceed. Zool. Sec, I. p. 42. Bay- 

bached small Shrike, Lath. 

Genus Lanius, Auct. 

54. Lanius Muscicapo'ides, Frankl. Keroula Shrike, Lath. 

A rare bird. Colonel Sykes's specimen, a female, corresponds 
with Major Franklin's specific characters, and with his spe- 
cimen, a male bird. 

Genus Graucalus, Cuv. 

55. Graucalus Papuensis, Cuv. Corvus Papuensis, Gmel. Papuan 

Crotv, Lath. 
Irides rich lake. 

Genus Ceblepyris, Cuv. 

56. Ceblepyris jimbriatus, Temm. Echenilleur Jrange, 9 PI. Col. 

hides orange. 
Colonel Sykes's birds, full-grown males, correspond only to the 



87 

female of Ceb. fimbriatus, and not at all to the male. Met 
with only in thick hedges on the plains. 

57. Ceblepyris canus. he Grand Gobe-mouche cendre de Madagascar, 

PLEnl. 541. 

Irides intense red brown. Black ants only found in the stomach. 
This bird does not correspond with the later descriptions of 
Ceb. canus (Muscicapa cana), and the history of both these 

. species of Ceblepyris requires further illustration. Found only 
in thick bushes. Specimens of both species from Bengal and 
Wynaad resemble those collected by Colonel Sykes. 

Fam. Merulidce, Vigors. — Genus Oriolus, Auct. 

58. Oriolus Galbula, Linn. Golden Oriole, Lath. Mango Bird of 

Dukhun. 
Very abundant in Dukhun just before the rains. It is called 
Pavoseh by the Mahrattas, from being the precursor of the 
monsoon. It is a quarrelsome bird. Irides rich lake. 

59. Oriolus melanocephalus, Linn. Black-headed Oriole, Lath. 
Rare. Seen by Colonel Sykes only in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the Ghauts. Found also in Africa. 

60. Oriolus Kundoo. Or. corpore supra Jlavo-mridi ; uropygio, 

crisso, pogoniis internis rectricum ad apices, abdominisque la- 

teribus nitide Jlavis ; alis olivaceo-brunneis ; corpore subtus 

sordide albo, brunneo striato ; roslro nigro. 

Irides rufo-brunneae. Longitudo Or. Galbidce. 
Both sexes alike. Size of golden Oriole, and much resembling 
the female of that bird ; but the bill is always black, and the 
irides reddish-brown instead of lake. 

Genus Turdus, Auct. 

61 . Turdus macrourus, Gmel. Long-tailed Thrush, Lath. 
Rare. Found in dense woods of the Ghauts. 

62. Turdus Saularis. Gracula Saularis, Linn. Pastor Saularis, 

Temm. Little Indian Pie, Edw., pi. 181. 

63. Turdus cyanotus, Jardine and Selby, pi. 46. 

This bird has the tongue of a Pastor. Irides intense red brown. 
Stony fruit and Cicadce found in the stomach. Has the naked 
spot behind the eyes, but the bird has not the air of a Pastor. 
Inhabits the Ghauts. 

Genus Petrocincla, Vigors. 

64. Petrocincla Pandoo. Petr. brunnescenti-cyanea ; pteroma- 

tibus, remigibus, rectricibusquejuscis. 
Irides fuscae. Statura minor quam Turd, cyanei. 
This bird differs from the solitary Thrush of Europe {Turd, cya- 
neus, Linn.) in its smaller size, slighter form, brighter ccerulean 
tint, want of orange eyelids and white tips to the feathers. 
Found only in the dense woods of the Ghauts. Flight low and 
rapid. It appears to correspond with var, A. of Dr. Latham's 
solitary Thrush, vol. 5. p. 47. 



88 

65. Petrocincla Maal. Petr. suprh griseo-brunnea, subtus ru~ 

Jescenti-alba, plumis brunneo marginatis ; crisso ritfescenti, 
Jusco-brunneojasciato. 
Statura praecedentis. 
This bird corresponds as closely as possible with what is stated 
to be the female of the Turd, cyaneus, and may by analogy be 
supposed to be the female of Petrocincla Pandoo ; but it in- 
habits only the prickly milk-bushes {Euphorbia tortilis and pen- 
tagona) of the rocky plains of the Dukhun. Colonel Sykes 
never saw it in the Ghauts, nor in company with Petr. Pandoo. 

66. Petrocincla cinclorhyncha, Vigors, Proceed. Zool. Soc. I. p. 172. 

Figured in Gould's Century of Himalayan Birds. 

Genus Timalia, Horsf. 

67. Timalia Malcolmi. Tim. pallide grisescenti-brunnea, uro- 

pygio pallidiori, remvgibus rectricibusque mediis saturatioribus, 
his fusco obsolete Jasciatis ; subtus albescens, leviter rosaceo 
tincta ; Jrontis plumis subcyaneis, in medio albo striatis. 
Irides flavo-aurantiae. Rostrum brunneum, mandibula in- 
feriori ad basin flavescenti. Longitudo corporis 11£ unc, 
caudce 5 \. 
Kohuttee of the Mahrattas. Congregate in flocks of ten or a 
dozen ; fly low, slowly, and with difficulty : never cease chat- 
tering, and all at the same time. Food, grasshoppers and grain. 
Colonel Sykes has dedicated this species to Sir John Malcolm, 
G.C.B., who zealously aided his researches in India. 

68. Timalia Somervillei. Tim. rufescenti-brunnea ; abdomine, 

crisso, dorso imo cauddque dilute riifis, hdc saturation obsolete 
Jasciatd; remigibus brunneis ; gutturis pectorisque plumis in 
medio subcyaneo notatis. 

Rostrum pedesque flavi. Longitudo corporis 9i, caudce 4?J. 

Irides pallide flava?. 

A size less than Tim. Malcolmi, but shorter. Irides bright yellow : 

same habits as the preceding, but found in the Ghauts only; the 

latter on the plains. Colonel Sykes has dedicated this bird to 

Dr. William Somerville, F.R.S. in testimony of his respect. 

69. Timalia Chatarcsa, Frankl. Gogoye Thrush, Lath.? 

Habits of the preceding, but about half the size of Tim. Malcolmi. 
Irides red brown j legs yellow. 

Genus Ixos, Temm. 

70. Ixosjocosus. Laniusjocosus, Linn. Jocose Shrike, Lath. 
This is also the Lanius Emeria of Shaw. The male has a sweet 

note. Found only in the lofty woods of the Ghauts. Irides 
fuscous. Lives on fruit : sexes alike. 

71. Ixos Cqfer. Turdus Cafer, Linn, Cape Thrush, Lath. Le Cou- 

rouge, Le Vaill. 
Inhabits gardens: destructive to fruit: without musical notes. 
Sexes alike. 



$9 

72. Ixosfulicatus. Motacillafulicata, Linn. Sooty Warbler, Lath. 

Traquet noir des Philippines, Buff. 
Sir J. Anstruther's variety. Lath., vol. 7. p. 112. Female sooty- 
black or brown-black. 

Genus Pomatorhinus, Horsf. 

73. Pomatorhinus Horsfieldii. Pom. olivaceo-brunneus ; striga 

superciliari, collo infronte, pectore, abdomineque medio albis. 
Irides fusco-sanguineae. Rostrum flavum. Pedes fusci. Lon- 
gitudo corporis 9A unc, caudce 3 X V. 
Minute insects (Dipterous) found in the stomach. Birds remark- 
ably shy, and only met with in the dense woods of the Ghauts. 
The note of the male is hoot, tohoot, ivhoot, uttered slowly : the 
female answers hooe. The tongue and habits of this bird are 
those of a Thrush or Timalia. I have dedicated this species 
to a gentleman to whom science is deeply indebted. 

Fam. Sylviadce, Leach. — Genus Jora, Horsf. 

74<. Jora Tiphia. Motacilla Typhia, Linn. Lath., vol. 7. p. 128. 
var. A. Brown's lllust. pi. 36. 
Dr. Horsfield's Jora scapularis appears to correspond with the 
female of Jora Tiphia. Irides gray. 

Genus Sylvia, Auct. Warbler. 

75. Sylvia montana, Horsf. Prinia montana, Swains. 

Differs from the type of Prinia in its rounded tail. Irides fuscous. 

76. Sylvia sylviella, Lath. Lesser White-throat. 

Differs from the European bird only in the reddish tint of the 
white below. 

77. Sylvia Rama. Sylv. pallide brunnea, subtus albescens-, caudd 

obsolete fasciata. 

Longitudo corporis 4 T V, caudce 1-jV- 
Sexes alike. A size smaller than Sylv. montana, and might be mis- 
taken for it ; but Colonel Sykes has shot them male and female, 
in several places in Dukhun, full-grown birds. 

Genus Prinia, Horsf. 

78. Prinia socialis. Prin. capite dorsoque intense cinereis ; remi- 

gibus rectricibusque rufo-brunneis, his prope. apices fusco fas- 
ciatis ; subtus riifescenti-alba, abdominis lateribus satura- 
tioribus. 

Rostrum nigrum. Pedesft&vi. Irides pallide aurantiacae. Lon- 
gitudo corporis 5 A> caudce 2tV 
Sexes alike in size and plumage. This species constructs the 
same ingenious nest, and has the same habits, same note (tooee, 
tooee), and feeds in the same manner, as the Orthotomus Ben- 
nettii. 

79. Prinia inornata. Prin. supra pallide cinereo-brunnea, strigd 

superciliari corporeque subtus atbescentibus, abdominis lateribus 
crissoque rufescentibus ; caudd obsolete fasciata. 



w 



90 

Irides rufo-brunneae. Rostrum brunneum ; mandibuld infe 
riori ad basin flava. Longitudo corporis 4 ,V unc, caudce 2 
Sexes do not differ in size or plumage. Habits of Prin. socialis 
Both the above species are remarkable for a struggling flight, 
as if they experienced difficulty in making their way. 

Genus Orthotonus, Horsf. Tailor Bird. 

80. Orthotomus Bennettii. Orth. olivaceo-viridis ; subtus ulbidus; 

capite suprajerrugineo ; caudd elongatd obsolete fasciatl. 
Irides flavae. Longitudo corporis 6 unc, caudce 2 l 7 - -. 
Two central tail-feathers elongated beyond the rest for one inch, 
and two-tenths of an inch wide only. Sexes alike. This bird 
is very remarkable for the ingenuity shown in constructing its 
nest by sewing the leaves of trees together with cotton thread 
and fibres. Colonel Sykes has seen nests in which the thread 
used was literally knotted at the end. This species very closely 
resembles Dr. Horsfield's Orth. Sepium, but on a comparison of 
the birds they were found to have specific differences. 

81. Orthotomus Lingoo. Orth. olivaceo-brunneus, subtus sordide 

albus. 

Longitudo corporis 5-rV unc, caudce 2 V- 
This species differs from the type of Orthotomus in the short tail, 
but has the characters of the genus sufficiently marked to be 
included in it. Sexes exactly alike in plumage. Principal food 
black ants. 

Genus Budytes, Cuv. 

82. Budytes citreola. Motacilla citreola, Lath. This is the variety 

A. of Mot. citreola of Dr. Latham, vol. 6. p. 330. 

Length 6 X V inches : tail 2 T V 
This bird so closely resembles the European species that Colonel 
Sykes has not ventured to separate it. It has the habits of a 
Motacilla, but its long hind claw sufficiently distinguishes it, 
and M. Cuvier has facilitated research in forming a genus for 
such Wagtails as have this claw. 

83. Budytes melanocephala. Bud. olivaceo-viridis ; corpore 

subtus nitide Jlavo ; capite, nucha, rectricibusque nigris, harum 
duabus lateralibus albo marginatis ; alisjuscis, plumis olivaceo- 
Jlavo notatis. 

Irides intense rufo-brunneae. Longitudo corporis 6A unc, 
caudce 3. 
These are solitary birds, and are rarely found, excepting in the 
beds of rivers. In seven specimens four birds only were exa- 
mined, and they happened to be males; so that Colonel Sykes 
is uncertain with respect to the female. 

84. Budytes Beema. Bud. olivaceo-viridis, subtus .flavus ; capite 

supra griseo ; strigd superciliari alba ; alisjuscis plumis jla- 
vescenti marginatis; caudd atrd, rectricibus duabus latera- 
libus albis. 
Irides flavo-brunneae. Statura praecedentis. 



91 

This bird very closely resembles Budytes fiava of Europe, bu* 
differs in the shade of the upper plumage, in the hind claw 
being two-tenths of an inch longer, and in the base of the lower 
mandible being whitish. This is a solitary bird in beds of rivers: 
female not known. 

Genus Motacilla, Auct. 

85. Motacilla variegata, Steph., vol. 13. p. 234. Pied Wagtail, Lath., 

vol. 6. p. 320. pi. 114. Mot.picata, Frankl. 

86. Motacilla Dukhunensis. Mot. dorso scapularibusque pal- 

lescenti-griseis, caudce tectricibus ad apicem nigrescentibus ; 
capite supra, nucha, gutture, pectore, rectricibusque mediis 
atris ; frontis Jascid lata, corpore subtus, plumarum margi- 
nibus, alarum remigibus primariis exceptis, rectricibusque dua- 
bus lateralibus albis ; remigibus Juscis. 
Irides intense rufo-brunneae. Statura Mot. alba. 
Sexes do not differ in size or plumage ; but young birds have the 
black less pronounced. This is the most common and abun- 
dant Wagtail in the Dukhun, frequenting not only the beds of 
rivers, but the plains ; and Colonel Sykes has seen it in his 
own garden frequently. It very closely resembles the Mot. alba, 
of Europe, but differs in being of a light slate or cinereous 
instead of a blackish cinereous, and in the wing-coverts and 
secondaries being edged with broader white. It is almost iden- 
tical with the Mot. alba of the Northern Expedition. 

Genus Megalurus, Horsf. 

87. Megalurus? ruficeps. Meg. olivaceo-brunneus, subtus al- 

bescens, pectore brunneo striata ; capite genisque brunnescenti- 
rufis, strigd superciliari rufescente ; capitis dorsique plumarum 
rhachibus pallidioribus ; rostro pedibusque luteis. 
Longitudo corporis 7-f unc., caudce 2±. 
Wings short : tail equal, narrow. Female unknown. Black ants 
only found in the stomach. This bird has the air of the Anthus 
Uichardi figured in the Planches coloriees, 101. Frequents the 
plains only, like a Lark. 

Genus Anthus, Bechst. Pipit. 

88. Anthus agilis. Anth. olivaceo-brunneus ; subtus riifeseenti- 

albescens,fusco-brunneo striatus ,- remigibus Jlavo-olivaceo mar- 
ginatis ; ungue postico subelongato, subcurvato. 
Irides fusco-sanguineae. Longitudo corporis 6£ unc, cau- 
dce 2 ,y. 
Found on open stony lands : female unknown. Closely resembles 
the Titlark of Europe. Its chief difference is in the hind toe. 

Genus Saxicola, Bechst. Wheatear. 

89. Saxicola rubicola, Temm. Stone Chat. 

Irides intense brown. These birds were met with only in low 
scattered bushes. Caterpillars, flies and ants found in the 
stomach. 



92 

90. Saxicola bicolor. Sax. atra ; fascid alarum, uropygio, abdo- 

mine medio, crissoque albis. 

Rostrum pedesque nigri. lrides fuscae. Longitudo corporis 
5 T V unc, caud<z 2 T 4 . 
Female unknown. Three males were examined. Black ants, 
caterpillars and beetles were found in the stomach. Habits of 
the preceding. 

91. Saxicola rubeculoides. Sax. cinereo-brunnea, subtus alba; 

guld thoraceque rufis; rectricibus mediis nigrescentibus , cceteris 
ad basin albis. 

lrides intense brunnese. Longitudo corporis 4 T V unc, 
caudce 2. 

92. Saxicola erythropygia. Sax. fusco-brunnea ; subtus rufo- 

brunnea, abdomine Jusco vix striato ; uropygio nifo ; crisso 

rufo tincto. 
Statura Sax. bicoloris. Male unknown. 

Genus Phcenicura, Jard. & Selb. 

93. Phcenicura atrata, Jard. & Selb. Indian Redstart, lid. 

This bird is of the size of the Redstart of Europe, and has the 
same habits. It has a very peculiar manner of vibrating its 
tail when seated on a bough, as if it had an ague fit. A pair 
of these birds built their nest in an outhouse constantly fre- 
quented by Colonel Sykes's servants, and within reach of the 
hand. They had no alarms. 
94-. Phcenicura Suecica. Motacilla Suecica, Linn. 

Not differing from the European bird. lrides deep brown. Length 
5 T V inches ; tail 2. 

Fam. Pipridce, Vigors. 
Genus Parus, Linn. Titmouse. 

95. Parus atriceps, Horsf. Mesange Cap-negre, Temm., PI. Col. 287. 

f. 2. 

96. Parus xanthogenys, Vigors, Proceedings Zool. Soc. I. p. 23. 

Figured in Gould's ' Century of Himalayan Birds.' 
lrides sienna brown. Tongue divided into four short laciniae at 
the tip. Wasps, bugs, grass seeds, and the fruit of the Cactus 
Opuntia were found in the stomachs of both species. 

Tribus Conirostres, Cuv. 
Fam. Fringillidce , Vigors. — Genus Alauda, Auct. 

97. Alauda Gulgida, Frankl. 

This is the common Lark of the Dukhun, with the habits and 
notes of the Skylark of Europe. When confined in a cage and 
shrouded from the light, it learns to imitate the notes of other 
birds, and even quadrupeds. The male is crested. It is called 
Chundoola in Dukhun. lrides sepia brown. Length 6A inches; 
tail 2-rV- Food, grasshoppers. 

98. Alauda Deya. Al. rufescenti-brunnea brunneo intension no- 

tata-, corpore subtus stridque superciliari rufescenti-albis, pectore 



93 

brunneo striato ; capite cristato brunneo striato ; rectricibus 
brunneis ritfo marginatis. 
Statura minor quam praecedentis. 

99. Alauda Dukhunensis. Al. corpore supra griseo-brunneo, 

plumis in medio Jusco -brunneo notatis ; subtils albescens, pectore 
strigdque superciliari rujescentibus ; rectricibus Jusco -brunneis > 
duabus lateralibus albo marginatis. 

Irides intense brunneae. Longitudo corporis 6 T V unc, 
caudce 2. 
Grass seeds only found in the stomach. Frequents stony plains. 

Genus Mirqfra, Horsf. 

100. Mirajra phcenicura, Frankl. 

This bird is characterized by the lightness, shortness, abruptness, 
and sudden ascents and descents of its flight. Irides yellow- 
brown. Granivorous. 

Genus Emberiza, Auct. Bunting. 

101. Emberiza melanocephala, Scop. 

This native of Corfu is common to Western India. It appears in 
considerable flocks at the ripening of the bread grain Jotvaree' 
(Andropogon Sorghum) in December. Irides intense brown. 
Length 7-rV inches : tail 3 inches. Granivorous. Allied to Emb. 
luteola, Mus. Carls, vol. 4. t. 93. 

102. Emberiza hortulana, Linn. Red-brown Bunting. 

This, although not absolutely identical, is so closely allied to the 
European bird that Colonel Sykes cannot separate it. Irides 
intense brown. Length 7-rV inches; tail 3 inches. Grass seeds 
only found in the stomach. Bird solitary. 

103. Emberiza cristata, Vigors, Proceed. Zool. Soc. I. p. 35. 
Length 6| inches : tail 2 T V inches. Rare in Dukhun, and found 

only on rocky and bushy mountains. Female of a uniform 
sooty brown. Grass seeds only found in the stomach. Native 
of China and Nepaul as well as Dukhun. 
104?. Emberiza subcristata. Emb. supra intense brunnea, plumis 
brunneo pallidiori marginatis; subtus paltide brunnea, Jusco 
striata; alarum plumarum rectricumque lateralium marginibus, 
rectricibusque duabus mediis castaneis ; capite subcristato. 
Irides intense brunneae. Rostrum rufo-brunneum. Longi- 
tudo corporis C-A- unc, caudce 2 X V. 
Sexes alike in size and plumage. Birds rare and solitary, and 
found only in the open spaces on high mountains. This bird is 
pronounced in Europe to be the female of Emb. cristata; 
but setting aside the fact of both sexes of each bird being in 
the present collection, their localities are different, and they 
were never seen together by Colonel Sykes. 

Genus Linaria, Bechst. Linnet. 
105. Linaria Amandava. Fringilla Amandava, Linn. 

These beautiful little birds, so common in Goojrat, are rare in 
Dukhun. 



94 

Genus Ploceus, Cuv. Weaver Bird. 

106. Ploceus Philippensis, Cuv. Philippine Grosbeak, Lath. 

The Weaver Bird is very common in Dukhun, and there are few 
wells overhung by a tree where their nests are not seen pen-, 
dent. They live in small communities, and are very noisy in 
their labours. They associate so readily with the common 
Sparrow that at the season of the falling of the grass seeds 
Colonel Sykes, in firing into a flock of Sparrows on the grass 
plats in his own grounds, killed as many Weaver Birds as 
Sparrows- Fruit of the Ficus Indica and grass seeds have been 
found in the stomach. Irides intense brown. 

107. Ploceus flavicollis. Fringilla Jlavicollis, Frankl. 

This bird has so nearly the bill, tongue, irides, size and aspect of 
Ploc. Philippensis, that Colonel Sykes has considered it a 
Ploceus. Grass seeds and a few grains of rice found in the 
stomach. Very rare in Dukhun. 

Genus Fringilla, Auct, Finch. 

108. Fringilla crucigera, Temm., PI. Col. 269. fig. 1. Duree Finch, 

Lath. 
This minute bird has the strange habit of squatting on the high 
roads and almost allowing itself to be ridden over ere it rises. 
Smaller than a Sparrow. Irides red brown. Coleopterous 
insects, maggots, and seeds of Panicum spicatum found in the 
stomachs of many specimens. This bird has the straight hind 
claw of a Lark, and should therefore neither be classed as a 
Fringilla, agreeably to M. Temminck, nor as a Passer, agree- 
ably to Brisson. Its habits also separate it from both these 
genera. M. Temminck in his Plate has placed it on a twig, 
but it never perches. 

Genus Lonchura. 

Rostrum forte, breve, latum, altitudine ad basin longitudinem 
sequans; mandibulis integris, superiori in frontem angulariter exten- 
dente, cumque eo circuli arcum formante. 

Alee mediocres, subacuminatse; remigibus, lma brevissima sub- 
spuria, 2da 3tia 4taque fere aequalibus longissimis. 

Cauda gradata, lanceolata; redricibus mediis cseteras paullo Ion- 
gitudine superantibus. 

Pedes mediocres, subgraciles. 

The peculiar spear-head form of the tail, and the ridge of the 
upper mandible and the forehead, forming a segment of the same 
circle, together with the habits of the following species, afford suf- 
ficient characteristics to justify their separation from the genus 
Fringilla of M. Temminck. The Gros-bec longicone of the PI. Col. 96. 
(Emb. quadricolor, Lath.) belongs to the same group. 

109. Lonchura nisoria. Fringilla nisoria, Temm. Gros-bec epervin, 

PI. Col. 500. Fig. 2. 
.. Found only in the Ghauts. Grass seeds in the stomach. Length 
5 T 4 o inches : tail 1 A to 2 inches. Sexes alike. 



95 

110. Lonchura Cheet. Lonck. pallide cinnamomeo-brunnea; cor- 

pore subtus uropygioque albis ; remigibus rectricibusque interne 

brunneis. 

Foem. coloribus minus intensis. 

Irides intense rufo-brunneae. Longitudo corporis 5f unc, 
caudce 2. 
Tail lanceolate; central feathers longer than the rest, and ending 
in a point. Sexes alike. These birds live in small families. Co- 
lonel Sykes has frequently found them in possession of the 
deserted nests of the Ploceus Philippensis; but their own nest 
is a hollow ball of grass. Ten white eggs, not much larger 
than peas, were found in a nest. The cry of the bird is cheet, 
cheet, cheet, uttered simultaneously by flocks in flight. 

111. Lonchura leuconota. Fringilla leuconota, Temm. Gros-bec leu- 

conote, PI. Col. 500. fig. 1. 
Found only in the Ghauts. Length 4 T V inches, inclusive of tail 
ItV inch. Sexes alike. Grass seeds only found in the stomach. 

Genus Passer, Auct. 

112. Passer domesticus, Briss. Fringilla domestica, Linn. 

On submitting the Indian Sparrotu, male and female, to a rigid 
comparison with Sparrows shot in the Regent's Park, they were 
found to be absolutely identical. 

Fam. SturnidcB, Vigors. — Genus Pastor, Temm. 

\ 13. Pastor tristis, /Temm. Gracula tristis, Lath. 

The irides are red brown, and remarkable for being studded on 

the external margin with regularly arranged yellowish-white 

specks. Sexes alike : omnivorous: quarrelsome, noisy. Length 

ll-A inches, inclusive of tail of f3-rV« 

1 14?. Pastor Mahrattensis. Past, supra griseo-niger, remigibus 

cauddque saturatioribus ; capite genisque atris ; corpore subtus 

subrirfescenti-griseo ; crisso pallidiori, plumis albo marginatis. 

Rostrum pedesqae flavi. Irides pallide griseae. Longitudo 

*■ corporis 9-f- unc, cauda 2-rV 

Sexes alike. Found only in the Ghauts. Stony fruit in the sto- 
machs of three birds. Resembles Past, tristis, but is a size 
less, possesses no crest, and has gray irides. 

115. Pastor roseus, Temm. Turdus roseus, Linn. 

Irides intense red brown. Tongue bifid and fringed ; not quite 
so much so as Hypsipetes Ganeesa. These birds darken the air 
| by their numbers at the period pf the ripening of the bread 
grains, Andropogon Sorghum, and Panicum spicatum, in Dukhun, 
in December. Colonel Sykes has shot forty or fifty at a shot. 
They prove a calamity to the husbandman, as they are as de- 
structive as locusts, and not much less numerous. 

116. Pastor Pagodarum, Temm. Turdus Pagodarum, Gmel. Gra- 
cula Pagodarum, Shaw, vol. 7. p. 471. Le Martin Brame, Le 

, Vaill., Ois. d'Afr. pi. 95. torn. 2. 

. Jrides greenish white. Length 8 T v inches, inclusive of tail of 2-^ 



96 

to 3 inches. Sexes alike. These birds are great frequenters of 
the Ficus Indica, Ficus religiosa, and Cactus Opuntia, for their 
fruit. Insects also are found in the stomach. Birds lively and 
elegant in flight. 

Fam. Corvidce, Leach. Genus Corvus, Auct. 

117. Corvus culminatus. Corv. supra splendenti-ater ; subtus 
Jidiginoso-ater ; rostri culmine elevato. 

Longitudo corporis 14 una, caudce 7. 
Smaller than the European Crow. These birds are remarkable 
for their audacity. Bill with a considerable admen. 

118. Corvus splendens, Vieill. Common Crow of India. 

This is no doubt Vieillot's splendid Crov), but in the thousands 
Colonel Sykes has met with he never saw the plumage orna- 
mented with the pronounced green and blue in Vieillot's plate. 
Has the noisy, impudent, and troublesome habits of the English 
Crow. Length 18 inches, inclusive of tail of 6 inches. A 
wounded Crow was put into the cage with a Viverra Indica, 
in the expectation that the latter would make a meal of it. 
The Crow however stood so vigorously on the defensive, that 
a treaty of peace ensued, and they lived amicably together for 
several weeks, the Crow partaking of the food of the Civet until 
it died from its wound. 

Genus Coracias, Linn. Roller, 

119. Coracias Indica, Linn. Coracias Bengalensis, Steph. Blue Jay 

from the East Indies, Edw., pi. 326. 
Very common in Dukhun. Called Tas, from its note, by the 
Mahrattas. Sexes do not differ in size or plumage, hides 
intense red brown. A grasshopper 2£ inches long was found 
in the stomach of one bird. Length 13tV inches, inclusive of 
tail of 4 T V inches. 

Fam. Buceridce, Leach. 
Hornbills are by no means rare in Dukhun, but from accident 
Colonel Sykes had not a specimen to produce. 

Tribus Scansores, Auct, 
Fam. Psitlacidce, Leach. — Genus Palceornis, Vigors. 

120. Palceornis torquatus, Vigors. 

Appear in considerable flocks in Dukhun, and are very destruc- 
tive to the crops, particularly to the Carthamus Persicus. Fond 
also of the fruit of the Melia Azadirachta. The female differs 
from the male only in wanting the collar, and has in conse- 
quence been considered to belong to a different species. The 
Mahrattas call the bird Ragoo and Keeruh. Length 17 \ inches, 
inclusive of tail of 9§ inches. 

121. Palceornis melanorhynchus. Pal. viridis, corpore subtus, 

notd circumoculari, dorsoque imo pallidioribus ; capite, collo in 
Jronte nuchdque, columbino-canis ; rostro, torqueque collari lata 



97 

nigris ; Jronte, remigibus, rectricibusque mediis cyaneis, illo 

pallidiori; rectricibus sublus t apicibusque supr&Jlavis, 

Irides alba?, subflavo-marginatae. Longitudo corporis 14VV 

unc, caudce 7A» 

Found only in the Ghauts. Sexes alike. This bird has the aspect 

of Pal. columboides, but differs in the black bill, broad black 

collar, pale green yellow beneath instead of dove colour, and in 

the want of the metallic green narrow collar and blueish rump. 

Fam. Picidce, Leach. — Genus Bucco, Linn. Barbet. 

122. Bucco Philippensis, Gmel. Barbu des Philippines, Buff. 
This well known bird is called Tambut, or the Coppersmith, by the 
Mahrattas. It sits on the loftiest and extreme twigs of trees, 
uttering the syllables took, took, took, deliberately, and nodding 
its head at each took ; the sound and the motion originating the 
idea of a coppersmith at work hammering. Irides lake colour. 
Length 6§ inches, inclusive of tail 1 \ inch. Fruit and insects 
found in the stomach. 

128. Bucco caniceps, Frankl. 

Scarcely distinguishable from Bucco corvinus and Bucco Java- 
nicus. Found only in the dense woods of the Ghauts. Its note 
is quite startling, and makes the hills echo. Irides red deep 
brown. Length 8 T 7 inches, inclusive of tail of 2 T ? o- inches : the 
bird is consequently smaller than Major Franklin's. Stony 
fruit only found in the stomach. 

Genus Picus, Linn. Woodpecker. 

124. Picus Mahrattensis, Lath. Mahratta Woodpecker, Id. 

Irides rich lake. Length 7vV inches, inclusive of tail of 2 T V inches. 
Although this is called the Mahratta Woodpecker, Colonel 
Sykes met with three birds only in Dukhun during six years. 

Fam. Certhiadce, Vigors. — Genus Vpupa, Linn. Hoopoe, 

125. Upupa minor, Shaw. La Huppe d'Afrique, Le Vaill. 
Irides almost black. Length 12 to 12^ inches, inclusive of tail 

from 4-rV to 4-rV inches. Feeds on the ground, and does not 
hop. 

Fam. Cuculidce, Leach. — Genus Leptosomus, Vieill. 

126. Leptosomus Afer. Cuculus Afer, Gmel. Edolian Cuckoo, Shaw. 

Cuculus Edolius, Cuv. Cue. serratus, Shaw ? 
Irides reddish deep brown. Length 13-rV inches, inclusive of tail 
of 6 T V inches. Rare in Dukhun. 

Genus Eudynamys, Vigors & Horsf. 

127. Eudynamys orientalis. Cuculus orientalis, Linn. Female 

Cue. Mindanensis. 
Called Koel or Koeel by the Mahrattas. A well known and noisy 
bird, with singularly loud notes, not at all like those of a 
Cuckoo. Irides rich lake. Length 17 inches, inclusive of tail 



98 

of 7 inches. These birds are frugivorous. In the stomachs of 
many the fruits of the Bergera Kcenigi and Uvaria undulata 
only were found. The difference in the plumage of the sexes 
is very remarkable. The female is the larger bird. The tongue 
of this bird is exactly that of the Cue. canorus. 

Genus Cuculus, Auct. 

128. Cuculus canorus, Linn. Common Cuckoo, Lath. 

Irides yellow. Length 14 T V inches, inclusive of tail of 6 fa inches. 
Rare in Dukhun. 

129. Cuculus fugax, Horsf. Bychan Cuckoo, Lath. 

Irides bright yellow. Length 13 fa inches, inclusive of tail of 6 
inches. Tongue as in 127. This bird has so much the aspect 
of a Hawk that Colonel Sykes passed it for one, until its note 
of koeel, koeel, exactly resembling that of Eudynamys orientalis, 
recalled him to the tree on which it was seated, and he shot 
the bird. 

Genus Centropus, 111. Coucal. 

130. Centropus Philippensis, Cuv. Coucou des Philippines, Buff. 

Chestnut-winged Coucal, Lath. Malabar Pheasant of Eu- 
ropeans. 
Irides rich lake. Length 19| inches, inclusive of tail of 11^ inches. 
This is a very useful bird, as Colonel Sykes found a snake eight 
inches long, centipedes, noxious insects, and lizards in the 
stomach. In the stomach and oesophagus of one bird a lizard 
thirteen inches long was found. 

Tribus Tenuirostres, Cuv. 
Fam. Meliphagidce , Vigors. — Genus Chloropsis, Jard. & Selb. 

131. Chloropsis aurifrons, Jard. & Selby? 

Fam. Cinnyrida, Vigors.— Genus Cinnyris, Cuv. Sun-bird* 

132. Cinnyris lepida. Certhia lepida, Sparrm. Nectarinia lepida, 

Temm. 
Irides red brown. Length 4 fa inches, inclusive of tail of \fa 
inch. Female ashy brown above ; light yellow below. Com- 
mon in Dukhun. Feed on small insects ; also suck honey. 

133. Cinnyris currucaria. Certhia currucaria, Linn. Grimpereau 

gris des Philippines, PI. Enl. 576. f. 2. 

This has been considered a young bird ; but Colonel Sykes can 

venture to affirm, from a long observation of its habits in his 

garden at Poona, that it is a species. Irides bright lake. 

Length 4tfa inches, inclusive of tail of 1 -fa inch. A spider, a 

Cicada, and minute Coleopterous insects were found in the 

stomach of many birds of this species. They also hover before 

flowers, and suck the honey while on the wing, like the Cinn. 

lepida. 

13L Cinnyris Vigorsii. Cinn. collo supra, nucha, ptilis, scapula- 

ribusque intense sanguineis, collo irifra pectoreque coccineo- 

sanguineis ; strigd utrinque menlali sub rictu ad pectus txten- 



99 

dente maculdque auriculari splendide violaceis ; capite supra, 
caudce tectricibus, rectricibus mediis, latemliumque, externo 
excepto, pogoniis externis met alike viridibus ; alis, rectricibus 
lateralibusy dorsi inferioris lateribus, fascidque subpectorali 
Juscis ; abdomine griseo ; dorso imo sulphureo. 
Irides intense brunneae. Longitudo corporis 5\ \mc, caudce 2^\. 
Larvce of flies, a spider, ants, and minute insects found in the 
stomach. Inhabits only the lofty trees of the dense woods 
of the Ghauts. — "I will here beg leave to speak in the first 
person. I have dedicated this magnificent bird to a gentleman 
whose enlarged views of natural affinities in zoology have con- 
tributed essentially to enhance the value of the science, and to 
facilitate the labours of every zoologist. The dedication is 
also influenced by a desire to testify my sense of the many 
kind attentions of Mr. Vigors." — W. H. S. 

135. Cinnyris minima. Cinn. capite nuchdque olivaceo -viridibus ; 

pectoris notis, dorso, scapularibus, uropygioque intense sangui- 
nes, hoc violaceo splendenti y subtus pallide Jlavd ; alis cau- 
ddquefusco-brunneis. 
Fcem. olivascentibrunnea, uropygio rufo. 
Irides rufo-brunneae. Longitudo corporis 3A tine, caudce If. 
Mel with only in the dense woods of the Ghauts. White ants and 
larvce of flies were found in the stomach. One bird was seen 
sucking honey. Female of a uniform brown, with a patch of 
brick red on the rump and upper tail-coverts, and the yellow 
below fainter than in the male. Colonel Sykes believes this to 
be the smallest of the Sun-birds. 

136. Cinnyris Mahrattensis. Certhia Mahrattensis, Shaw. Cinnyris 

orientalis, Frankl. 
Dr.Latham does not mention the crimson joined to the yellow spot 
under the wing. These birds suck flowers while hovering on 
the wing; they eat minute insects also. Female not met with. 
Length 4?tV inches, inclusive of tail of l^V inch. 

137. Cinnyris concolor. Cinn. viridi-olivacea, alis cauddque 

saturatioribus , corpore subtus pallidiori. 
Irides intense rufo-brunneae. Longitudo corporis 4 unc, 
caudce 1. 
Insects with long antenntz were found in the stomach. As four 
specimens obtained by Colonel Sykes were all females, and as 
they were met with in the same locality as Cinn. Vigorsii, Cinn, 
concolor may be the female of that splendid species ; but the dif- 
ference in the size, form, and aspect of the bird, independently 
of colour, is opposed to this : they were never seen together. 
The bird has the outline of Cinn. Mahrattensis. The specific 
appellation of concolor is given provisionally. 
Colonel Sykes, in concluding his notice of the birds of the two 
first Orders, observed that in the majority of instances his know- 
ledge was derived from an observation of many specimens of the same 
species in the living state. For the most part also he had obtained 
both sexes, and was very rarely confined to a single specimen. 



100 



May 8, 1832. 
W. Yarrell, Esq. in the Chair. 

A preparation was exhibited of the generative organs of a hybrid 
male bird, bred by the Society, and produced between a Muscovy 
Drake and a common Duck; and Mr. Yarrell described the external 
and internal appearances of the individual from which the prepara- 
tion was obtained. 

He stated that the bird in its plumage, with the exception of a 
small chestnut-coloured patch on the chest, exhibited all the ap- 
pearance of a true Muscovy Drake. The head, neck, back and wings 
were marked with the purple and violet tints which usually charac- 
terize that species; the curled feathers at the base of the tail, pecu- 
liar to the males of Anas Boschas, were wanting. 

Internally the viscera generally partook more of the character of 
Anas Boschas, but particularly in the length of the intestines and 
caecal appendages, which are remarkable for their variation in this 
respect, depending on the species, and having a due relation to the 
nature of the food selected by each. The organ of voice, a most 
valuable criterion of species throughout this numerous family, was 
in its form much more like that of Anas Boschas than that of Anas 
moschata, the bony enlargement being nearly globular, without any 
of the depression which is constant in this part in Anas moschata. 

All the parts of the sexual organs were of large size, and appa- 
rently perfect. 

Mr. Yarrell concluded by remarking that the hybrid bird in ques- 
tion strongly resembled the true Muscovy, while internally the 
viscera were as decidedly indicative of the common, Duck. 

The Skeletons of Capromys Fournieri, Desm., and Dasyprocta 
Acouchy, F. Cuv., having been placed on the table, Mr. Owen en- 
tered into a series of remarks explanatory of their peculiarities, 
which he pointed out with reference to the skeletons of other Rodentia 
exhibited for the purpose of comparison. He showed that the 
cranium both in Capromys and in the Acouchy presents a gentle 
curve along the coronal aspect, and that this surface is bounded 
by nearly parallel lines, as in the Agouti and Capybara, differing 
from that ofArvicola, Mus, Hypudceus, Bathyergus, and many other 
Rodentia, in which the frontal bones are more or less compressed 
between the orbits. The orbits are more circumscribed by bone 
than in the Rat, in consequence of the developement of the post- 
orbital process. The Acouchy, however, resembles the Rat in the 
slenderness of the zygomatic arch ; whilst Capromys has this arch 
broad and strong, as it exists in Hystrix, Castor, Lepus, and Capy- 
bara, although it is far from presenting the enormous developement 
exhibited in Ccelogenus. The suborbital foramina^ though larger 



101 

in Capromys than in the Acouchy, have not the same proportional 
magnitude as in the Rat. The lachrymal bone in Capromys is very 
small : in the Acouchy it is remarkably developed, as well as in the 
Agouti, but it does not form any part of the external boundary of 
the suborbital Joramen, which is exclusivly formed by the superior 
maxillary bone, the ungueo-maxillary suture running parallel, but 
half a line posterior, to the anterior margin of that boundary. 
M. Cuvier,m describing the cranium of the Agouti, (Ossemens Fos- 
6iles, vol. v. part i., p. 21,) particularly notices this large size of the 
lachrymal bone, which, he states, " contribue a entourer Je trou 
sous-orbitaire dans le haut, en sorte que l'anneau forme autour de 
ce trou par le maxillaire n'estpas complet, ce dont je ne connois 
point d'autre exemple:" but in examining, for this peculiarity, two 
skulls of the Agouti, (which, however, it is possible may not be of 
the identical species with the one described by the great anatomist 
above quoted,) Mr. Owen has not found it in either; the whole of 
the lachrymal bone being capable of removal without the integrity 
of the outer boundary of the suborbital Joramen being thereby at* 
fected; the lachrymal bone, however, approaches nearer in the 
Agouti to the anterior margin of that boundary, than in the Acouchy. 
There is also this difference between the two species ; in the Agouti 
the narrow process of the maxillary bone which separates the outer 
part of the lachrymal bone from the suborbital/oramew is articu- 
lated by suture with the nasal process of the maxillary bone, afford- 
ing a curious example of an articulation between two parts of the 
same bone ; in the Acouchy there is no such suture, but the whole 
outer boundary of the suborbital Joramen is one continuous piece 
of bone. The styloid processes are much stronger and the bony 
meatus more produced in Capromys than in either of the before- 
named animals. The lower jaw .of Capromys, like that of the 
Acouchy, is deficient in the tubercular process that is seen on the 
middle of the outer surface of the ascending ramus in the lower 
jaw of the Rat. 

The chief characteristic of the skeleton of Capromys is seen in 
the spinal column, and arises from the number of the dorsal or costal 
vertebrce, of which there are not less than 16. In the Capybara and 
the prehensile Porcupine there are 15, in the Beaver 14; but the 
more common number in this order is 12, as in the Acouchy, or 13 
as in the Rat. Notwithstanding the excess of costal vertebra, Ca- 
promys has the same number of lumbar vertebrce as the Acouchy, 
viz. 7 ; they are also proportionally larger. The sacral vertebrce, if 
reckoned according to form and anchylosis, amount to 4; butif con- 
sidered as depending on the more definite character of articulation 
with the ilia are only 2. The caudal vertebrce, if the latter mode 
of considering the sacrum be adopted, are 22 in the specimen ; but 
some were evidently wanting. The directions of the spines of the 
vertebrce in Capromys indicate considerable flexibility in the trunk : 
the principal centre of motion is marked by the erect spine in the 
13th costal vertebra ; in the Acouchy it is in the 12th or last but one. 

In the extremities the bones of the Capromys participate in the 



102 

characters both of the Rat and Acouchy; those of the anterior ex- 
tremity presenting, in addition to the perfect clavicles, some other 
characters in common with the former, while those of the posterior 
more resembled the corresponding bones in the Acouchy. Thus in the 
scapula the acromion, as in the Rat, projects beyond the glenoid ca- 
vity to join the clavicle, and the coracoid process is well developed ; 
while in the Acouchy the former process is much less produced, and 
the latter almost obsolete. In the descending process of the acro- 
mion, Capromys, like Ccelogenus and Hystrix, is intermediate be- 
tween the Rat and the Acouchy. The humerus of Capromys is pro- 
portionally stronger than in the Acouchy, and it has the deltoid pro- 
cess even more developed than in the Rat; this process is but slightly 
indicated by a ridge in the Acouchy. The internal condyle, like that 
of the Acouchy, the Rat and most Rodentia, is imperforate. The 
rest of the bones of the anterior extremity afforded no peculiar 
characters. 

Passing over the bones of the pelvis, which also were destitute of 
any marked character, Mr. Owen observed that the femur of Ca- 
promys, like that of the Acouchy, has no middle process or second 
trochanter, such as is observable in the Rat and Beaver. The tibia 
and fibula were also distinct in Capromys, as in the Acouchy; the 
latter bone reaching to the tarsus, and not being, as in the Rat and 
Beaver, anchylosed to the lower third of the tibia. The metatarsal 
bones of Capromys agree in number with those of the Rat, but are 
broader and flatter, and correspond to the more plantigrade cha- 
racter of this animal. 

Mr. Owen concluded his remarks on the osteology of these ani- 
mals by presenting the following table, in which the points of ad- 
measurement are for the most part the same as are used by Mr. 
Say, in his account of Capromys (Isodon) Pilorides (Journal of 
Acad, of Nat. Sci. of Philadelphia, ii. p. 334.) . 



Cranium. 

From the anterior edge of the sockets of 
the incisors to the posterior part of 
the occipital condyles 

From ditto to the posterior part of the 
occipital crest 

Distance between the remotest points of 
the zygomatic arches 

Shortest distance between the orbits . . 

Length of a series of molar teeth .... 

Width of the largest molar tooth .... 

Vertical diameter of thejbramen magnum 
, Transverse diameter of ditto 

Vertical diameter of the suborbitalyom- 
men (anteriorly) 

Ditto of the orbit 



Capromys. 


Acouchy. 


Inches. 


Lines. 


Inches. 


Lines. 


3 


5 


2 


9 


3 


8 


3 


i 

2 


2 
1 







1 
9 

5 
5 


1 







6 

10| 
6 

4 
5 






8 
7 






6 
101 



103 



Greatest vertical extent of the zygoma . . 

From the occipital spine to the coronal 
suture 

Length of the sagittal suture 

Ditto of the nasal suture 

Length of the lower jaw from the an- 
terior edge of the sockets of the 
incisors to the angle 

From the angle to the summit of the 
condyle 

Distance between the centres of the ar- 
ticulating surfaces of the condyles . . 

Greatest basal width of the lower jaw . . 



Capromys 



Inches. 



1 
1 
1 



Spine. 

Number of the cervical ver- 
tebrae 

Length of that part of the 
column 

Number of the costal verte- 
bra 

Length of that part of the 
column 

Number of the lumbar verte- 
brae 

Length of that part of the 
column 

Number of the sacral verte- 
brae (by anchylosis) . . . . 

Length of the sacrum . . . 

Number of the caudal verte- 
brae 

Length of the tail 



C myt ^oiichy 



16 



13 



4 
16 



Extremities. 

Length of the clavicle 

Scapula from the end of the acromion 

to the lower part of the base 

greatest breadth at the base . . . 



Length of the humerus 

ulna 

radius ...... 

femur 

tibia 

bones of the hand 

— of the foot 



Lines. 



Inches 



1 

1 

1 



Acouchy. 



Lines. 

3 



31 

°3 



10 
10J 

2 



* 

7 

o 

6 
5 



104 

The exhibition of the collection of Shells formed by Mr.Cuming on 
the western coast of South America and in the South Pacific Ocean 
was resumed, and the following new species were characterized by 
Mr. Broderip and Mr. G. B. Sowerby. 

Genus Chiton. 
* Ligamento marginis laevi. 

Chiton bipunctatus. — Chit, testd ovatd, Icevi, virescente, nigro, al- 

bidoque varid ; margine concolori, plerumque maculd albd utrin- 

que inter valvam primam et secundam posita : long. \, lot. \ poll. 

Hab. ad oras Peruviae. (Inner Lobos Island.) 

Found under stones at low water. This species varies much in 

its colouring, some specimens being nearly black, others light 

green, and some much and prettily varied. In almost all a white 

mark may be observed on the margin just behind the anterior 

valve.— G. B. S. 

Chiton exiguus. Chit, testd oblongd, minimd, rufescente, an- 
gustd ; valvarum intermediarum carind dorsali latissimd, tri- 
gond, margine sulcata ; arearum lateralium margine distinctd : 
long. -fV, lat. T V poll. 
Hab. in Polynesia. (Lord Hood's Island.) 
Found on the Pearl Oysters. This is the smallest species which 
Mr. Sowerby has seen : the dorsal keel of the intermediate valves 
is very broad, and distinguished by a groove on each side. — G. B. S. 
Chiton catenulatus. Chit, testd oblongd, pallidd, virescente va- 
rid ; valvd anticd, valvarum intermediarum areis lateralibus et 
valvce posticce parte posticd radiatim granulosis ; intermediarum 
areis centralibus et posticce area anticd longitudinaliter scabroso- 
sulcatis : long. T V> lat. -rV poll. 
Hab. ad oras Peruviae. (Inner Lobos Island.) 
Found under stones at low water. In general appearance this 
species resembles Chit, luridus : by careful attention to the above 
characters it may however be readily distinguished. — G. B. S. 
Chiton graniferus. Chit, testd ovatd, castaned, nigro albidoque 
varid ; dorso elevato ; valvd anticd radiatim granosd ; valvce 
posticce parte posticd et valvarum intermediarum areis lateralibus 
subradiatim graniferis ; areis centralibus longitudinaliter granoso- 
lineatis : long. \, lat. T V poll. 
Hab. ad oras Chiliae. 

A single specimen was found on a Mytilus in nine fathoms water 
at Conception.— G. B. S. 

** Ligamento marginis squamoso. 

Chiton stramineus. Chit, testd ovatd, Icevi, pallide stramined; 
dorso rotundato ; squamulis marginalibus sparsis : long. -iV, la>t. T V 
poll. 
Hab. ad Insulam Chiloe Chilensium. 

Found under stones at low water. All the specimens are of a 
uniform pale straw colour.— G. B. S. 



105 

Chiton Pusio. Chit, testd ovali, lavigatd, olivaced, punctulis vi~ 
ridibus numerosis ornatd ; valvarum marginibus anticis lateri- 
busque rugulosis • long. -jV* &tf . tV poll* 
Hab. ad Valparaisam . 

Found on Amphidesma solidum in from thirty to fifty fathoms 
water, with a sandy floor. — G. B. S. 

Genus Marginella. 

Marginella curta. Marg. testd ovatd, cinerascente-fulvd ; spird 
brevi ; labii externi reflexi margine externd castaned, facie albd ; 
labii interni expansi et incrassati margine castaned ; columelld 
quadriplicatd, plicis cequalibus : long. -&?, lat. ■&■ poll. 
Hab. ad Iquiqui et ad Paytam. 

The body-whorl, in fully grown specimens, is rather angular at 
the upper part, and it is wholly covered with white specks. It 
was dredged in fine black sand. — G. B. S. 

Genus Bulinus. 
* Labio externo tenui, acuto. 

Bulinus Vexillum. Bui. testd pyramidali, albente, vittis castas 
nets fasciatd ; anfractibus 6 levissime longitudinaliter striatis ; 
umbilico subobsoleto : long. 44-, lat. -rV poll. 

Hab. in Sinu Panama?. (King's and Saboga Islands.) 

Found on the trunks of large trees. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus pustulosus. Bui. testd fusiformi, efusco albente, subdia- 
phand ; anfractibus 6, striis moniliformibus frequentibus longu 
tudinalibus ; umbilico mediocri : long. T V, lat. T V {circa) poll. 

Hab. in Chili. (Huasco.) 

Found under stones on elevated ground. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus Pupiformis. Bui. testd griseo-albd, pupiformi, longitu- 
dinaliter levissime striatd ; apice nigro-fuscescente ; labro subre- 
flexo : long. -£, lat. % poll. 

Hab. in Chili. (Huasco.) 

Found under stones and in shady places. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus Panamensis. Bui. testd ovato-fusiformi, subglabrd, dia- 
phand, pallide fulvd; anfractibus 6 subventricosis, labro vix 
subreflexo : long. 1, lat. ^ poll. 

Hab. in Sinu Panamre. (King's and Saboga Islands.) 

Found on the trunks of large trees. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus albicans. Bui. testd ovato-ventricosd, subpellucidd, fus- 
ed lineolis strigisque longitudinalibus albis varid ; anfractibus 6 
longitudinaliter striato-rugosis ; columelld et fauce rubro-casta- 
neis ; umbilico mediocri : long. 1%-, lat. T V poll. 
Hab. ad Copiapo, Chili. 

This species, which resembles Bui. guttatus in its white mark- 
ings, but differs from that shell in shape and other characters, was 
found by Mr. Cuming at Copiapo, in the dry sand on the elevated 
ground, near the port. The upper part of the inner lip is some- 



106 

what reflected so as partially to conceal the umbilicus. Old shells of 
this species are of a dead white, with the exception of the columella 
and aperture. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus affinis. Bui. testd valde fusiformi, pellucide fused albo 
' fucatd, longitudinaliter striato-rugosd ; umbilico obsoleto : long. 1, 
lot. \poll. 
Hab. in Peruvia. (Mexillones, desert of Atacama.) 
Found in small crevices of the dry earth on the top of the moun- 
tain Mexillones, 2000 feet above the sea. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus modestus. Bui. testd pyramidali, turritd, elongatd, tenui, 
subalbidd lineolis castaneis longitudinalibus frequentibus varid ; 
anfractibus 8 longitudinaliter striatis ; umbilico mediocri ; epider- 
mide tenui: long. l-§-, lat. T V poll. 
Hab. in Peruviae montibus. (Huacho.) 

The body-whorl of young shells of this species is somewhat cari- 
nated in the middle. The old shells vary in colour, but are all of 
a sombre hue. The longitudinal stria are rather coarse. 
Found on small bushes.- — W. J. B. 

Bulinus scutulatus. Bui. testd pyramidali, tenui, albiddvel fulvd, 
lineis, maculis fasciisque castaneis interrupts scutulatd ; anfrac- 
tibus 8 subrotundatis longitudinaliter striatis; umbilico subob- 
tecto : long, ^%-,'lat. T 5 - poll. 
Hab. in Peruviae collibus. (Islay.) 

This shell varies much in its colour and markings. The body- 
whorl is generally more or less banded, and there is often an ob- 
scure whitish band at the base. 

Found on an Helianthus. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus turbitus. Bui. testd turritd, imperforatd ; anfractibus 10 

substriatis, albidis, castaneo-fasciatis : long. -H-, lat. W poll. 
Hab. in Peruviae montibus. (Truxillo.) 
Obs. Species Turritellam mentiens. 

The chestnut bands are three on the upper whorls ; one at the 
suture, and two near together about the middle. On the body- 
whorl there are four ; one at the suture, two near together towards 
the middle, and one towards the base. 
Found under stones. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus pulchellus. Bui. testd elongatd ; anfractibus 7 longi- 
tudinaliter elevato-striatis, albidis, ultimo trifasciato, cteteris bi- 
fasciatis, fasciis subnigro - castaneis ; umbilico medio cri : long .\ T %, 
lat. 4- poll. 
Hab. in Peruviae montibus. (Truxillo.) 

This pretty species was found on a species of Aloe, on hills about 
500 feet above the level of the sea. — -W. J. B. 

** Labio externo tenui subreflexo, acuto. 
Bulinus erosus. Bui. testd ov at o -pyramidali, albicante, sparsim 
diaphand quasi erosd ; anfractibus 6 ventricosis longitudinaliter 
subrugoso-striatis ; apice solidulo, subpapillari : long, ^-f, lat.^%- 
poll. 



107 

Hab. in Peruvia. (Huantajaya near Iquiqui.) 
Found under stones on hills 2500 feet above the level of the 
sea.— W. J. B. 

Bulinus derelictus. Bui. testd ventricoso-pyramidali, albidd, 
subdiaphand ; anfractibus 6 longitudinaliter striatis; apice so^ 
lidulo, subpapillari ; umbilico mngno : long. T V, lat. \ poll. 

Hab. ad Cobijam Bolivia?. (Puerto del Mar.) 

Found unprotected on flat rocks without soil or verdure : all 
was desolate for a league around. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus varians. Bui. testd elongatd, subnitidd, castaned, ma- 
culis strigisque albis varid ; anfractibus 8 longitudinaliter striatis ; 
umbilico medio cri : long. 1 VV* lat. ^ poll. 

Hab. in Peruvia? montibus. (Truxillo.) 

A whitish band may be traced at the upper part of each whorl next 
to the suture, and another at the base of the body- whorl. But this 
species varies so much in its markings, that hardly two individuals 
are alike. Some are also rather more ventricose than others. 

Found on the same species of Aloe and in the same places with 
Bui. pulchellus.—W. J. B. 

Bulinus Tigris. Bui. testd cylindrico-fusiformi, nitidd, subglabrd, 
fulvo-albente longitudinaliter castaneo strigatd ; anfractibus 7 
longitudinaliter striatis; columella subcallosd ; umbilico tantum, 
non obtecto : long. l£, lat. 4- poll. 
Hab. in Peruvian montibus. (Truxillo.) 

This differs from the preceding in many points. The body- whorl 
is of considerably greater length in proportion, and the aperture is 
consequently much longer and more acute at the upper part. 
There is somewhat of a callosity on the columella, and the umbilicus, 
which is small, is almost hidden by the reflected inner lip. 
Found on bushes. — W. J. B. 

*** Labio exteriore subreflexo. 

Bulinus Proteus. 1. Bui. testd ovato-acutd, sordide albidd fulvo 
maculatd ; anfractibus 6 creberrime longitudinaliter granuloso- 
striatis, ultimo maximo, ventricoso ; umbilico magno ; epidermide 
tenui : long. 1|-, lat. l^V poll. 

2. Far. granulis striisque paullo elevatioribussubalbidis: long. 1-jV, 
lat. 1 poll. 

3. Var. albida fasciis castaneis : long. l-§-, lat. f poll. 
Hab. in Peruvia? montibus. (St. Jacinta, near Samanco.) 

4. Var. nana, albida fasciis interrupts sordide castaneis : long. 
ItV, lat. A poll. 

Hab. in Peruvian montibus. (Pacosmayo.) 

Obs. After a careful examination of numerous individuals, I am 
unable to detect any specific characters which may be safely relied 
on to separate the four varieties above described. There is indeed 
a considerable difference in size between the first and the last ; but 
I have seen many instances where food and locality have had as 
much effect in the development of the volume of a shell, as they 



108 

are known to have in determining the intensity or distribution of its 
colour. 

The body-whorl of No. 1 . is, generally speaking, more ventricose 
and deeper than that of any of the other varieties; and when No. 1. 
and No. 4. are placed side by side, the discrepancy may appear 
somewhat startling j but if the gradations be placed before us, these 
differences vanish, or are so melted down into each other that no- 
thing remains fixed but the number of whorls, the style of sculp- 
ture, the relative size of the umbilicus, and the general form and 
make of the shell. 

Mr. Cuming found all his specimens under stones. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus mutabilis. Bui. testd cylindrico-attenuatd, subalbidd 

castaneo strigato-maculatd ; anfractibus 7 creberrime granuloso- 

striatis ; umbilico mediocri ; epidermide fused : long. 1^-, lat. -g- 

poll. 

Hab. in montibus Peruvian. (Santos.) 

Var. albo castaneoque alternatim fasciata, fasciis castaneis albo 

maculatis : long. !-§-, lat. -§- poll. 
Hab. in Peruvia. (Campania of Truxillo.) 
Both these varieties were found under stones. 
The sculpture is very like that of the preceding species, but much 
finer and closer j and indeed there is a general resemblance at first 
sight; but the number of whorls, the cylindrical shape, and other 
points in the species before us, sufficiently mark the difference 
between them, — W. J. B. 

Bulinus versicolor. Bui. testd ovato-pyramidali, albidd maculis 
castaneis, vel castaned maculis albidis varid ; anfractibus 6 minu- 
tissime longitudinaliter subdepresso-granuloso-striatis ; labio ex- 
teriore albente j fauce subnigro- castaned ; umbilico mediocri; epi- 
dermide tenui : long. 1-b, lat. %poll. 
Var. fascia albida basali. 

Hab. in montibus Peruvia?. (Mongon, near Casma.) 
This shell varies in its colouring almost as much as Bui. multicolor t 
King (Helix multicolor, Rang), and bears some resemblance to that 
species at first sight. On examination, the difference between the 
two species is very apparent. The whitish basal band of the variety 
is seen internally as well as externally. 
Found on bushes. — W. J. B. 



109 



May 22, 1832. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Yarrell exhibited skeletons and stuffed specimens of several 
Mammalia, in illustration of the distinctive characters of two species 
of that class, which he had recently ascertained to be inhabitants of 
Britain. 

The first of these additions to the British Fauna is the oared Shrew, 
Sorex remifer, Geoff., distinguishable from the more common water 
Shretv by its greater size and its uniform colour. The whole of the 
upper part of the head, the body, and sides, are velvet black ; the 
situation of the ear is marked by a tuft of white hairs, more con- 
spicuous than in the water Shrew, from the greater contrast of co- 
lour ; there is a small patch of light brown under the lower jaw ; the 
under surface of the body is rusty black j and the tail is black, with 
a line of pendent greyish white hairs along its under surface. 

Mr. Yarrell remarked, that although the individual exhibited (the 
only indigenous specimen which he had yet seen,) was smaller than 
that described by M. Desmarest in his 'Mammalogie' (the length of 
the head and body being 3 inches 4 lines, and that of the tail 1 inch 
9 lines), he had determined its identity with the species to which he 
referred it, by comparison with a specimen of Sor. remifer, trans- 
mitted by M. Baillon of Abbeville to the British Museum; the two 
specimens being perfectly similar in every particular of colour, mark- 
ings, and measurement. He further observed, that the Sor. ciliata 
of Sowerby's * British Miscellany,' pi. 49, is probably referable to 
the same species. 

The second animal to which Mr. Yarrell more particularly directed 
the attention of the Committee, was a species of Arvicola, new, not 
only to Britain, but also apparently to science. It is so nearly re- 
lated to Arv. agrestis (the Mus agrestis of Ray, and probably also 
of Linnaeus, and apparently the Mus arvalis of Pallas), as to require 
that the characters of the latter, the common short-tailed jfoW Cam- 
pagnol, should be modified. Mr. Yarrell accordingly thus charac- 
terized the two species : — 

Arvicola agrestis. Arv. supra rufescenti-Jusca, subtiis cinerea i; 
auriculis vix prominulis ; Cauda tertiam partem corporis longitu- 
dine vix cequante. 

Arvicola riparia. Arv. supra saturate castaneo-rufescens, sub- 
tits cinerea ; auriculis paullb prominulis ; cauda dimidium cor- 
poris longitudine cequante, apicis pilis subelongatis. 
Mr. Yarrell pointed out, on the specimens exhibited by him, the 
external differences between these species, consisting chiefly in the 
size and colour of the body, and the relative length of the tail. He 
[No. XIX.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



1 JO 

further illustrated the differences of proportion between them by 
referring to skeletons of each, and laid before the Committee the 
following table of comparative measurements : — 

Arv. agreslis. Arv. riparia. 

in. lin. in. lin. 

Length of the head 10§ 9j 

from the first dorsal vertebra to 

the last 10 9 

of the six lumbar vertebrce .... 11| 7^ 

from the first dorsal vertebra to 

the tuberosity of the ischium 2 3 1 9| 

of the os innominatum 7f 6f 

from the sacral vertebrce to the 

end of the tail : 1 9 2 2 

of the scapula 5 4? 

humerus 5 4> 

— i from the olecranon to the carpus 6^ 5\ 

of the femur 6f- S\ 

tibia 7f n\ 

from the os calcis to the end of 

the longest toe 7 • 7| 

It hence appears that the relative dimensions of the body and tail 
in each of the species are nearly reversed. The number of the cer- 
vical, dorsal, lumbar, and sacral vertebrce, are the same in both, being 
7, 13, 6, and 1, respectively ; but the tail of the Jield Campagnol has 
but 19 vertebrce, while that of the bank Campagnol has 4 more, 
making 23. The cavity of the thorax is of much larger size in the 
Jield than in the bank species, the ribs being of greater expanse, and 
the sternum longer. The head of the bank Campagnol is shorter and 
more square in its form, exhibiting a greater appearance of strength ; 
and although it is a smaller animal, with a shorter back as well as 
shorter limbs, it has actually longer feet than the Jield species. 

Referring to the internal anatomy of the two species, Mr. Yarrell 
stated, that he had detected no difference in the viscera of the thorax. 
The stomachs were also of the same form, each presenting an appa- 
rent contraction at the distance of one-third from the cardiac orifice. 
The liver of the bank Campagnol was, however, more extensively 
divided than that of the field species, having seven lobes, while that 
of the latter presented but five : both are equally destitute of gall- 
bladder. But the difference in the comparative length of the small 
and large intestines was most marked : — 

Arv. agreslis. Arv. riparia. 
inches. inches. 

Length of the small intestines 14| 9£ 

ccecum 2§- 4> 

large intestines 8 10 

These measurements, in which it will be observed that the pro- 
portions are reversed, appear to indicate some difference in the 
choice of food, with which Mr. Yarrell stated that he was not yet 



Ill 

acquainted, the contents of the stomachs which he had examined 
having been too far digested to enable him to ascertain their nature. 

Mr. Yarrell concluded by remarking, that, to the differences be- 
tween the species, indicated in their fur, their osteology, and their 
internal anatomy, a fourth series might be added, derived from their 
habits. The bank Camnagnol frequents hedge-bottoms and ditch- 
banks, and is said to make its nest of wool : thejield Campagnol pre- 
fers living among the long herbage of water-meadows and moist 
pastures, and makes its nest of dried grass. 

An Extract was read from the * Analyse des Travaux de la 
Societe d'Histoire Naturelle de Pile Maurice, pendant la 2de Annee : 
it was communicated to the Committee by its author, M. Julien 
Desjardins, Corr. Memb. Z. S., the Secretary of the Society whose 
labours are enumerated in it. 

Among the novelties which have occupied that Society during 
the season of 1830-1831 have been some observations by M.J. 
Desjardins on the Zoology of the Mauritius as compared with that 
of the Isle of Bourbon, from which has resulted the curious fact, 
that notwithstanding that these islands are situated in such close 
proximity to each other, are of the same formation, and present a 
most remarkable analogy in their soil, their animals are not univer- 
sally the same, some species being met with in the one which never 
occur in the other. 

In the department of Ornithology Madagascar has furnished to 
M. J. Desjardins the opportunity of describing specimens ob- 
tained from thence of the Ardea alba, Linn., and Ard. Garzetta, 
Linn., and also of a Platalea, regarded by him as the Plat, leuco- 
rodia, Gmel., but which, from his description forwarded to the 
Committee, is evidently the species described by Mr. Vigors, on 
February 22, 1831, (Part i. p. 41,)under the name of Plat. Telfairii; 
it was at that time stated by mistake to be a native of the Mauri- 
tius ; its true habitat, as pointed out by M. Desjardins, is Madagas- 
car, where it was obtained in Imirne, a kingdom of the interior, in 
which is situated Tananarivoe the capital of the island. Of another 
bird, which is common in Madagascar, the Cuculus canorus, Linn., 
a single specimen has been shot in the Mauritius. An Ibis, which 
is regarded by M. Bojer as the species sacred an*ong the ancient 
Egyptians,* has been obtained, with several other birds, from 
Agalega, one of the islands of the north-eastern Archipelago of 
Madagascar. In some remarks on the bones of the Dodo, (con- 
sisting of a sternum, a cranium, and four bones of the extremities,) 
which were sent by M. Desjardins to Paris, and which excited so 
much attention during the past summer from M. Cuvier and M. de 
Blainville, occasion is taken to correct some errors which have crept 
into the published statements respecting them. They were disco- 
vered, in 1786, in a cavern on the island of Rodriguez. 

In Ichthyology, three species have been described by M.Lienard, 
sen., two of which belong to the genera Pleuronectes and Holocen- 
trum. Another fish belonging to the family of the Perches with a 



112 

single dorsal fin, lias appeared to the same naturalist to require 
generic distinction, and he has accordingly described it as the type 
of a new genus, to which he has given the name of Platysome: it is 
evidently, from the brief notice contained in the < Analyse,' the 
Dules caudavittatus, Cuv. and Val., or a nearly allied species, a fish 
which certainly differs considerably, by its compressed form and 
other particulars, from many of those with which it was generically 
associated by the authors last quoted. M.J. Lienard has exhibited a 
drawing of an Acanthurns: and M. J. Desjardins has described three 
fishes of the genera Serranus, Labras, and Xirichthys; and has 
also exhibited and described specimens, obtained from the north- 
western coast of Sumatra, of eight other fishes. 

Among the Crustacea, two species of Crabs common on the coasts 
of the Mauritius, and belonging to the genera Poriunus and Pod- 
ophthalmus, have been described and drawn by M.J. Lienard. 

Finally, M. E. Lienard has described minutely a marine sub- 
stance which he has regarded as an Alcyonium : he proposes to con- 
tinue to figure and describe the numerous zoophytes which abound 
in the adjoining seas to such an extent as to render the Mauritius 
highly favourable for the pursuit of zoological studies in this beau- 
tiful but intricate department of nature. 

Mr. Gray exhibited living specimens of the common Lizard, La- 
certa agilis, Linn., for the purpose of pointing out the marks of dis- 
tinction between the sexes. The male is generally larger than the 
female, and more distinctly coloured : the under side of his body and 
base of his tail are very bright orange, while in the female these parts 
are pale yellowish green -, his ante-anal scale is short and transverse, 
that of the female being much longer and hexagonal ; and the under 
side of the base of his tail is flat, with a slight longitudinal middle 
depression just behind the vent, this part of the tail being in the fe- 
male rounded and convex. In April and May the male may also be 
known by the base of the tail being dilated on the sides, just behind 
the thigh, a dilatation probably caused by the size of the penes, which 
are retracted into these parts. 

Mr. Gray further explained various particulars of the habits of this 
species, observed by him in individuals which he had kept in a living 
state ; and added, that in the only instance in which he had observed 
the coitus, one alone of the penes was inserted. 



113 



June 12, 1832. 
Dr. Marshall Hall in the Chair. 

The exhibition was resumed of the new species of Shells collected 
by Mr. Cuming on the western coast of South America and among 
the islands of the South Pacific Ocean. 

The whole of the new species, thirty-nine in number, of the 

Genus Columbella 
contained in the collection, were illustrated by Mr. G. B, Sowerby. 
They are as follow : ' 

Columbella PULCHERitiMA. Col. testd ovatd, sjrird ' subulatd ; an- 
fractibus 9, primo minimo, albo, 2do, Stio, 4to et 5to nigro-ru- 
fescentibus, politis ; 6to, 7mo, et 8vo concoloribus, spiraliter 
sulcatis ; ultimo ventricoso, longitudinaliter rugoso, et spiraliter 
sulcato, albido, sulcis brunneis ; labio externo incrassato ; peri- 
tremate polito, intus superne emarginato, infrd denticulato ; labio 
interno tenui, polito ; canali re curvd : long. 1, lat. ± poll. 
Hab. ad oras America? Centralis. (Gulf of Dulce.) 
A single specimen was found in ten fathoms, on a sandy muddy floor. 

Columbella Harpiformis. Col. testd ovato-subtrigond, nigrd, 
albido maculatd, epidermide tenui fulvd indutd ; spird brevi ; 
anfractibus 6-7, marginibus crenulatis, ultimo trigonali, longi- 
tudinaliter costato ; aperturd elongatd, superne in canalem elon- 
gatam productd ; labio externo incrassato, inflexo, intus denticu- 
lato ; canali subrecurvd : long. tV, lat. W poll. 

Hab. in Sinu Panamas. 

Found on dead shells in ten fathoms. 

Columbella bicanalifera. Col. testd ovato-pyramidali, apice 
acuto, basi spiraliter sulcato ; anfractibus 7, superioribus longi- 
tudinaliter rugosis, pallescentibus, fusco-variis ; ultimo pal- 
lido, fusco strigato, strigis prope suturas saturatioribus ; aperturd 
oblongd, in canalem superne decurrente ; labio externo incrassato, 
reflexo, subflexuoso, superne acuminata • long. -§-§-, lat. -fo poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos. 

Dredged in sandy mud at a depth of ten fathoms. 

Columbella spurca. Col. testd oblongd, castaned, albido maculatd 
et guttata ; spird acuminatd ; anfractibus!, superne angulosis, 
ultimo ventricoso, infrh spiraliter sulcato ; aperturd oblongd, in- 
tus violascente, superne angulatd; labio externo fiexuoso, sub- 
incrassato, intus denticulato ; columelld infrh unituberculatd ; 
labii interni margine ad basin denticulatd : long., 1VV> lat .-^ poll . 

Hab. sub lapidibus ad oras Peruvianas. (Inner Lobos Island.) 



114 

Columbella Buccinoides. Col. testd oblongd, Itevi, piceo-nigrd , 
prope suturas pallide maculatd ; spird acuminatd ,• anfractibus 8, 
ultimo infra spiraliter striato ; labii extcrni cxtus sub'incrassati, 
intus obsolete denticulati, margine superiori subemarginatd ; canali 
brcvissimd : long. T V> lot. \ poll. 

Hah. ad oras Peruvianas. 

Found under stones at low water mark, at Ancon. It very closely 
resembles a Buccinurn. 

Columbella coronata. Cdl. testd oblongo- acuminatd, albd, brun- 
neo variegatd ; anfractibus 7-8, Icevibus, tribus ultimis serie uni- 
cd tuberculorum mucronatorum coronatis ; labio externo intus den- 
ticulato : long. 4-4, lat. -g-V poll. 

Hab. in Sinu Panama? sub lapidibus. 

A very pretty species, which varies much in the arrangement of its 
colours. 

Columbella lyrata. Col. testd oblongd, acuminatd, albidd, epi- 
dermide fused indutd ; anfractibus 10, longitudinaliter costatis, 
costis infra nigris ; ultimo anfractu infrd spiraliter striato, su- 
perne longitudinaliter costato, costis nigro-articulatis ; aperturd 
oblongd, breviusculd, medio coarctatd, labio externo intus denticu- 
lato : long. -,%-, lat. -^poll. 

Hab. sub lapidibus in Sinu Panama? et ad Chiriqui. 

Columbella uncinata. Col. testd oblongd, utrinque acuminatd, 
fulvd, fascid centrali albido-articulatd ; anfractibus 6-7; supe- 
rioribus parvis, subnodulosis ; ultimo maximo, superne angulato ; 
aperturd longitudinali, elongatd, flexuosd, superne in canalem 
brevem uncinatam porrectd ; labio externo incrassato, intus den- 
ticulato, denticulis confertis ; labio interno granuloso : long. X V> 
lat. tV poll. 

Hab. ad oras Columbia?. (Isle of Muerte, Bay of Guayaquil.) 

Found in sandy mud at a depth of ten fathoms. 

Columbella elegans. Col. testa elongato-subulatd, albd fusco 
variegatd et reticulatd, epidermide tenui fulvd indutd ; anfractibus 
11-12, primis Icevibus, cceteris longitudinaliter costatis; ultimo 
infrh spiraliter sulcato ; labio externo incrassato ; peritremate 
subrefexo, superne intus emarginato, demum deniibus nonnullis 
internis ; labio interno lamellar i ; canali incrassatd : long.l-^, 
lat. tV poll. 

Hab. ad Guacamayo in America Centrali. 

A very fine species, found in sandy mud. 

Columbella unifasciata. Col. testd oblongo -pyramidali, Icevi, 
castaneo-nigricante ; anfractibus 6, medio spiraliter albido uni- 
fasciatis ; aperturd breviusculd ; peritremate intus denticulis 
nonnullis : long. T V, lat. T V (fere) poll. 

Hab. ad Valparaiso. 

Found under stones at low water. 



115 

Columbella GiBBERULA. Col. testd ovato-pyramidali ; spird 
subulatd ; anfractibus 8-9, pallidis, brunneo nubeculatis, ultimi 
dorso superne gibberulo, ad utrumque latus varicoso ; aperturd 
breviusculd ; peritremate incrassato, expanso, intus denticulis 
nonnullis ; labio interno superne calloso, medio arcuato ; canali 
brevi, rejlexd : long. -,V> fat. T V poll. 

Hab. ad oras America? Meridionalis et Centralis. 

Found in sandy mud at eleven fathoms depth, at the Bay of Ca- 
raccas and Puerto Portrero. 

Columbella turrita. Col. testd elongato-pyramidatd ; spird 
subulatd ; anfractibus 10, albidis, fusco reticulatis, et prope su- 
turam articulatis ; aperturd oblongd, superne acuminatd, subcana- 
liferd ; labio externo incrassato ; peritremate albo, subreflexo, 
intus lesvi ; columelld arcuatd : long. 1-, V> fat. tV poll. 
Hab. ad oras America? Centralis. (Bay of Montijo, and St. Elena.) 
Found in coarse gravel and sandy mud at a depth of ten fathoms. 

Columbella fulva. Col. testd ovato -subulatd, fulvd, epidermide 
minutissime reticulatd indutd ; anfractibus 10; superioribus lon- 
gitudinaliter costatis ; ultimo infra spiraliter striato, superne 
longitudinaliter costato ; aperturd, labio externo dentibusque in- 
ternis albis : long. X V> fat- -fa poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam, sub lapidibus. 

Columbella rugosa. Col. testd oblongd, medio gibbosuld ; epi- 
dermide fused ; spires, apice pleriimque eroso ; anfractibus 7, lon- 
gitudinaliter costato-rugosis ; ultimo infra spiraliter costato, su- 
perne longitudinaliter costato, costis omnibus superne unituber- 
culatis ; aperturd subapertd : long. .V. fat. T V poll. 
Hab. ad oras America Meridionalis. (Panama et Xipixapi.) 
Found under stones. 

In general appearance this and Col. Jluctuata resemble each other 
nearly, but the aperture of Col. fluctuata is much narrower. When 
the epidermis is removed, the shell is white, covered nearly all over 
with black patches. 

Columbella fluctuata. Col. testd oblongd, albd, nigro vel cas- 
taneo maculatd et fluctuatd ; epidermide fused ; spires apice ple- 
riimque eroso ; anfractibus 7, longitudinaliter costatis, ultimi cos- 
tis abbreviatis ; aperturd medio coarctatd ; labio externo superne 
emarginato, interno infra, denticulato : long. T V, fat. 1 5 7r poll. 
Hab. sub lapidibus ad oras America? Centralis. (Gulf of Nocoiyo.) 
Columbella recurva. Col. testd oblongd, turritd, fulvd; spird 
acuminato-pyramidali ; anfractibus 10-11 3 primis 6 longitudi- 
naliter costatis ; ceteris serie tuberculorum unicd instructis ; ul- 
timi dorso subgibbo, parte inferiore transversim striatd ; aper- 
tures elongates canali longiusculd, recurva ; labio externo reflexo, 
incrassato : long, l^, fat. -xV poll. 
Hab. ad oras America? Meridionalis. (Isle of Plata.) 
Found among coral sand at a depth of seventeen fathoms. 



116 

Columbella lanceolata. Col.testd oblongd, turritd,albidd,fulvo 
varid; spird acuminato-pyramidali ; anfractibus 10—1 2 ; primis 
6-7 Icevigatis ; ceteris serie unicd tuberculorum instructis ; ultimi 
dorso subgibbo, parte inferiore transvershn striatd ; apertura elon- 
gate canali breviusculd, subrecurvd ; labio externa incrassato, va- 
riciformi : long. \fa, lat. fa poll. 

Bab. ad Insulas Gallapagos. 

Found in fine coral sand in from six to eight fathoms. 

Columbella maculosa. Col. testd oblong o-subulatd, albidd, irre- 
gular iter fulvo maculatd; spird acuminato-pyramidali ; anfracti- 
bus 9-10 ; primis 7-8 Icevigatis ; cateris tuberculorum serie 
unicd coronatis ; ultimo serie alterd adjectd ; aperturd brevi, 
canali subrecurvd : long. I, lat. -J^ poll. 

Hab. ad littora America? Centralis. (Guacamayo.) 

Dredged with Col. subulata in sandy mud. 

Columbella h^emastoma. Col. testd oblongd, Itevigatd, apice 
acuminato ; anfractibus 7-8, castaneis, albo maculatis, ultimo 
dorso nigro, infrd castaneo ; aperturd elongatd, flexuosd ; labio 
externa extus incrassato, superne prominente, albo ; peritremate 
aurantiaco ; labio interno intus denticulato ; columelld unitubercu- 
latd : . long, -fa, lat. -fa poll. 

Hab. ad insulas Gallapagos et ad littora Panama?. 

Found under stones. 

A dwarf variety occurs, which differs, however, very slightly in its 
proportions. 

Columbella varia. Col. testd oblongd, decussato-costatd, apice 
acuminato ; anfractibus 8-9 fuscis, albido variegatis, longitudi- 
naliter costatis, interstitiis costarum sulcatis ; aperturd subovali ; 
labii externi extus incrassati margine superne emarginatd : long. 1 , 
lat. ^fapoll. 

Hab. ad Panamam, sub lapidibus. 

The. ribs cease a little below the middle of the last volution. 

Columbella scalarina. Col. testd ovatd, longitudifialiter cos- 
tatd, apice pyramidali ; anfractibus 6—7, superne contabulatis, 
longitudinaliter costatis, interstitiis costarum decussatis, costis ad 
basin continuis ; aperturd coarctatd, superne emarginatd ; peri- 
tremate intus denticulato, denticulis superioribus mnjoribus : long. 
44, lat. -A poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam et Chiriqui, sub lapidibus. 

This shell is of a pale colour, with spiral dark brown bands j it is 
covered with a thin but rough epidermis. The ribs continue to the 
base. 

I Columbella pyrostoma. Col. testd ovatd, medio turgidd ,• spird 
brevi, conicd ; anfractibus 6, longitudinaliter tuberculato-costatis, 
costis nigris, interstitiis rufescentibus ; aperturd rufd : long, fa, 
lat. -fa poll. 

Hab. ad oras American Meridionalis. (Panama and Gallapagos.) 



117 

This species somewhat resembles Col. mendicaria. Mr. Sowerby is 
doubtful as to the propriety of admitting it among the Colvmbellco ; 
although wherever Col. mendicaria is placed this species must of course 
follow. Perhaps it might not be inconvenient to separate these from 
Columbella, and to combine them with their cognate species from 
among Lamarck's Purpura, Ricinula: and Murices, and thus bring 
together a number of shells which would form a very natural genus. 

^ Columbella Maura. Col. testd ovatd, medio turgidd ; spird lon- 
giusculd, conico-acuminatd ; anfractibus 6 — 7, tuberculato-cos- 
tatis, nigris, albido nonnunquam variegatis ; aperturd pallidd : 
long. ^%-, tot. -iV poll. 
Hab. ad oras Americse Meridionalis. (Panama and Gallapagos.) 
Somewhat related to the last, though partaking rather less com- 
pletely of the characters of Columbella. 
Found with the last, under stones. 

Columbella livida. Col. testd ovatd, medio turgidd ; spird lon- 
giusculd, conico-acuminatd; anfractibus 6 — 7, longitudinaliter 
tuberculato-costatis, lividis, pallide fusco fasciatis ; labio externo 
intiis denticulis tribus : long. -jfo, tot. -/o- poll. 
Hab. ad Panamam, sub lapidibus. 

This differs from the two last in several particulars, though it is so 
intimately related to them as to form a part of the same division of 
the genus. 

Columbella nigro- punctata. Col. testd ovato-acuminatd, albd, 
nigro-punctatd ; anfractibus 6, tuberculorum infra suturam serie 
unicd, medio longitudinaliter costatis, costis decussatis : long. T V» 
lat. -jrV poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Polynesias. (Lord Hood's Islands.) 

Somewhat related to, but distinct from Lamarck's Col, zonalis. 

Found on the Meleagrince. 

Columbella obtusa. Col. testd oblongd, subcylindricd, Icevi ; an- 
fractibus 8, albicantibus , castaneo maculatis, maculis angulatis 
subtrapeziformibus ; anfractu ultimo ad basin sulcato : long. -iV, 
tot. iV poll. 

Hab. ad Insulam Huaheine dictam. 

This appears to be a very rare species, since only two specimens 
were found on the reefs of Huaheine, one of the Society Islands. 

Columbella fuscata. Col. testd ovato-acuminatd, medio ventri- 
cosd, castaned, albido guttulatd, epidermide fused indutd ; spird 
acuminatd ; anfractibus 7, ultimo maximo ; aperturd elongatd, 
flexuosd ; peritrematis albidi aut violacei medio intus denticulato ; 
columella? dimidio inferiore denticulato : long. T V, tot. n V poll. 

Hab. ad oras Americae Meridionalis. (Panama, St. Elena, and 
Monte Christe.) 

Found under stones ; it appears to be very common. 



118 

Columbella costellata. Col. testd oblongo-pyramidali, albidd, 
casta?ieo-nigricante maculatd; spird acuminatd ; anfractibus 8 — 9, 
longitudinaliter costellatis, ultimo ad basin spiraliter striato : 
long.^, lat. ^ poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam. 

A single specimen was found at a depth of sixteen fathoms. 

Columbella Guttata. Col. testd oblongo-pyramidali, laevigata, 
fused, maciilis guttulisque albidis notatd ; spird acuminatd, ple- 
rtimque decollatd ; anfractibus 7 — 8, ultimo spiraliter striato ad 
basin ; aperturd albicante, dentibus internis peritrematis superiori- 
bus majusculis : long. T V> lat. Vt> poll, paullb plus. 
Hab. ad Panamam, sub lapidibus. 

This species has been long well known ; Mr. Sowerby is not how- 
ever aware that it has been hitherto described. 

Columbella varians. Col. testd ovatd, medio ventricosd, albidd, 
coloribus variis pictd ; spird breviter pyramidali ; anfractibus 
, 4 — 6, spiraliter sulcatis ; superne subangulatis, noduliferis ; aper- 
turd angustd, flexuosd ; peritremate supetme angulato, intus den- 
ticulato ; labio interno prope basin denticulato ; columella denti- 
bus tribus, parvis : long. VV> tat. T 5 -<j- poll. 
Hab. ad insulas Gallapagos. (Hood's Island.) 
A very pretty species, exceedingly variable in its colouring. It 
would appear that it abounds in some spots ; for Mr. Sowerby has 
a great number brought by the Endeavour, Capt. Cook, many years 
since, but without locality. 

Columbella angularis. Col. testd oblongo-pyramidali, pallidd, 
fusco varid ; spird subulatd ; anfractibus 10, longitudinaliter 
costatis, ultimi medio subangulato, basi reflexo ; aperturd subqua- 
dratd, canali longiusculd, latd ; peritremate extus incrassato : 
long. 1-jV, lat. ^poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam. 

Columbella castanea. Col. testd ov ato- oblong d, castaned,punc- 
tulis albidis conspersd ; spird breviusculd, acuminatd ; anfracti- 
bus 5, superne anguliferis, ultimo magno, ad basin spiraliter sul- 
cato ; aperturd elongatd, flexuosd, superne angulosd ; peritremate 
aurantiaco ; labio externa intus denticulato ; interno superne cal- 
lifero, medio albo croso, infrh plicato-rugoso : long .-*-&, lat. -fopoll. 
Hab. ad oras America? Centralis. (Real Llejos.) 
A few specimens only of this species have been found ; and some 
had already been brought to England long ago. All appear to have 
been picked up on the shore. 

Columbella sulcosa. Col. testd ovato-oblongd, fulvd, nigri- 
cante, vel rufo-nigricante lineatd ; spird acuminatd ; anfractibus 
7 , longitudinaliter costatis, decussatim spiraliter sulcatis ; caudd 
reflexd ; aperturd superne latiore, infra canali distinctd • labio 
externo extits incrassato, intus denticulis 4 centralibus • interno 
rug is basalibus nonnullis : long. 1 ,V, lat. ,\ poll. 



119 

Hab. ad Insulas Polynesias. (Annaa, or Chain Island, and Lord 
Haod's Island.) 

Columbella major. Col. testd ovcttd, medio gibbosd, castaned 
albido punctulatd ; spird breviusculd, pyramidally acuminata ; 
anfractibus 6 — 7, lavigatis, ultimo maximo, superne rotundato- 
turgido, infra) spiraliter sulcato ; aperturd elongatd, flexuosd, albd, 
superrie angulatd ; labio externo superrie obtuse angulato, albo, 
intus denticulato ; labio columellari superrie callifero, infra) pli- 
cato-rugoso : long. 1-jV, lat. -jV poll. 
Hab. sub lapidibus ad oras Americas Meridionalis. (Isle of Muerte.) 
This species has long been known, and has commonly been call- 
ed Col. Strombiformis. It does not, however, agree with Lamarck's 
description of that shell, and Mr. Sowerby possesses specimens of 
another which corresponds exactly with it. 

Columbella procera. Col. testd oblongo-pyramidali, medio ven- 
tricosd, coerulescenti-albidd, fusco punctatd et maculatd ; spird 
gradatim acuminatd ; anfractibus 8 — 9, longitudinaliter costel- 
latis ; superioribus decussatis ; medianis subtuberculiferis ; ul- 
timo medio lecvigato, infra) [spiraliter sulcato ; aperturd oblongd, 
superne acuminatd, subtus in canalem breviusculam desinente ; 
labio externo intus denticulato ; columelld arcuatd, Icevi : long. 
2 T V, lat. Ajoo//. 
Hab. ad Panamam. 

This species is remarkable for its gigantic size. It must be placed 
with the Columbellce, although not precisely according with the cha- 
racter given of that genus by Lamarck j for it is more nearly related to 
them than to any other genus. A single specimen only was found. 

Columbella pygmjsa. Col. testd ovato -oblongd, pallescente ; 
spird acuminatd ; anfractibus 6 j superioribus 5 longitudinaliter 
costatis, fascid interruptd nigrd ; ultimo superne longitudinaliter 
costato, infra spiraliter sulcato, fasciis duabus interruptis nigris ; 
aperturd latiusculd ; labii externi margine superne emarginatd : 
long. -aV, lat. ^ poll. 

Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam. 

Found on dead shells in sandy mud, at a depth of ten fathoms. 

Columbella unicolor. Col. testd ovatd, medio ventricosd, cas- 
taned ; anfractibus 5, Icevibus ; suturd profundiusculd ; aper- 
turd latiusculd, ad basin subeffusd ; canali brevissimd ; labio ex- 
terno extus subincrassato, intus denticulis obsoletius cults nonnullis : 
long, tV, lat. -A- poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos. (Hood's Island.) 

Columbella versicolor. Col. testd ovatd, medio ventricosd, pal- 
lidd coloribus variis pictd ; spird acuminatd ; anfractibus 6, su- 
perne rotundato-angulatis ; suturd profundd ; aperturd superne 
angulosd ; peritremate intus denticulato : long. -A, lat. ■£? poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Polynesian (Annaa, or Chain Island.) 



120 

Columbella dorsata. Col. tcstd oblongo-pyramidali, alba, lineis 
irregularibus,flexuosis, confertis, castanets obtectd ; anfractibus 8, 
lievibus, superne turgidulis j ultimi lateribus inflatis, dorso promi- 
nente ; suturd distinctd ; aperturd angustd, jiexuosd, albd ; peri- 
trcmate extus incrassato ; labio columellari exarato : long. 1, 
lat. ±poll. 
Hab. ad oras Columbia?. (Island of Muerte, Bay of Guayaquil.) 
This species is somewhat like Col. gibberala, but it is much larger, 
and the middle of the columellar lip is worn awayj there are also 
other minor differences. — G. B. S. 



121 

June 26, 1832. 
William Yarrell, Esq. in the Chair. 

Specimens preserved in spirit were exhibited of two species of 
Mus collected by Lieut.-Col. Sykes in Dukhun, both of which were 
apparently new to science. One of them is that referred to in 
Col. Sykes's ' Catalogue of the Mammalia noticed in Dukhun' 
(Proceedings, Part I. p. 103.). It was characterized by Mr. Ben- 
nett as 

Mus oleraceus. Mus caudd longissimd ; auriculis rotundatis 
majusculis ; supra nitide castaneus ; ore, gastrceo, pedibusquejla- 
vescenti.-albidis. 

Long, capitis corporisque, 24- unc. ; cauda, 4^- ; capitis 1 ; auri- 
cula, 4-; tarsi postici cum digitis, 4; tibia posticce, £ ; mysta r 
cum, 1 4-. 

Hab. in arvis India? Orientalis, nidum e foliis graminum in plantis 
oleraceis construens. 

The upper surface is thickly clothed with rather long smooth 
silky hairs of a bright pale chestnut colour ; on the under surface 
and the inside of the limbs the quality of the hairs is the same, but 
their colour is nearly white with a yellowish tinge. This latter 
colour extends up the cheeks, round the mouth and the under sur- 
face of the muzzle, and over the upper surface of the feet ; the hairs 
on the latter, on the muzzle, and on the long scaly tail, being very 
short. The claws are white and minute. The ears are rather large, 
rounded above, and very nearly naked. The muzzle is rather short 
and obtuse, and the oyes are placed at an intermediate distance be- 
tween its end and the base of the ears. The moustaches are nu- 
merous and long, some of them being black, and others silvery or 
bright chestnut. 

The extreme length of the tail, as compared with that of the body, 
and the comparative length of the hinder tarsus, furnish characters 
sufficient to distinguish this Indian field Mouse from all its con- 
geners. 

The second species belongs to that section of the genus Mus in 
which spines are intermixed with the fur. It was designated 

Mus platythrix. Mus caudd corpus longitudine subcequante ; 
auriculis mediocribus nudis subrotundatis : supra Jusco-canescens, 
pilis plurimis applanatis spinescentibus ; infra et ad pedes jla- 
vescenti-albidus. 

Long, capitis corporisque, 34- unc. ; capitis, l T V ; caudce t 3 ; auri- 
cula, \\ .tarsi postici cum digitis, 4;, mystacum, 1-i- ; spina- 
rum, 4-. 

The head is rather flat, and the muzzle slightly elongated and 

[No. XX.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm.of Science. 



122 

acute j the tail regularly ringed with scales, from between which 
only a few scattered hairs make their appearance. The fur of the 
upper surface is of a light grey at the base -, but the longer hairs 
have a blackish shade, with an intermixture of testaceous brown, 
which is more obvious posteriorly and towards the lower part of the 
sides. The flattened spines, which are numerous, are white and 
transparent throughout the greater part of their length, with a dark 
margin and blackish acuminate tip, beneath which they exhibit, in 
certain lights, somewhat of a changeable gloss. The moustaches 
are few in number, black at the base and white at the tips, and reach 
beyond the ears, which are naked, rounded with a slight point, ex- 
tremely open, membranaceous, and of a dusky black. The whole 
under surface, together with the insides of the limbs, the upper sur- 
face of the feet, and the claws, are of a yellowish or dirty white. 
The tail is of a uniform livid grey, but little darker above than 
beneath, and tapering to a very fine point. 

Several imperfect skins of Mammalia, recently obtained by Mr. 
Gould from Algoa Bay, were exhibited j and Mr. Bennett remarked, 
that notwithstanding their deficiency in the most important particu- 
lars, they were yet of sufficient interest to claim the attention of the 
Committee, on account of the extreme rarity of two of the species 
to which they belonged, and of the probability that a third was alto- 
gether unknown to science. 

One of them, the skin of a Monkey deficient as to head and hands, 
was, Mr. Bennett stated, evidently referable to the Colobus polyco- 
mus, Illig. ; the long milk-white tail, strongly contrasting with the 
bright deep black fur of the body, being fully sufficient to charac- 
terize it. On the upper part of the skin, above the shoulders, some 
nearly white hairs were intermingled with the black ones. The only 
discrepancy observable between the specimen and the description 
of the species given by Pennant, was in the great length of the hairs 
of the body, the greater number of them being four or five inches 
long : this, it was remarked, might be dependent on age or locality. 

Another skin, equally imperfect with the preceding, was that of 
the Colobus Jerrugineus, Illig., with the state of which, described by 
M. Kuhl under the name of Col. Temminckii, the specimen agreed 
in every respect except in the absence of any yellow tinge in the 
rufous fur covering the under surface of the body. 

The third skin was still more imperfect than the others, having 
attached to it no portion of the neck, extremities, or tail, and con- 
sisting only of that of the body. Its length is 2 feet, its width lj. 
The dorsal portion is of a bright rufous fawn, which is continued on 
the shoulders and on the buttocks, but from which the red nearly 
disappears on the under surface, that being pale fawn. Across the 
whole of the back, commencing between the shoulders and passing 
backwards, a series of broad transverse glossy black stripes are seen, 
which run down the sides, becoming narrower towards the belly. 
These stripes are twelve in number, and are preceded and succeeded 
by a few similar, closer set, and fainter stripes, of a deeper rufous 



123 

than the ground. The broadest of the dark stripes are on the loins, 
where they are fully an inch in width : their direction in passing 
down the sides is rather backwards. The commencement of a dark 
streak is also seen on the skin leading to the outside of the thighs. 
The quality of the fur is rather rigid, and the hairs are adpressed, 
resembling in these particulars the covering of the Zebras. It may 
not improbably belong to some species of Antelope, with which Eu- 
ropeans are yet unacquainted, but for which travellers to the country 
from whence the specimen was obtained may be induced to inquire, 
on being made aware of the existence of so beautiful an animal in 
that locality. The dark cross markings which ornament the fur are 
so uncommon among the Mammalia, that they alone will probably 
furnish a sufficient character to distinguish the quadruped in ques- 
tion from any other species inhabiting the interior of Africa, in the 
neighbourhood of Algoa Bay. 

Several specimens were also exhibited of imperfect skins of Cer- 
copithecus Diana, obtained from the same locality. 

Specimens were exhibited of two species of Hedgehog from the 
Himalayan Mountains, which Tiad recently been added to the So- 
ciety's collection. Both of them belonged to that extra-European 
form of the genus Erinaceus, which is distinguished by the posses- 
sion of long ears. Their characters were thus explained by Mr. 
Bennett : 

Erinaceus Spat angus. Er. auriculis longis : spinis parallelim 
dispositis, apicibus longe ccerulescenti-nigris, laterum versus apt- 
ces Jlavescenti annulatis ; capite, pedibus, gastrceoque brunneo- 
fuscis ; auriculis mentoque albis. 

Long, capitis corporisque, 3-^ unc. ; a naso ad auriculas basin, £ ; 
auricula, %i cauda, ± ; pedis postici cum unguibus, 1. 

The form of the body is oval, rather elongate, with the head pro- 
jecting in front. The spines are not irregularly interwoven, as in 
the Hedgehogs generally, but are disposed parallel to each other, 
radiating from a point on the loins ; a disposition which gives to 
this species a more smooth and elegant appearance than is observed 
in any one of the genus previously known. The spines are nearly 
white for rather more than one half of their length, the remainder 
being of the blueish black which constitutes the general colour of 
the upper surface, scarcely any of the white being seen : the only 
deviation from this general colour occurs in a rather broad patch 
on each side, where it is spotted with yellowish, an intermixture 
occasioned by the existence of a narrow ring of the latter colour 
near the tips of the spines in those situations. 

The fur is generally of a dull brown ; it is short on the upper 
surface of the head, and long on the under parts of the body. On 
the ears and chin the hairs are short and white. 

The lengthened ears are rounded and somewhat thickened at their 
extremities. The moustaches are extremely long, and of a glossy 
brown. 

The specimen described is probably not fully adult, there being 



in 

only two false molars on each side of the upper jaw. With this 
exception the development of the whole of the teeth appears to be 
complete. 

The small size of the Er. Spatangus, its elongated form, the 
regular disposition of its spines, the more rounded form of its ears, 
and the comparative length of its hinder foot, distinguish it from 
the other species exhibited, which Mr. Gray was disposed to consi- 
der as the Er.collaris figured in the 'Illustrations of Indian Zoology,' 
but which Mr. Bennett rather regarded as a new species, it being 
destitute of a white collar, and differing in other particulars from 
the figure referred to. Mr. Bennett accordingly characterized it 
as the 

Erinaceus Grayi. Er. auriculis longis: spinis irregulariter in- 
tertextis, Jlavescenti apiculatis nigrescentique annulatis ; capite 

frisescenti-brunneo ; auriculis mentoque usque ad auriculas al- 
escentibus ; gastrao pedibusque dilute brunneis. 

Long, capitis corporisque, 6 unc. ; a naso ad auriculae basin, 1-$-; 
auricula, 1 ; cauda, ■§■ ; pedis postici cum unguibus, 1-fc. 

Jun. (edentulus). Spinis kaud Jlavescenti apiculatis, apicibus late 
nigrescentibus, spinis aliquibus albis intermixtis. 

Long, capitis caudaque, 134- unc. ; pedis postici cum unguibus, 4. 

The form of the body is broadly oval, approaching to globular. 
The spines are yellowish-white for about five eighths oftheir length, 
then ringed with blackish, and are terminated by a yellowish tip of 
about one eighth of their length : hence results a general colour of 
grizzled yellow and black. 

The head is brown above, with an intermixture of white hairs. 
The ears are covered with short whitish hairs. The hairs of the 
chin and lower jaw are also white, with the exception of a patch of 
brown in the middle of the hinder part towards the - throat. The 
under surface is pale brown. 

The ears are less thickened towards the tip, and more acuminated 
than in the preceding species. The moustaches do not reach beyond 
the tips of the ears. 

In the younger specimen the colour, both of the upper and under 
surface, is much darker than in the adult. 

The exhibition was resumed of the new species of Shells collected 
by Mr. Cuming on the western coast of South America and in the 
islands of the South Pacific Ocean. Those exhibited on the pre- 
sent occasion were accompanied by descriptions from the pen of 
Mr. Broderip. 

Genus Bulinus. 
* Labio exteriore acuto. 

Bulinus rubellus. Bui. testd tenui, diaphand, subpyramidali, 
pallide rubra obscure albido-maculosd ; anfractibus 7 longitudina- 
liter striatis ; umbilico medio cri : long. \\, lat. T V poll. 

Hab. in Peruviae montibus. (Truxillo.) 



125 

In very old or weathered specimens the transparency and colour 
are lost, and the shell has a more dense appearance. Some old spe- 
cimens have a curved longitudinal external streak of chestnut rising 
from the umbilicus, and terminating near the base of the aperture at 
the lower edge of the inner lip. Found on bushes. — W. J. B. 

Bulinus Nux. Bui. testd pyramidali, fused ; anfractibus 7 longi- 

tudinaliter rugosis ; umbilico medio cri : long. -}-§-, lat. tV poll. 
Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos. (Charles's Island.) 
Found on bushes. — W. J. B. 

Genus Partula. 

Partula rosea. Part, testd ovato -pyramidali, rosed; anfractibus 
6 longitudinaliter substriatis, lineis creberrimis sub-decussatis, ul- 
timo maximo ; epidermide tenui : long. -£> lat. \ poll. 

Var. ol. purpureo-fusca. 

Far. /3. albida suturis et anfractus ultimi basi roseis ; epidermide 



Hab. in insula Huaheine. 

Found by Mr. Cuming on the Te plant. — W. J. B. 

Partula auriculata. Part, testd perforatd, ovato-pyramidali, 
castaned ; anfractibus 6 subventricosis, longitudinaliter striatis ; 
aperturd alba, quasi auriculatd, labiis complanatis crassis ; dente 
in anfractds basalis faciem internam albo : long, -f-, lat. % poll. 
Var. flavicans aperturse margine externo subroseo. 
Hab. in Huaheine. 

The thick flattened lips forming the aperture of this species are so 
disposed as to give the mouth, in many individuals, the appearance 
of a key-hole, while in others it is ear-shaped. The white tooth on 
the internal surface of the body whorl is not developed in some spe- 
cimens. Found on bushes at Huaheine. — W. J. B. 

Partula varia. Part, testd ovato-pyramidali, subglabrd, levissime 
longitudinaliter substriatd, subdiaphand, fused, fused subviridi- 
fasciatd, vel anfractibus superioribus fuscis, ultimo flavente : 
long. 44i fcf. A- poll. 
Hab. in insula Huaheine. 

This pretty species, of which hardly two individuals are exactly 
similar in colour, was found upon bushes. — W.J. B. 

Genus Planorbis. 
Planorbis Peruvianus. Plan, testd discoided, pellucidd, utrinque 

concavd, anfractds basalis parte ultimd subdepressd ; aperturd 

subgibbd, subdilatatd : lat. X V, long. T V poll. 
Hab. in Peruvia. ( Malabriga, province of Truxillo.) 
Found in a muddy pond nearly dried up.— W.J. B. 

Genus Purpura. 

Purpura muricata. Purp. testd ovato-globosd, transversim quadri- 
carinatd, carinis tuberculiferis imbricatis ; subalbidd lineis pallide 
griseo-rufis cinctd ; columella flavescenti- earned j labro crenulato, 



126 

carinas versus arcuato, in canali altd superne desinente, hit us sub- 
striato, pallide cameo ; spird mediocri : long. 2£, lat. 2i poll. 
Hab. ad portum Sanctse Elense in fissuris rupium. 
This fine species, of which but very few were found by Mr. Cuming, 
has the upper carination very much developed, the tubercles being 
highly elevated and wavy, and thickly set with deeply imbricated fo- 
liations. On the next carination, these characters are less strongly 
marked j and on the two last, the tubercles almost entirely disappear. 
The ridge formed by the basal canal is very prominent. — W. J. B. 

Genus Pectunculus. 
Pectunculus maculatus. Pect. testd orbiculatd, subauritd, sub- 
(equilaterd, convexd, albente castaneo -maculosa, striis radiantibus 
subdecussatis creberrimis ; intus albd, marginibus crenatis ; epi- 
dermide fused, villosd : long. 2|-, alt. 2|-, lat. 1% poll. 
Hab. in Portu Portrero. 

The spots vary in different individuals j but the colouring matter 
appears to be very sparingly secreted as the animal advances in age, 
while in very young specimens it greatly predominates. The shell 
rapidly increases in convexity as it becomes older : when very young, 
it is comparatively lenticular. Found in fine gravel in eleven fathoms 
water.— W. J. B. 

Pectunculus ovatus. Pect. testd obovatd, convexd, glabrd, lineis 

transversis minutissimis, albente, umbonibus castaneo pallide nota- 

tis; intus albd, marginibus crenatis ; epidermide subvillosd : long. 

If, alt. 2, lat. 1% poll. 

Hab. ad insulam Lobos. 

Found in coarse sand at the depth of seventeen fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Pectunculus intermedins. Pect. testd suborbiculatd, subglabrd, 
subdepressd,albidd, castaneo umbones versus pallide zonato-radiatd ; 
striis radiantibus subdistantibus, decussatis ; intus albd, margini- 
bus crenatis; epidermide subpilosd : long. \\, lat. \\, alt. 1 T V 
poll. 
Hab. ad Iquiqui. 

In many specimens the pale chestnut radiating zones near the urn- 
bones are effaced by decomposition. Found in coarse sand at a depth 
of ten fathoms. — W. J. B. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Spooner read the following 
Notes of the post mortem examination of the Dromedary, Camelus 
Dromedarius, Linn., which lately died at the Society's Gardens. 

"On the cavity of the abdomen being laid open, several gallons of 
serum escaped, intermixed with a large portion of coagulable lymph, 
which, on a further investigation, appeared to have flowed from the 
liver. This viscus was constituted of one main lobe, having several 
small lobuli extending from its posterior edge, by means of which it 
became attached to the right kidney : it was confined to the right 
side of the spine. The posterior vena cava passed through its sub- 
stance previously to piercing the diaphragm, situated to the right 
side of which vein was the vena porta. There was no gall-bladder: 



127 

the bile was conveyed from the liver by the hepatic duct, which 
emptied itself into the duodenum, about 6 inches from the py- 
lorus, in common with the pancreatic duct, as in the Horse and most 
of the Deer tribe. The peritoneal tunic of the liver was ruptured, 
and in many parts had undergone the ulcerative process. The gland 
presented one entire mass of disease, which was undoubtedly of a 
chronic character. It was morbidly enlarged to three times its natural 
bulk, having numerous abscesses in its substance ; several hydatids 
were also adhering to its surface. The intestinal canal bore no 
marks of disease, other than a peculiar flabbiness and a slight blush 
of inflammation invading the peritoneal tunic. The kidneys were 
extensively diseased, and a great part of their cortical substance was 
absorbed : they were entirely detached from their capsules, floating 
loosely in them, and were of a very dark coiour, and, for the most 
part, disorganized, the pelvis and infundibula being the only parts 
demonstrable. Considerable effusion had taken place into the cavity 
of the chest. The lungs exhibited extensive marks of disease : they 
were emphysematous ; and hydatids and vomica invaded their struc- 
ture. The heart was peculiarly flabby, and the right side was distended 
with coagulated blood." 

Mr. Spooner described in detail the structure of the stomach, in 
which he found nothing to add to the accounts already given by Dau- 
benton and Sir E. Home. He remarked, however, that the cells of 
the first cavity in this instance contained food j and he was therefore 
induced to suggest that doubts might be entertained of the correct- 
ness of the generally received opinion, that these sacs are destined to 
act as reservoirs for fluids. 

Mr. Owen stated, that he also had found in the cells of the stomachs 
of Lamas which he had dissected, more or less of food : but he sug- 
gested the probability that this might have been forced into them by 
moving the animal about after death, when, muscular power being 
abolished, resistance to the admission of the food into the cells would 
have ceased. He added, that in the instance of the Camel, which was 
killed some years since at the Royal College of Surgeons, (the parti- 
culars of the examination of which have been published by Sir E. 
Home,) the cells of the second and first cavities of the stomach were 
found to be filled with water only : in this case, the animal had been 
kept without drink for three days -, was then allowed to drink freely ; 
was killed three hours afterwards 5 and was opened without being 
moved from its erect position. 

Mr. Cox suggested, that the existence of food in the cells of the 
stomach, in the instances referred to, might perhaps be accounted for 
by the fact, that the animals in question had been kept for many years 
in this country, where they were at all times provided with water : 
under these circumstances, a receptacle for the preservation of fluid 
would not be called into use; and the cells having therefore ceased 
to be applied to that purpose, the muscular power of their apertures 
would have been consequently diminished. 

Colonel Sykes added, that on examining, in India, the stomach of 
a Camel, he had found the cells devoid of food. 



128 



July 12, 1832. 
Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., in the Chair. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Arthur Strickland, of Boynton 
near Burlington, Yorkshire, exhibited a specimen, from his collection, 
of a Puffin shot by Mr. George Marwood, jun., of Busby, "in the 
middle of August 1828, in a very stormy day, at the mouth of the 
Tees : it was seen early in the morning, sitting on the water like a 
duck, and was shot as it was rising : its manner of flight was con- 
sequently not noticed." 

After observing on the confusion in which our knowledge of the 
entire group of the Petrels is at present involved, in consequence of 
the unsatisfactory descriptions of them contained in books, Mr. Strick- 
land proceeded to state, that the addition to the British Fauna which 
he submitted to the examination of the Committee was apparently 
referable to the Puffinus fuliginosus (Procellaria (Nectris) fuliginosus, 
Kuhl). The description of this species given by M. Kuhl in his 
' Beitrage,' rests upon two unpublished drawings, which form part of 
the valuable collection of Sir Joseph Banks, now deposited in the 
British Museum, one of which is marked Procellaria fuliginosa by 
Forster, and the other Nectris fuliginosa by Solander, in whose MS. 
Notes it is described under the latter name. The Proc. fuligi- 
nosa of the same MSS., though similar in size and colour, is entirely 
different, and at once distinguishable by having the bill short and 
powerful, and the nostrils in a raised tube, like the true Procellarice. 
The Proc. fuliginosa, Lath., is also altogether distinct, being the Tha- 
lassidroma Leachii, Vigors : and the only description in the * General 
History of Birds' which at all resembles the present species, is that 
of the Proc. grisea, a species distinct from that described under the 
same name by Linnaeus. 

Mr. Strickland stated, that he could detect no differences between 
his specimen and the drawings referred to, except that the latter repre- 
sented a bird of somewhat larger size, and having the lower parts of 
the breast of a rather lighter colour. These differences were also 
observable on comparison with an apparently original specimen of 
Sir Joseph Banks's bird, preserved in spirit, which he had ascertained 
to exist in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. He added, 
that Sir Joseph Banks's specimens, described by Dr. Solander, were 
obtained in the Southern Pacific Ocean, in various latitudes and 
longitudes, extending nearly from the coast of Chili to that of Van 
Diemen's Land; but remarked, that there was reason to believe, 
that birds of an equally distant locality had, in more instances than 
one, reached this country. 

In its distinct and very little raised nostrils, the bird in question 
agrees with the Shearwater Petrel, Puffinus Anglorum, Ray: it has 



no back toe, but in lieu thereof a strong claw ; and its tail is rounded, 
it may be thus characterized : 

Puffinus fuliginosus. Puff, brunneus sepicolor ; alls saturation- 

bus ; guld griseo leviter tinctd ; rostro concolore ; tarsis externe 

digitisque externis brunneis ; tarsis interne palamisque fusco- 

ochraceis. 

Long. 18 unc. ; alee, 12; tarsi, 2^j digiti medii, 2\\ rostri 9 a 

rictu ad apicem, 2-J-, a fronte ad apicem, 1-J. 
Mr. Strickland concluded by remarking, that although a single and 
perhaps purely accidental instance of a species appearing in this coun- 
try may not fully entitle it to be ranked as a Biitish bird, yet that the 
circumstance is worthy of being noticed, as it is only by carefully 
recording such instances as do occur that we can decide what is en- 
titled to that appellation, and be thereby enabled to perfect our local 
catalogues. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Gould exhibited numerous 
specimens of two Birds hitherto confounded under the name of Mota- 
cillajlava. In a communication which accompanied his exhibition, 
Mr. Gould explained the differences between the species, and entered 
at some length into their history. One of them, the yellow Wagtail 
of England, was described by Ray under the name of Mot. flava : 
its head is of a fine olive colour, and the stripe above and below the 
eye is of a bright yellow. The other, the Mot.Jiava of Linnaeus, has 
the head of a lead colour approaching to blue, and the stripe above 
and below the eye of a clear white. The latter bird does not appear 
t'j have been ever met with in England : it is the one described by con- 
tinental authors under the Linnean name ; while British writers have 
as constantly described under that name the bird to which it was 
originally given by Ray, and which regularly visits their own country. 
For Ray's bird, Mr. Gould suggested that the name of Mot. jlava, 
under which it was described by our illustrious countryman, ought, 
according to the established rules of nomenclature, to be retained. 
To that of Linnaeus, M. Temminck, and other continental authors, 
he proposed to apply the name of Mot. neglecta. 

The species may be thus characterized : 

Motacilla flava, Ray. Mot. suprH olivaceo-viridis, subtus flava; 
rectricibus duabus lateralibus dimidiato oblique albis ; capite oliva- 
ceo ; strigd supra- et infra-oculari flavd. 
Foem. Coloribus magis obscuris ; capite dorso concolore; strigis 
ocularibus obscure flavis. 

Motacilla neglecta. Mot. suprci olivaceo-viridis, subtus flava ; 

rectricibus duabus lateralibus dimidiato oblique albis ; capite plum- 

beo ; strigd supra- et infra-oculari albd. 

Fcem. Coloribus magis obscuris ; capite plumbeo-olivaceo ; strigis 

ocularibus minus conspicuis. 

Mr. Gould further remarked, that the differences pointed out in 

these characters do not depend upon season j there being on the 

table specimens of Mot. neglecta, the blue-headed Wagtail, from Swe- 



130 

den and Paris, and of Mot.flava, the olive-headed Wagtail, of England, 
all killed in the month of May. 

He added, that he regarded the Mot. cinerea of Ray as the young 
or female of the grey Wagtail, Mot. boarula, Linn. 

Mr. Gould also stated, that he had recently seen a fine specimen 
of Cypselus alpinus, 111., which had been shot by the gardener of Mr. 
Holford, at Kingsgate, near Margate. This fine Swift, which has 
rarely been | known to range westward of the European continent, 
had been only once previously observed in England. 

Mr. Owen referred to his Notes (published in the First Part of the 
'Proceedings,' pp. 141 and 154) on the anatomy of individuals of 
two subgenera of the Linnaean genus Dasypus ; one of which, the 
Das. 6-cinctus, Linn., had not, he believed, been previously dissected. 
He stated, that two other individuals of that species, one an adult 
female, the other a young one of the same sex, having subsequently 
come under his examination, he was enabled to confirm some of the 
peculiarities observed in the dissection of the young male specimen, 
and particularly the existence of the double cacum, and the additional 
lobe of the lungs. He was also enabled to add to that account a de- 
scription of the genital and mammary organs. 

" The number of nipples in the Weasel-headed Armadillo (Das. 6- 
cinctus) is two only, while the nine-banded Armadillo (Das. Peba, 
Desm.) has four (see Part I. p. 1 42). They are situated in the pectoral 
region, and in the adult female (which died before the young one had 
ceased to suck,) were elongated to the extent of an inch and a half 5 
at the apex of each were six minute orifices of the tubuli lactiferi; the 
nipples were very soft and silky to the touch, and extremely flexible. 
On removing the integument from this region, one large mass of 
conglomerate mammary gland was found, extending across the whole 
sternal aspect of the thorax, from one axilla to the other, and mea- 
suring in length 5 inches, the thickness of the mass being from 3 
to 4 lines : it was of a deep yellow colour. There was not the 
slightest trace of a division at the mesial line ; but although I suc- 
ceeded in injecting one side of this large gland with mercury, I was 
unable to force any into the opposite side. 

"The clitoris in this animal was much longer than in the nine- 
banded species, measuring 9 lines in the undisturbed state, and 
resembling more the corresponding organ in the male : it was of a 
pointed form, was covered with a leaden-coloured integument, and 
was situated an inch anterior to the anus; the genito-urinary orifice 
was placed on an eminence half an inch from the extremity. From 
this orifice the genito-urinary canal extended 8 lines, receiving the 
vagina by a transverse semilunar slit, and being then continued for 5 
lines further without any diminution of diameter, and terminating in 
the form of a cul de sac, into which the urethra opened by a very 
small orifice. In Das. Peba, the genitourinary cavity was not sepa- 
rated by a corresponding contraction from the urinary bladder, but 
was a more direct continuation of it 5 so that in both these species we 



131 

have a remarkable deviation from the ordinary structure of this part; 
the orifice of the vagina having nearly the same relation to the ge- 
nito-urinary passage as the urethra has in the Mammalia generally, 
and the genito-urinary canal being, in consequence, a continuation of 
the urinary bladder rather than of the uterus. This was particularly 
observed in Das.Peba; but was less obvious in the Weasel-headed 
species, on account of the recent distension of the parts in partu- 
rition. In neither species is there any os tincce between the vagina 
and uterus; so that the limits of the two parts can only be loosely 
defined by difference in diameter, and in the character of the lining 
membrane. In the Weasel-headed species, some of the muscular fibres 
had apparently been ruptured in parturition $ for on injecting the parts 
with spirit, the external cellular texture was distended at the con- 
tracted part of the uterine canal, evidently with a force insufficient 
to have ruptured the coats without previous lesion. At this part there 
were numerous jagged longitudinal ruga ; two or three of which 
were continued along the vagina, but the interior of the uterus 
beyond was smooth. There was a difference of form in the uterus of 
the two species. In Das.Peba it is of an oval form, the fundus ending 
almost in a point, and the Fallopian tubes are continued from the 
sides of the fundus without any appearance of cornua ; but in Das. 6- 
cinctus the uterus is triangular, the fundus forming a straight line, and 
the angles being produced a little, so as to form rudimentary cornua, 
from which the Fallopian tubes are continued. These tubes in both 
the species wound round the capsules of the ovaries, and terminated 
in the usual fimbriated extremities directed towards the ovary. The 
breadth of the base of the uterus in the Weasel headed Armadillo was 
1 inch, 1 line j from the fundus to the opening of the vagina into the 
genito-urinary canal, 2 inches. The ovaries were transversely oval, 
measuring 3 lines by 1|. The Fallopian tubes became tortuous to- 
wards the extremity. 

" In the absence of distinction between the uterus and vagina, 
and in the mode of communication of what maybe considered a single 
elongated uterine tube with the genito-urinary canal, may be ob- 
served the first traces of that approximation to the oviparous type 
of the genital organs which peculiarly characterizes the Marsupial 
Edentata. 

" The urinary bladder in the adult female was an oval cavity about 
the size of a pigeon's egg ; its coats were tolerably thick. The ure- 
ters open close to the orifice, and very near together 5 a distinct 
groove or channel commences between the two orifices, and is con- 
tinued into the narrow canal for about 2 lines, and then terminates 
on a ridge analogous to the verumontanum* The length of the urethra 
is 5 lines. 

n The cceca in this individual were of equal size, half an inch in 
length, and the same in breadth j their relation to the ilium and the 
structure of the ileo-caecal orifice were the same as in the young male. 

" The pancreas was of large size, measuring in length 4| inches ; 
a broad process, or subsidiary pancreas, extended from the duodenal 
end of the gland downwards into the mesentery, which confined the 



132 

duodenum, in the centre of which process there was a slight de- 
ficiency. 

";The spleen was shorter and thicker than in Das. Peba, measuring 
2\ inches in length, and 2 in breadth. There was no supernumerary 
spleen as in the young male. 

" The suprarenal glands were as large as almonds : they were very 
elastic ; and on pressure, the blood which they contained was pro- 
pelled along the vein. In section they presented first a distinct fibrous 
cortical part, then a dark coloured portion, and lastly a firmer sub- 
stance in the centre." 

Mr. Owen subsequently adverted to several external peculiarities 
which he had observed in the 6-banded Armadillo, and which, he re- 
marked, were of some interest, as connected with the burrowing habits 
of the animal. On the second toe from the inside there is a soft 
large cushion, evidently a modification of the organ of touch : at the 
hinder part of the fore-foot there is also a warty prominence, from 
which many hairs grow. There is a loose portion of integument below 
each eye, supported upon a prominence of the zygoma, hirsute, 
and resembling an inferior eyebrow j by means of which, and the 
coronal plate of armour above, the eye is well defended during the 
act of burrowing. 



135 



July 24, 1S32. 
William Clift, Esq., in the Chair. 

A Letter was read, addressed by Sir F. Mackenzie to the Secre- 
tary of the Society, and dated July 16 : it related to the breeding 
of some Woodcocks, Scolopax rusticola, Linn., at Conan on the 
eastern coast of Ross-shire, the estate of that gentleman. 

For several years past, two or three of these birds have occasion- 
ally been seen in the woods, and about five years since a couple 
were shot just before St. Swithin's-day : these were, however, old 
birds, and from their being covered with fat, it was evident that they 
had not nestled. The keeper, in fact, had never been able to find 
one of their nests or to see a young bird, until the present season. 
In two small woods near his house he this year discovered four 
Woodcocks nests, one having four, and the others three eggs each, 
all of which were hatched and ran. The young birds he repeatedly 
saw before they took wing ; and now five or six couple may every 
evening, towards dusk, be observed flying about the lodge as they 
pass to their feeding grounds. The old birds give notice of their 
approach by a sharp cry of ttvit -twit -twit, repeated as rapidly as pos- 
sible, and heard at three or four hundred yards distance ; while 
the young ones are less noisy and more flagging in the motion of 
their wings. Than the flight of the Woodcock before and after in- 
cubation, Sir F. Mackenzie states that he knows nothing more rapid, 
as for an hour or two about dusk he (probably the male, though 
two have been seen together pursuing each other) flies in large 
circles over the tops of the trees, uttering his sharp and piercing 
cry, a whistle which sportsmen may have occasionally heard weakly 
when cocks are first flushed in the back flight in March. Some- 
times his sudden flight will be arrested and changed into a sailing 
slowly, like a pouter Pigeon, his cry being at the same time varied 
to a purr or bleat resembling that of the Ptarmigan : then he will 
dart away with greater rapidity than a Pigeon in full flight, moving 
his wings, however, with a different action from that of the Pigeon, 
and with inconceivable rapidity. 

The soil where the nests were found is gravelly and rather dry ; 
the grass tolerably long, without underwood ; and the trees, oak, 
birch, and larch not exceeding thirty years' growth. The situation 
is warm, and not 150 feet above the level of the sea ; it is not far 
distant from the river. The woods are kept quiet, and several phea- 
sants' nests were hatched in their close vicinity. 

It is probable that the parent birds sought this spot for the pur- 
pose of breeding, as they must have arrived in the spring from 
other localities : for those who shot in the covers till February de- 
clare that they did not know of a single Woodcock being then left 
[No. XXL] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



134- 

in them ; and had there been two or three, the keeper must have 
been aware of it. 

The skeleton was exhibited of the Weasel. headed Armadillo, Da- 
sypus 6-cinctus, Linn. ; and Mr. Owen read the following Notes on 
the osteology of that species : — 

" After the minute and elaborate descriptions and comparisons 
of the skeletons of the Dasypodce, which have been given by the 
Baron Cuvier in the fifth volume of the * Ossemens Fossiles,' but 
little remains to be added on that subject. As, however, the ske- 
leton of the weasel-headed Armadillo, now before the Committee, has 
been prepared, with great care, from one of the adult specimens 
lately alive in the Society's Gardens, and as this species has been 
much more rarely subjected to anatomical examination than the 
nine-banded, a few observations on it may not be unacceptable. 

" The cranium presents the elongated conical form common to 
the Dasypodce, tapering gradually towards the nose, but it is shorter, 
broader and flatter than in Das. Peba. On the anterior part of the 
os Jrontis may be observed two broad but slightly raised emi- 
nences which occupy the whole breadth of the bone : they are 
most marked in the older subjects, where their smooth and shining 
surface presents a remarkable contrast to the rest of the cranium, 
which is sculptured by the perforations and canals of numerous 
vessels. On removing the thin layer of bone which formed the 
convexity of one of these eminences, I found the cavity beneath 
was principally a continuation of that of the cranium, and had 
lodged the olfactory ganglions. The rest of the cavity anteriorly 
was occupied by a very large and complicated turbinated process 
of the ethmoidal bone ; the cribriform plate of the same bone was 
observed to be of great extent, and the whole structure displayed 
the high degree in which this animal is endowed with the sense of 
smell. These eminences are described by Cuvier as being more 
developed in the Cabassou, Das. unicinctus, Gmel. They corre- 
spond in situation to those which render the os Jrontis of Chlamy- 
phorus so peculiar. 

" The number of vertebrce and the length of each division of the 
vertebral column are as follows : 

Length. 
No. Inches. Lines. 

Cervical 7 1 4 < 

Dorsal . . 11 4 

Lumbar 3 1 4 

Sacral 8 3 

Caudal 16 5 

" The cervical vertebra present the peculiarity observable in the 
other species of this tribe, that of being partially anchylosed to- 
gether. In this instance the axis and the 3rd and 4th vertebra; are 
so joined j the lines of division between the two former being indi- 
cated only by the lateral orifices for the nerves, which are two on 
each side. This anchylosis of the cervical vertebrce is also found, 



135 

as is well known, in the Cetacea ; and as in that order this firm 
connexion of the vertebrce assists materially in enabling the head 
to overcome the resistance of the dense fluid through which they 
perpetually move, so in the animals of this genus a like advantage 
may be derived from this structure during the act of displacing the 
denser material in which they excavate their retreats. The bodies 
of the 4-th, 5th, 6th, and 7th cervical vertebrce are in the form of 
transverse bars, the bony sheath of the spinal marrow being of 
equal thickness at every part, resembling in that respect the cer- 
vical vertebrce of the Mole, Talpa Europcea, Linn. ; they have, 
however, the transverse processes much larger than in that animal. 
In Das. Peba the 5th, 6th, and 7th cervical vertebrce have distinct 
spines, but these are deficient in the present specimen. 

" Cuvier assigns twelve as the number of the dorsal vertebrce in 
the Encoubert, but there were not more than eleven in this spe- 
cimen, as clearly appears from the number of the ribs, all of which 
have been carefully preserved : and indeed, the costal vertebrce are 
readily distinguishable from the lumbar by a well marked articular 
process on each side of the body, for the head of the rib j but the 
last cervical also participates in this character. The spines of the 
1st, 2nd, and 3rd dorsal vertebrce are the longest, and slope consi- 
derably backwards; the rest of the spines, together with those of 
the lumbar vertebra, also incline in the same direction, but in a less 
degree. 

" Every one who has seen the living Armadillo running about 
the open plot of ground in the Society's Gardens must have been 
struck with the machine-like manner in which the body is carried 
along. The short legs are almost concealed, and their motions are 
not accompanied by any corresponding inflections of the spine, the 
two extremities of the trunk not being alternately raised and de- 
pressed as in the quadrupeds which move by bounds. Hence there is 
no centre of motion in the vertebral column, or point towards 
which the spinous processes converge, but all these have a di- 
rection towards the sacrum. The relation which the structure of 
the vertebral Column bears to the mode of progression of a qua- 
druped is extremely interesting, and enables us to judge in some 
degree from the spine alone of the locomotive faculties of a fossil 
species. 

" There is another peculiarity to be noticed in the spine of Da- 
sypus, viz. the elongated form of the anterior articular processes, 
especially of the hinder dorsal and of the lumbar vertebrce : these 
project upwards, outwards and forwards, and like strutts or braces, 
assist in supporting the tegumentary mass which covers the body, 
and which may be not unaptly compared to a tiled roof. The spinal 
nerves pass out by foramina proper to each individual vertebra, and 
not in the interval of two. 

" The ribs are on each side eleven in number, and six of these are 
true. The sternal portions are completely ossified, as in Birds, and 
joined to the dorsal portions by a distinct articulation. The first pair 
are short, and remarkably broad, measuring 1 inch in length and 7| 



136 

lines in breadth : the rest increase in length to the seventh, and then 
again diminish. The external surfaces of the posterior ribs do not 
present the deep excavations observable in those of Das. Peba. The 
sternal portions of the first pair of ribs are anchylosed to the ver- 
tebral portions. The small processes that intervene between the 
manubrium and the sternal ends of the clavicles in the young animal, 
are afterwards anchylosed to the latter bone, and being joined to- 
gether form a part superadded to the manubrium. This part is evi- 
dently a rudimentary form of the Y-shaped bone placed anterior to 
the manubrium of the Ornithorhynchus, which Cuvier regards as ana- 
logous to the os furcatorium of birds j it thus affords an additional 
and very interesting example of the affinity of the Edentata to the 
Monotremata, and supplies a step which was wanting in tracing the 
recedence of the latter, in their remarkably constructed sternum, 
from the mammiferous to the oviparous type of the Vertebrata. The 
manubrium itself also presents a peculiarity observable in that of the 
Monotremata, viz., a mesial longitudinal ridge on the anterior sur- 
face. This appearance in the Ornithorhynchus is regarded by Cuvier 
as indicative of an original division in the bone itself, f Ossemens 
Fossiles,' v. pt. 1, p. 149 ; but I have examined the foetus of the nine- 
banded species, and find that ossification commences in the manu- 
brium by a single central nucleus, and not by two lateral depositions. 
The other bones of the sternum appear, on an anterior view, to be 
almost deficient, being wedge-shaped, with the apices anterior 5 their 
number is four, exclusive of the ensiform cartilage. 

"The pelvis in this skeleton presents all the peculiarities which 
have been so well described by Cuvier : the ilia are of a prismatic 
shape, not expanded as in Megatherium, but forming two short and 
thick props or supporters to the armour. At the posterior part of 
the pelvis the tuberosities of the ischia project in a similar manner, 
and form similar props. It is evident from the form of the pubis that 
only a small portion of what usually constitutes the symphysis is here 
joined to its fellow, viz. the anterior angle; and this approximation 
to the structure of Birds is rendered more evident in a nearly allied 
genus, Chlamyphorus, and in another edentate species, Myrmeco- 
phaga didactyla,, where the ossa pubis remain entirely separate. An 
equally remarkable instance of the correspondence of this part of the 
skeleton, — the pelvis, — with that of Birds, obtains in the great breadth 
of the posterior part of the sacrum, the angles of which are anchy- 
losed to the spines of the ischia, and convert the great ischiatic 
notches into complete foramina. The cavity of the pelvis is very wide, 
as may be inferred from the size of the young at the time of birth. The 
brim measures in the antero-posterior diameter 2 inches 3 lines ; in 
the lateral diameter 1 inch 3 lines: the outlet is of a triangular form, 
and measures in the antero-posterior diameter 1 inch 6 lines ; in 
the lateral diameter 1 inch 8 lines. The ischiatic foramen is of an 
oval form, 1 inch in the long, and \ inch in the short diameter. 

"The great size of the pelvis in this burrowing animal is the more 
remarkable when contrasted with the peculiarly diminutive dimen- 
sions, of the same part in the Mole-, in which it has been regarded as 



137 

one of the perfections of form, adapting that animal to its subterra- 
neous mode of life. In the Armadillo, however, the burrows serve 
only as temporary retreats ; for it is endowed with powers of rapid 
progression on the surface, and its organ of vision, though small, is 
accordingly perfect. Thus the pelvis is destined to afford attach- 
ment to numerous and powerful muscles, and the hind-legs are 
evidently of considerable use in clearing out the burrow, as may 
be inferred from the action of the Armadillo when he hides him- 
self in the straw, which he throws behind him with great force : 
whereas in the Mole, the whole power of digging is concentrated in 
the anterior extremities, the peculiar mechanism of which is admi- 
rably adapted to that act. 

" The caudal vertebrae, like the cervical, present in Dasypus a pe- 
culiarity which is also found in the Cetacea, viz. that of having infe- 
rior spines, or V-shaped bones. These are present beneath all but the 
two last vertebrce j they are of a triangular form, but are articulated, 
not by their bases, as in the Whale) but by their apices ; or rather the 
part which corresponds to the apex is flattened, and produced into 
two lateral processes. 

" With respect to the bones of the extremities, it may be remarked 
that the scapula is very concave towards the ribs, more so than in the 
nine-banded species ; and that besides the two spines, there is also a 
third ridge near the superior costa. Below the articular surface on 
the inferior costa there is also a little tubercle, which does not exist 
in Das. Peba. The supra-spinal notch is large, and the acromion 
long and narrow, but not anchylosed, as in the Sloth and Megathe- 
rium, to the coracoid. The length of the scapula, from the base to 
the articular surface, is 2 inches 1 line ; of the base, 2 inches j of the 
acromion, 1 1 lines. The clavicles in Das. 6-cinctus are slightly 
curved, and are shorter and stronger than in Das. Peba : their length 
is 1 \ inch. There is thus a correspondence between the clavicle 
and the rest of the anterior extremity, the claws being stronger, 
and the whole of the bones shorter and thicker than in Das. Peba. 
The humerus measures in length 2 inches 3-10ths : at the upper 
extremity are two large tuberosities and a deep middle groove j 
about the middle of the bone is a strong deltoid process : the bone 
is considerably twisted, and the inner condyle perforated as in most 
Edentata. The supinator ridge is strongly marked; the anconeal 
fossa large and shallow. 

" The ulna measures in length 2 inches 3-1 Oths ; it is a very strong 
bone, compressed, and arched backwards : the extremity of the ole- 
cranon is bent backwards in the form of a hook : the lower extre- 
mity has an equal share with the radius in the articulation with the 
carpal bones. The radius is in length 1 inch 4 lines. The large pal- 
mar sesamoid bone, formed at the expense of the tendons of the^exor 
profundus digitorum y is shaped like the head of a spade, with the 
concavity towards the carpus, and the sharp margin anterior : in length 
and breadth it measures half an inch. It is articulated by a distinct 
capsule and synovial membrane with the ossa pisiforme and cuneiforme 
on one side, and to the navicularc on the other. The^exor profundus 



138 

is in comparison to the flexor sublimis a very powerful muscle. The 
latter terminates only in two tendons, which are inserted into the 
first and second phalanges of the index and digitus medius, forming 
strong sheaths for the passage of the tendons of the profundus. This 
muscle arises by three distinct portions j one from the whole anterior 
part of the olecranon ; a second from the anterior part of the rest of 
the ulna, and from the interosseous ligament ; the third portion ap- 
pears to hold the place of flexor longus pollicis, and comes from the 
anterior part of the radius. The whole is inserted into the spade- 
shaped bone, beyond which tendons are continued to the extreme 
phalanges of all the fingers. 

"The greater length of the index finger depends on that of the 
first phalanx, which in all the other fingers is very short, and in the 
two external is a mere lamina of bone. This is a peculiarity found 
in most of the Edentata j so that in the Sloths, where the first 
phalanx is early anchylosed to the metacarpal bones, its existence 
was overlooked before the observations of Cuvier. The distal pha- 
langes of the second and third fingers are the largest ; at the lower 
part of them is the rudiment of the bony sheath supporting the claws. 
Besides the lever afforded by the palmar spade- shaped bone, there is 
a distinct sesamoid interposed between the last joints of each finger 
and the^e^or tendon. The length of the whole hand is 2 inches 4 
lines ; its breadth 10 lines. 

"There is scarcely any cervix to the femur, but immediately be- 
yond the head are the two trochanters, and a large middle process, 
analogous to the deltoid in the humerus. The length of the femur is 
2 inches 6 lines. The patella is oblong and narrow. The tibia and 
fibula are anchylosed at both extremities : the length of the tibia is 
2 inches ; the breadth of the interosseous space nearly 5 lines. 
The bones of the tarsus presented the same disposition as is de- 
scribed by Cuvier, and figured in PI. xi. fig. 1 8. of the work above 
quoted. The small supernumerary bone on the tibial side of the 
tarsus has the tendon of a small muscle inserted into it, which seems 
to be a fasciculus separated from the tibialis posticus ; the rest of the 
tibialis posticus is inserted as usual into the base of the internal cu- 
neiform bone. 

M The flexor longus digitorum pedis and the flexor longus pollicis 
pedis are united through nearly their whole extent. The common 
tendon, having reached the sole, expands and surrounds a sesamoid 
bone, smaller than, but analogous to, the spade-shaped sesamoid in 
the palm. Cuvier states th^t he had not observed this plantar sesa- 
moid in any Armadillo except the Cachicame, Das. Peba. The length 
of the whole foot is 2 inches 8 lines ; its breadth 1 inch." 



139 



August 14, 1832. 

William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Specimens were exhibited of the following Fishes collected on the 
coast of Madeira by the Rev. R. T. Lowe, and presented by him to 
the Society : 

Alepisaurus ferox, Lowe. 

Box Salpa, Cuv. & Val. 

Raja clavata, Linn. 

Torpedo marmorata, Risso. 

Rhombus Maderensis, Lowe. 

Caranx Cuv. 

Pagellus breviceps? Cuv. & Val. 

— Acarna, Cuv. & Val. 

At the request of the Chairman, the Rev. L. Jenyns exhibited an 
immature specimen of a second species of crested Wren, not hitherto 
recorded as having been met with in England j the Regulus ignica- 
pillus, Temm.' In its adult state this species is readily distinguishable 
from the more common one by the existence on each side of the face 
of three streaks, the upper and lower of which are white, and the inter- 
mediate one black, as well as by the patch on its head of a more deep 
and brilliant orange. In the immature state it may be distinguished 
by its somewhat smaller size j by its bill, which is much longer and 
is also broader at the base ; by its first quill-feather being somewhat 
longer ; and by the greater size, both in length and breadth, of its 
tail. The individual exhibited was killed by a cat at Swaffham in 
Cambridgeshire. . 

Mr. Jenyns also exhibited a specimen of Sorex remifer, Geoff., killed 
in a corn-field at the distance of half a mile from any water. Its 
chief interest was the confirmation afforded by it of the existence 
in England of this species, which has recently been added by Mr. 
Yarrell to the British Fauna on the authority of a specimen exhi- 
bited by him at a late Meeting of the Committee (p. 109). 

Specimens were exhibited of a species of Woodpecker, hitherto un- 
described, which had recently been obtained by Mr. Gould from that 
little-explored district of California which borders the territory of 
Mexico. The exhibition was accompanied by a communication from 
Mr. Gould, in which, after some general remarks on the PicicUe and 
their geographical distribution, he referred to the species before the 
Committee as possessing the characters of the genus Picus in their 
most marked development, together with the greatest size hitherto 
observed in that group. In this respect it as far exceeds the ivory- 



MO 

billed Woodpecker of the United States, Picas principalis, as the latter 
does the Pic. Martins of Europe. Mr. Gould described it as the 
Picus imprriams, Mas. Pic. ater, virescenti splendens ; cristd elon- 
gatd occipitali coccined ; maculd triangulari inter scapulari, remi- 
gibus secundariis, primariarumque (prater triurn quatuorve exle- 
riorum) rhachibus internis albis ; rostro eburneo. 
Foem. Paullo minor ; cristd occipitali cum corpore concolore. 
Longitudo maris, 2 ped. j alee (clausse), 1 ped. ; caudce, 10 unc. j 
tarsi, vix 2 uric, j digiti externi postici, eadem ac tarsi. Ungues 
validissimi, arcuati j Rostrum exacte cuneiforme, a rictu ad 
apicem 4 uric, long., ad basin 1 unc. latum. 
This species is readily distinguishable from the Pic. principalis by 
its much larger size j by the length of its occipital crest, the pendent 
silky feathers of which measure nearly 4 inches ; by the absence of 
the white stripe which ornaments the neck of that bird - } and by the 
bristles which cover its nostrils being black, whereas those of the Pic. 
principalis are white. 



141 



August 28, 1832. 
Dr. Marshall Hall in the Chair. 

Mr. Owen read the following Notes on the Anatomy of the Fla- 
mingo, Phamicopterus ruber, Linn.: they were derived from the ex- 
amination of an individual which died about three months since in 
the Society's Menagerie. 

" The anatomical differences observable in the groups of the 
Wading Birds are so considerable, that we find them generally alluded 
to by Cuvier in the characters of the families of the Grallatores in 
the '■ Regne Animal.' Where they are omitted, we may presume that 
the illustrious author had not had the opportunity of examining the 
internal structure of the birds in question, and that they either had 
not before been dissected, or that their anatomy had been described 
with too little exactness to warrant his giving it on the authority of 
previous writers. 

"This appears to have been the case with the three genera which 
he has placed at the end of the order, viz., Chionis, Forster, Glareola, 
Gmel., and Phcenicopterus, Linn. ; and these are the most interesting 
in an anatomical point of view, as being the representatives of as 
many distinct families. With respect to the Flamingo, we must sup- 
pose that an opportunity of dissecting it had never occurred to Cuvier, 
and probably the absence of any allusion to c&ca in Perrault's anato- 
mical description (Me'moires de l'Academie, t. iii., 3. P., p. 462.), 
may have influenced his silence regarding the internal structure of a 
bird which he considers as one of the most extraordinary and most 
isolated of its class. 

"The recent death of a male specimen which for a short time was 
living at the Society's Gardens, enables me to lay before the Committee 
some particulars respecting its anatomy which appear to throw light 
on its true affinities. 

"The peculiar forms of the beak and tongue have long attracted 
attention, and have been repeatedly described. Cuvier, in allusion to 
the small tooth-like lamince which are arranged along the margins of 
the upper mandible, points out the relation which in this particular 
the Flamingo bears to the Anatidce; and a like correspondence is 
observable in the rest of the alimentary canal. The horny den- 
ticles of the upper mandible, and the transverse marginal furrows of 
the lower mandible, form together a sort of filter, and, like the plates 
of Whalebone in the Balance, allow the superfluous moisture to drain 
away, while the small Mollusca and other littoral animalcula are de- 
tained and swallowed. The structure of the gullet is in accordance 
with the size of the substances which serve for nutriment. In the 
typical Grallatores, as Ardea and Ciconia, which swallow entire fish 
and other food, in large morsels, the oesophagus is remarkable for its 

[No. XXII.] Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



142 

great and uniform capacity ; but in Phoenicopterus it is not more than 
half an inch in diameter when dilated. At the lower part of the neck 
it expands into a considerable pouch, which measured in the specimen 
here described 3 inches in diameter, and 4J inches in length. In 
Perrault's specimen the diameter was only lj inch, and it was pro- 
bably in a state of contraction, as he describes it as furnished internally 
with many small longitudinal rugce. The circular fibres around this 
part were very distinct. Beyond this pouch the oesophagus again con- 
tracts to about 4 lines in diameter, and so continues for 3^inches, when 
it terminates in the proventriculus. This glandular cavity was 1 inch 
8 lines in length, and 5 lines in diameter : the gastric follicles were 
broad, short, and simple, and were arranged in two long oval groups, 
blending together at the edges. The proventriculus terminates in a 
small but- strong gizzard, of a flattened spheroidal form, measuring 
1 inch 5 lines in length, and the same in breadth ; the lateral muscles 
were each half an inch in thickness. The gizzard was lined with a 
moderately thick and yellow -coloured cuticle, disposed in longitudinal 
ridges, the extremities of which projecting into the pyloric aperture 
form a kind of valve, as in the gizzard of the Ostrich. In a Flamingo 
dissected by Col. Sykes, in which the duodenum was blocked up by 
two large tape~worms, the muscles of the gizzard were 1 inch in 
thickness. 

"The duodenal fold extended towards the left side 4 inches from 
the pylorus. This intestine was 4 inches in diameter. The pancreas > 
which occupied its common situation between the two portions of the 
fold, had a more complete peritoneal covering than usual. The in- 
testinal canal soon diminished in diameter to 3 and then to 2 lines. 
The small intestines formed an oval mass, and were disposed in twenty- 
one elliptical spiral convolutions, eleven descending towards the rectum 
and ten returning towards the gizzard in the interspaces of the pre- 
ceding ; a disposition analogous to that of the colon in Ruminants. 
The villi of the intestines were arranged in longitudinal zigzag lines. 
There were two cceca, each about 3^- inches in length and 5 inches in 
diameter. 

"The testes were about the size of grains of wheat, and were situated 
on the anterior part of the renal capsules. The latter bodies were 
about the size of hazel-nuts. Both these glands were of a bright 
yellow colour. The fat of this bird is of a remarkable orange tint. 

"The principal diseased appearances were in the lungs, which were 
filled with tubercles and vomicae. I was much struck with finding the" 
inner surface of the latter cavities, and that of most of the smaller ra- 
mifications of the bronchial tubes, covered over with a green vegetable 
mould or mucor. As the individual was examined within 24 hours 
after its death, it seemed reasonable to conclude this mucor had grown 
there during the life-time of the animal. Thus it would appear that 
internal parasites are not exclusively derived from the animal kingdom, 
but that there are Entophyta as well as Entozoa. 

"The tongue of the Flamingo is remarkable for its texture, mag- 
nitude and peculiar armature. It is almost cylindrical, but slightly 
flattened above, and obliquely truncate anteriorly, so as to correspond 



143 

with the form of the inferior mandible. The lower part of the trun- 
cated surface is produced in a pointed form, and is supported beneath 
by a small horny plate. The whole length of the tongue is 3 inches; 
its circumference 2± inches. Along the middle of the flattened su- 
perior surface there is a moderately deep and wide longitudinal furrow, 
on either side of which there are from twenty to twenty-five recurved 
spines, but of a soft and yielding horny texture, measuring from 1 to 3 
lines in length. These spines are arranged in an irregular alternate 
series : the outer ones being the smallest ; and these, indeed, may be 
considered a distinct row. At the posterior part of the tongue there are 
two groups of smaller recumbent spines directed towards the glottis. 
The substance of the tongue is not muscular, but is chiefly composed 
of an abundant yielding cellular substance with fat of an almost oily 
consistence. It is supported by a long and thin concave cartilage, 
articulated to the body of the os hyoides by a shallow ginglymoid joint, 
allowing of a free motion. Excepting the straight hyo-glossi, the 
muscles all terminate at the base of the tongue. The tendons of the 
former muscles run along the under part of the lingual cartilage, and 
expand to be inserted at its extremity, where a few fibres again 
proceed forwards to the extreme point of the tongue. 

"No Entozoa were met with in the specimen dissected by me: 
but Col. Sykes has been so obliging as to permit me to examine the 
tapeworms, before alluded to, which he found blocking up the duo- 
denum of the Flamingo dissected by him in Dukhun. 

" One of the specimens, together with a drawing of it, is now on the 
table. From the marginal disposition of the lemnisci and its general 
habit, it evidently appertains to the true Tcpnice, and from the struc- 
ture of the head ranks among the rostellate species with an armed 
proboscis. It does not accord with any of those described in the ■ Sy- 
nopsis Entozoorum ' of Rudolphi, and is of so peculiar a form that I 
feel no hesitation in characterizing it as follows. 

" Taenia lamelligera. Teen, incrassata, capite subgloboso ; rostello 
cylindrico obtuso ; collo nullo; articulis brevissimis, marginibus 
lateralibus dilatatis, rotundatis, utrinque parilm extantibus; super- 
Jicie utrdque lined longitudinali leviter impressd ; lemniscis latera- 
libus oppositis. 

"Longitudo corporis, 7 unc.j latitudo, 5 lin.j crassities, 1 lin. 

"The segments are extremely numerous and short: they gradually 
increase in breadth and thickness for about 3 inches from the head j 
as they approach the opposite end of the body they slightly diminish 
in breadth, while they increase a little in length, but retain the same 
thickness. Along the middle of both the plane surfaces of the body 
the segments are separated by shallow indentations, and it is only 
towards the posterior extremity that the segments appear to overlap 
each other from before backwards 3 but at the sides of the body the 
posterior margins of the segments project abruptly from the surface 
and form a series of semicircular ridges, commencing on both sides of 
the body about a line's distance from the margin. On both margins 
of each segment immediately anterior to these ridges there is a small 
pyramidal eminence, perforated at the apex, through which perforation 



144 

a cirrus is protruded. A very slight impressed line traverses longi- 
tudinally the middle of both surfaces of the body ; it is most distinct 
at the anterior half. Some of the segments at the posterior extremity 
of the body were partially separated from the rest and seemed about 
to be detached. In these alone were the traces of ova perceptible, 
which were extremely minute, and only apparent at the margins of 
the segments, near the base of the cirrus or lemniscus. From the 
thickness and opacity of the body, the nutrient vessels could not be 
detected. The joints or segments at the anterior part of the body 
were so short, that they resembled mere transverse rugce; at the pos- 
terior end of the body they did not exceed half a line in length. 

"The dilated margins of the segments, and the projecting cirri 
give this tape-worm a considerable resemblance to the Nereis lameU 
ligera of Pallas." 



145 



September II, 1832. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

Dr. Weatherhead communicated to the Committee several extracts 
from a letter which he had recently received from Lieutenant the 
Hon. Lauderdale Maule of the 39th Regiment, now in New South 
Wales. They referred to the habits and ceconomy of the Ornitho- 
rhynchi. 

" During the spring of 1 83 1 ," writes Lieut. Maule, " being detached 
in the interior of New South Wales, I was at some pains to discover 
the truths of the generally accepted belief, namely, that the female 
Platypus lays eggs and suckles its young. 

" By the care of a soldier of the 39th Regiment who was stationed 
at a post on the Fish River, a mountain stream abounding with Pla- 
typi, several nests of this shy and extraordinary animal were discoverd. 

"The Platypus burrows in the banks of rivers, choosing generally a 
spot where the water is deep and sluggish, and the bank precipitous 
and covered with reeds or overhung by trees. Considerably beneath 
the level of the stream's surface is the main entrance to a narrow pas- 
sage which leads directly into the bank, bearing away from the river 
(at a right angle to it) and gradually rising above its highest water- 
mark. At the distance of some few yards from the river's edge this 
passage branches into two others which, describing each a circular 
course to the right and left, unite again in the nest itself, which is a 
roomy excavation, lined with leaves and moss, and situated seldom more 
than twelve yards from the water, or less than two feet beneath the sur- 
face of the earth. Several of their nests were, with considerable labour 
and difficulty, discovered. No eggs were found in a perfect state, but 
pieces of a substance resembling egg-shell were picked out of the 
debris of the nest. In the insides of several female Platypi which 
were shot, eggs were found of the size of a large musket-ball and 
downwards, imperfectly formed however, i. e. without the hard outer 
shell, which prevented their preservation." 

In another part of his letter Mr. Maule states, that in one of the 
nests he was fortunate enough to secure an old female and two young. 
The female lived for about two weeks on worms and bread and milk, 
being abundantly supplied with water, and supported her young, as 
it was supposed, by similar means. She was killed by accident on 
the fourteenth day after her capture, and on skinning her while yet 
warm, it was observed that milk oozed through the fur on the stomach, 
although no teats were visiole on the most minute inspection : but on 
proceeding with the operation two teats or canals were discovered, 
both of which contained milk. 

The body of the individual last referred to (together with several 
others) has" been preserved in spirit to be transmitted to Dr. Weather- 



146 

head, who stated his intention of examining it anatomically on its 
arrival, and of laying before the Committee the result of his observa- 
tions on this interesting subject. 

It was remarked, that the existence of milk in the situation described 
by Lieut. Maule is fully confirmatory of the correctness of the de- 
ductions made by Mr. Owen from the minute dissection of several 
individuals (including one in the Society's collection presented by 
Capt. Mallard, R. N., Corr. Memb. Z. S.), that the glands discovered 
by M. Meckel are really mammary. This opinion, with the anato- 
mical reasons on which it was founded, have been lately laid by Mr. 
Owen before the Royal Society in a paper which will be published in 
the forthcoming Part of the Philosophical Transactions. Mr. Owen's 
dissections, however, though they established the existence of numerous 
minute tubes leading from the glands in question through the skin 
where it was covered by the wool, did not enable him to detect any 
canals so large as would appear to be indicated in Lieut. Maule's letter. 

A specimen was exhibited of a claw obtained from the tip of the 
tail of a young Lion from Barbary, recently presented to the Society's 
Menagerie by Sir Thomas Reade, His Majesty's Consul at Tripoli. 
It was detected on the living animal by Mr. Bennett, and pointed 
out to the keeper, in whose hands it came off while he was exa- 
mining it. 

Mr. Woods, to whom the specimen had been submitted for descrip- 
tion, communicated to the Committee an enlarged representation of 
it, with other illustrations of the subject, and gave a detailed account 
of previous observations bearing upon this curious formation. 

He commenced by referring to the writings of Homer, who re- 
marked (erroneously, however,) that the Lion when angry lashes his 
sides with his tail 3 a remark which was repeated by many of the 
ancient poets both Greek and Roman, and was carried by Lucan to 
a yet greater extent, when he stated that the Lion lashes himself into 
rage : Pliny also indicates his belief that by this means the animal 
increases the anger already kindled in him. None of these writers, 
however, advert to any peculiarity in the tail of the Lion to which so 
extraordinary a function might, however incorrectly, be attributed. 
The discovery of the existence of such a peculiarity was reserved for 
Didymus Alexandrinus, one of the early commentators on the Iliad, 
who found a black prickle, like a horn, among the hair of the tail, and 
immediately conjectured, it must be allowed with some degree of 
plausibility, that he had ascertained the true cause of the stimulus to 
the animal when he flourishes his tail in defiance of his enemies, for 
he remarks that when punctured by this prickle the Lion becomes 
more irritable from the pain which it occasions. 

For centuries after this announcement the Lion's tail and its mys- 
terious prickle were consigned to oblivion, the discovery of the learned 
commentator being either unnoticed, or disregarded, or doubted, until 
about twenty years since, when M.Blumenbach, in his 'Miscellaneous 
Notices in Natural History,' revived the subject, having verified the 
accuracy as to the fact, though not admitting the induction, of Didy- 



147 

mus Alexandrinus. He describes a small dark-coloured prickle in 
the very tip of the Lion's tail, as hard as a piece of horn, surrounded 
at its base by an annular fold of the skin, and adhering firmly to a 
singular follicle of a glandular appearance. All these parts were 
however, he remarks, so minute, and the little horny apex so buried 
in the tuft of hair, that the use attributed to it by the ancient scholi- 
ast cannot be regarded as any thing else than imaginary. Blumen- 
bach's description was accompanied by a figure, which was copied in 
the ' Edinburgh Philosophical Journal/ in the 8th volume of which a 
translation of his paper was given. 

The subject appears to have again slumbered until 1829, when M. 
Deshayes announced; in the 'Annates des Sciences Naturelles' (vol. 
vii.p. 79), that he had found the prickle on both a Lion and Lioness 
which died in the national Menagerie of France. It was described by 
him as a little nail or horny production, about two lines in length, 
presenting the form of a small cone, a little recurved upon itself, and 
adhering by its base only to the skin and not to the last caudal ver- 
tebra, from which it was separated by a space of 2 or 3 lines. 

From the period when M. Deshayes' discovery was announced Mr. 
Woods has suffered no opportunity to escape him of examining the 
tails of every Lion, living or dead, to which he could gain access ; but 
in no instance has he succeeded in ascertaining the existence of such 
an organ $ nor had he ever observed it until the specimen now before 
the Committee was placed in his hands, within half an hour after its 
removal from the living animal, and while yet soft at its base where 
it had been attached to the skin. 

It is formed of corneous matter like an ordinary nail, and is solid 
throughout the greater part of its length towards the apex, where it 
is sharp ; at the other extremity it is hollow and a little expanded. 
Its shape is rather singular, being nearly straight for one third of its 
length, then slightly constricted, (forming a very obtuse angle at the 
point of constriction,) and afterwards swelling out like the bulb of a 
bristle to its termination. It is laterally flattened throughout its 
entire length, which does not amount to quite 4ths of an inch. Its 
colour is that of horn, but becoming darker, nearly to blackness at 
the tip. Its appearance would lead to the belief that it was deeply 
inserted into the skin, with which, however, from the readiness 
with which it became detached, its connexion must have been very 
slight. The slightness of its adhesion is noticed by M. Deshayes, 
who attributes to this its usual absence in stuffed specimens. The 
same cause will account for its absence in by far the greater number 
of living individuals ; for, as Mr. Woods remarks, its presence or 
absence does not depend upon age, as the Lions at Paris in which 
it was found were of considerable size, while that belonging to the 
Society is very small and young ; nor upon sex, for although it is 
wanting in the female cub of the same litter at the Society's Gardens, 
it existed in the Lioness at the Jardin du Hoi. 

Mr. Woods, considering it probable that a similar structure might 
exist in other species of Felis, had previously examined the tails of 
nearly the whole of the stuffed skins in the Society's Museum, but failed 



148 

in detecting it in every instance but one. This was in an adult Asiatic 
Leopard, in which the nail was evident although extremely small. It 
was short and straight, and perfectly conical, with a broad base. It is 
stated in a note in the f Edinburgh Philosophical Journal,' that a claw or 
prickle had also been observed by the editor of that work on the tail of a 
Leopard. No such structure was however detected on a livingindividual 
in the Society's Menagerie. In the Leopard, therefore, as in the Lion, 
it appears to be only occasionally present. In both it is seated at the 
extreme tip of the tail, and is altogether unconnected with the termi- 
nal caudal vertebra. From the narrowness and shape of its base, the 
circumference of which is by far too small to allow of its being fitted 
like a cap upon the end of the tail, it appears rather to be inserted 
into the skin, like the bulb of a bristle or vibrissa, than to adhere to 
it by the margin as described by M. Deshayes. Neither the pub- 
lished observations of that zoologist nor the present discovery, can 
throw any light on the existence or structure of the supposed glan- 
dular follicle noticed by Blumenbach. 

Mr. Woods concluded his communication by remarking, that it 
is difficult to conjecture for what purpose these minute claws are 
developed in so strange a situation, that of stimulating the animals 
to anger being of course out of the question. It is at least evident, 
he observes, that they can fulfil no very important design in the 
animal oeconomy, from their smallness, their variable form, their com- 
plete envelopement in the fur, and especially from the readiness with 
which they are detached and consequently the majority of individuals 
deprived of them for the remainder of their lives. 



149 



September 25, and October 9, 1832. 

William Yarrell, and Joseph Cox Cox, Esqrs., in the Chair. 

Colonel Sykes resumed the exhibition of the collection of Birds 
formed by him in Dukhun. On previous evenings he had brought 
under the notice of tlie Committee the Raptores and Insessores 
(page 77) ; and on the present he submitted the remaining orders in 
the series adopted in the following 

Catalogue of Birds (systematically arranged) of the Rasorial, Gral- 
latorial, and Natatorial Orders, observed in the Dukhun by Lieut. 
Colonel W. H. Sykes, Bombay Army, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c.&c. 

Order III. RASORES, III. 
Fam. Columbidce, Leach. — Genus Ptilinopus, Swains. 

138. Ptilinopus Elphinstonii. Ptil. s>upra fusco-brunneus ; cor- 

pore infra, capite, colloque cinereis ; cervice nigro, plumis ad 
apices guttd albd notatis; interscapulio rubineo ; collo pectoreque 
smaragdino, uropygio cinereo, niteniibus ; remigum 2dce, 3tice, 
Atce el 5 tee pogoniis externis excavatis. 

Irides ochraceo-flavae. Longitudo corporis 10 n Vunc, caudce 
5 T V- 
This very fine bird, forming a link between the Pigeons proper and 
Vinago, has quite the figure and air of Ptilinopus porphyreus, 
figured in Stephens, vol. 14. {Columba porphyrea, Reinw.,Temm., 
PI. Col. 106.), but is much larger : it is a rare bird in Dukhun, 
and met with only in the dense woods of the Ghauts. Not gre- 
garious. Stony fruit found in the stomach. Sexes alike. Flight 
very rapid. The lateral skin of the toes is very much deve- 
loped. 

Genus Columba, Auct. Pigeon. 

139. Columba Meena. Col. capite, collo, interscapulio, gastrceoque 

saturate vinaceis, venire dilutiore ; crisso, caudaque tegminibus 
inferioribus apiceque albis ; tergo uropygioque ardosiaceis; 
tegminibus caudce superioribus ad apices vinaceis ; scapularibus 
alarumque tegminibus nigris, castaneo late marginatis ; remigi- 
bus cauddque fusco-brunneis, illis castaneo marginatis ; tegmi- 
nibus alarum inferioribus cinereis ; collo utrinque nigro macu- 
lato, plumis cazrulescenti-albido ad apices marginatis. 

Fcem. Crisso dilute vinaceo ; tegminibus caudce inferioribus pallide 
cinereis ; rectricibus 4 intermediis albo hand terminatis. 
Irides aurantiaca;. Rostrum pedesque flavescentes. Longitudo 

corporis 8 unc, caudce 5-rV« 
Brown and Chestnut Dove. Hhulgah of the Mahrattas. 
This species might be mistaken for the European Col. Turtur, but 

on comparison is found to differ in the whole head, neck, shoul- 
[No. XXlil.j Zool. Soc. Proceedings of the Comm.of Science. 



1.50 

ders, breast and belly being richer vinaceous j in the back and 
rump being ash, and vent and under tail-coverts in the female 
light cinereous j in the four upper tail-feathers in the female 
being red brown without white tips ; in the upper tail-coverts 
being tipped with faint chestnut ; in the forehead and chin not 
being dull white ; in orange irides instead of yellow j and finally 
in its greater size. Gregarious, found only in the woods of the 
Ghauts. Webs of 2nd and 3rd quills narrowed as in the Ptili~ 
nopus. 

140. Columba tigrina, Temm., Pig. PI. 43. Sural Turtle. 
M.Temminck's figure does not sufficiently develope the dove coloured 

or ochrey tips to the feathers of the back and wing-coverts, and 
the tips of the centre feathers of the tail are coloured reddish 
instead of being white. A remarkable feature in this bird is un- 
noticed in the description of it, namely, the elongated and 
subulated tail ; unlike the last or most other species of Dove, in- 
stead of widening towards the tip, it is widest at the base when 
closed, and gradually narrows to the extremity ; in fact, each 
feather is subulate. Irides lake colour or pinkish red. Sexes 
exactly alike. Found on the skirts of the woods in the Ghauts. 
Length, inclusive of tail, 12 inches : tail 5 inches. 

141. Columba humilis, Temm., PI. Col. 258 et 259. Colombe terrestre. 
M. Temminck says that this bird u vit habituellement a terre," 

but from long observation Colonel Sykes can testify that this 
supposed habit is no more characteristic of this species than of any 
other Dove in his possession. Gregarious j not an inhabitant of 
the woods, but affecting mangoe-tree groves in the neighbour- 
hood of cultivation. Length, inclusive of tail, 9 ,V inches : 
tail 3-iV Tail, as in the last species, narrower at the extremity 
than at the base when closed. 

1 42. Columba risoria, Linn. La Tourterelle a collier du Senegal, Buff., 
Ois. 2, 550 & 553. pi. 26. PI. Enl. 161 & 244. Le Vaill., Ois. 
d'Afr. 6. pi. 268. 

Length, inclusive of tail, 13, s o- inches : tail 5 inches. Grega- 
rious, and common in the open country. Sexes alike. In spite 
of the proverbial gentleness of the Dove, Colonel Sykes has 
seen these birds fighting with the most inveterate hostility ; 
seizing each other by the bill and rolling upon the ground to- 
gether. Outer webs of 2nd, 3rd and 4th quill-feathers hollowed. 

143. Columba Cambayensis, Lath., Ind. Orn. 2. sp. 56. Temm., Pig. 
PI. 45. 

Colonel Sykes's bird is identical with the species figured in M. 
Temminck's plate, but it does not correspond with the descrip- 
tion of the Col. Cambayensis of Shaw, vol. 1 1 . p. 79. This 
species is distinguished from all other Doves with which Colonel 
Sykes has met, by the square red spots on the black patches on 
the side of the neck. Sexes alike. Frequents gardens and stable- 
yards. Length, inclusive of tail, 1 1 A inches : tail5-,V inches. 

144. Columba CEnas, Linn. Stork Pigeon. Parwa of the Mahrattas. 
The most common bird in the Dukhun, congregating in flocks of 



151 

scores, and a constant inhabitant of every old dilapidated build- 
ing. Colonel Sykes saw the same species on board ship on the 
voyage to England, brought from China, hides orange. Sexes 
alike. Length, inclusive of tail, 14 ,V inches : tail 4-fV inches. 
The Dukhun bird differs from the European species in the bill 
being black instead of pale red, in the utter want of white or 
black in the quills, the want of white in the tail-feathers, and 
in the legs being brown instead of black. As these differences 
are permanent, they might justify a specific name being ap- 
plied to the Dukhun Pigeon. 

Fam. Phasiariidee, Vigors. — Genus Meleagris, Linn. Turkey. 

145. Meleagris Gallopavo, Linn. 

The Turkey is met with only in the domestic state : it is reared in 
great numbers by the Portuguese. 

Genus Pavo, Auct. 

146. Pavo cristatus, Linn. Peafowl. Mohr of the Mahrattas. 
The wild Peafowl is abundant in the dense woods of the Ghauts : 

it is readily domesticated, and many Hindoo temples in the 
Dukhun have considerable flocks of them. On a comparison 
with the bird as domesticated in Europe, the latter is found, 
both male and female, to be absolutely identical with the wild 
bird of India. Irides intense red brown. 

Genus Gallus, Briss. 

147. Gallus giganteus, Temm., Gall. Ind. 633. 

Known by the name of the Kulm Cock by Europeans in India. 
Met with only as a domestic bird ; and Colonel Sykes has reason 
to believe that it is not a native of India, but has been intro- 
duced by the Mussulmans from Sumatra or Java. The iris of 
the real game bird should be whitish, or straw-yellow. Colonel 
Sykes landed two cocks and a hen in England in June 1831 : 
they bore the winter well. The hen laid freely, and has reared 
two broods of chickens. The cock has not the shrill clear pipe 
of the domestic bird, and his scale of notes appears more limited. 
A cock in the possession of Colonel Sykes stood 26 inches high 
to the crown of the head, but they attain a greater height. 
Length from the tip of the bill to the insertion of the tail 23 
inches. Hen one third smaller than the male. Shaw very justly 
describes the habit of the cock, of resting, when tired, on the first 
joint of the leg. 

148. Gallus Sonneratii, Temm., Gall. Ind. 659. Jungle Cock, Rahn 

Komrah of the Mahrattas. 
Very abundant in the woods of the western Ghauts, where there 
are either two species or two very strongly marked varieties. 
In the valleys at 2000 feet above the sea, Sonnerat's species is 
found, slender, standing high on the legs, and with the yellow 
cartilaginous spots on the feathers even in the female. In the 
belts of wood on the sides of the mountains, at 4000 feet above 
the sea, there is a short-legged variety j the male has a great 



152 

deal of red in his plumage, which Sonnerat's has not ; the fe- 
male is of a reddish brown colour, and is without cartilagi- 
nous spots at all : in fact, the female of this variety is the 
Gall. Stanleyii of Mr. Gray's f Illustrations*. Eggs exactly like 
those of the domestic fowl in form and colour, but less in size. , 
The wild hen would appear to sit on a much smaller number of 
eggs than the domestic, as Colonel Sykes shot a hen upon her 
nest in which were only three eggs, and the process of incu- 
bation had evidently commenced some days. \n the craw and 
stomach of many birds nothing whatever was found, excepting 
the seeds of a stone- like hardness called Job's tears (Coix bar- 
bata). Irides brownish deep orange. The crow or call of this 
species is like that of the Bantam Cock. 

149. Gallus domesticus, Ray. Pltasianus Gallvs cristaius, Linn. 
The domestic fowl is so abundant in the Dukhun, that in parts of 

the country not much frequented by Europeans, Colonel Sykes 
has bought from eight to twelve full-grown fowls for two shil- 
lings. Many of the hens, particularly of the villages in the 
Ghauts, are not to be distinguished from the wild bird, except- 
ing only in the want of the cartilaginous spot on the wing- 
coverts. 

150. Gallus Mono, Temm., Gall. Ind. 660. Briss., Orn. 1. 174. 
This supposed species very frequently occurs accidentally in the 

Dukhun. Although unsightly, the black fowl is very sweet 
eating. 

151. Gallus crispus, Temm., Gall. Ind. 661. Briss. Orn. 1. 173. 

pi. 17. 
Occurs accidentally like the last variety. 

Genus Numida, Linn. Pintado. 

152. Numida Meleagris, Linn. Guinea Fowl. 

Met with only in the domestic state, and bred almost exclusively 
by European gentlemen. Thrives as well as in its native coun- 
try. 

Fam. Tetraonidce, Leach. — Genus Coturnix;, Cuv. 

153. Coturnix dactylisonans , Temm., Gall. Ind. 740. Tetrao Co- 

turnix, Linn., Syst. Nat. I. 278, 20. Lohah of the Mahrattas. 

Large Grey Quail. 
Rare in the Dukhun, and found only in pairs in tufts of grass near 
water-courses and ponds. Resembles the Quail of Europe in 
size and plumage : the irides are dusky red or reddish brown, 
like those of the European bird, which by mistake are described 
in Shaw as yellow. Female a little larger than male : one fe- 
male measured 8 inches, inclusive of tail of 2 inches, but this 
was a large bird. Period of incubation in the monsoon. 

154. Coturnix textilis, Steph., 1 1 . 365. Perdix textilis, Temm., PI. 35. 

Perdix Coromandelica, Lath., Ind. Orn. 2. 654. 38. Black 
speckled-breasted Quail, 
hides dusky red. Length 6 T V inches, inclusive of tail of 1 .vinch. 



153 

In pairs in the monsoon; gregarious the rest of the year. Very 
abundant in Jowaree fields, (Andropogon Sorghum). 

155. Coturnix Argoondah. Cot. supra rufescenii-brunnea, fasciis 

angustis dilute ferrugineis notata ; infra sordide alba, fasciis 
equidistantibus nigris ; fronte mentoque ferrugineis ; sirigd 
super ciliari rufescenti-albidd. 
Fcem. Fasciis magis obscuris. 

Irides fusco-rubrae. Rostrum nigrum. Longitudo corporis 
5 unc, caudce 1 ,V- 
Always gregarious j frequenting only rocky places, or amidst low 
bushes. The covey rises with a startling whirl. Flight very 
short. Pugnacious, and used by the natives for combat. 

156. Coturnix Pentah. Cot. suprct saiurate brunnea ; infra rufes- 

centi-albida nigro fascia ta ; ventre crissoque albido-ferrugineis ; 
interscapulio scapularibusque nigro maculatis, plumarum rha- 
chibus dilute Jtavis ; remigibus brunneis pallide ferrugineo 
maculatis ; strigd superciliari sordide albd ; mento rufescente. 
Fcem. Infra rufescens, haud fasciata ; plumarum rhachibus albis. 
Irides ochraceo-brunnese. Rostrum rufescenti-brunneum.- 
Pedes flavescentes. Longitudo corporis 5-tV unc, caudce 

1 T V. . 
Has the habits and somewhat the appearance of the last species, 
but is found only on the most elevated table-lands and slopes 
of the mountains, amidst reeds and grass. Colonel Sykes's 
specimens were shot at 4000 feet above the sea. 

157. Coturnix erythroriiyncha. Cot. supra, saturate brunnea, infrti 

dilute castanea, nigro {prater ventrem medium) undequaque gut- 
tata maculataque, scapularium maculis maximis, pectoris guttis 
minimis ; scapularium tegminumque alarum superiorum albofas- 
ciatarum rhachibus albis, crucem eformantibus; remigum pogoniis 
externis rufescenti fasciatis maculatisque ; fronte nigro ; strigd 
frontali utrinque supra oculum productd guldque albis. 

Foem. Fronte, strigd inde ad utrumque latus ductd, guldque 
dilute casta neis. 

Irides obscure flavo-ochiaceae. Rostrum rubrum. Longitudo 
corporis 5 unc, caudte 1-,V 
Colonel Sykes has found this very handsome bird only in the 

valley of Karleh, where it frequents the same ground as the 

black Partridge {Perdix picta). Gregarious and abundant. 

In closing his notices of the Quails, Colonel Sykes mentioned that 

grass seeds constitute their principal food. 

Genus Perdix, Briss. Partridge. 

158. Perdix picta, Jard. & Selby, PI. 150. 

This is called the black Partridge in Dukhun, by Europeans. It 
affects uncultivated tracts in the country, covered with tufts of 
rank grass and low bushes, where it is abundant. Colonel 
Sykes has never met with it in gardens. The call of the male 
is a kind of broken crow. Sexes exactly alike. Irides reddish 
dark brown. Length, inclusive of tail, 10 inches : tail 2 X S inches. 
Does not roost on trees. 



15* 

Genus Francolinus, Steph. Francolin. 

159. Francolinus Ponticerianus, Steph., 11. 321. Perdix Ponticeri- 

ana, Lath., Ind. Orn. 2. 649. 18. Temm., PI. Col. 213. 

Ferruginous and Grey Francolhi. Teetur of the Mahrattas. 
Called a partridge in the Dukhun, where it is one of the most 
common birds, frequenting gardens and cultivated lands. 
bides intense red brown. Length, inclusive of tail, 14 inches : 
tail 3^o- inches. Not met with in the Ghauts, unless in well cul- 
tivated valleys, and not at all on the mountains. Roosts on 
trees -, and Colonel Sykes has on more than one occasion shot 
them on trees during the daytime ; but this is a rare occurrence. 

160. Francolinus spadiceus. Franc, castaneus, supra fusco tinctus, 

plumarum marginibus dilutioribus ; capite, collo, venire, crisso, 
tegminibusque caudce inferioribus fusco-brunneis ; vertice ni- 
grescenti-brunneo ; plumarum ventris crissique rhachibus elon- 
gatis, acutis. 
Fcem. Supra nigro castaneoque varius ; pectoris abdominisque 

plumis castaneis ad apices lunuld laid nigra notatis. 
Pullus. Fusco-ferrugineus, vittis tribus dorsalibus latis, inter- 
medid saturate rufo-brunned, lateralibus flavescenti-albidis. 
Irides rufo-brunnese. Rostrum pedesque rufescenti-cornei. 
Longitudo corporis 9 T V unc, caudce 5. 
Perdix spadicea, Lath., Ind. Orn. 2. 644. 4. Temm., Gall. Ind. 
719. Tetrao spadiceus, Gmel., Syst. Nat. 1 . 759. 29. Le 
Perdrix rouge de Madagascar, Sonn., Voy. Ind. 2. 1 69. Fran- 
colin spadice, Temm., Pig. et Gall. 3. 315. Koku-tree of the 
Mahrattas. 
The male only of this bird, which is very common in the thick 
brushwood of the Ghauts, appears to have been known to the 
writers quoted. Colonel Sykes has had both sexes alive in his 
possession for some time, and has no doubt they might be suc- 
cessfully introduced into Europe. They are excellent eating. 
Rarely take to wing or perch. Male has a harsh call of three 
syllables, Kot-kut-ree, whence the Mahratta name ; female in 
confinement uttered little notes like the twittering of a chicken. 
A male in Col. Sykes's collection has three large spurs on one 
leg, and two on the other. 

Genus Pier odes, Temm. Ganga. 

161. Pteroclesexustus, Temm., PI. Col. 354 & 360. Rock Pigeon of 

Europeans in the Dukhun. 

A very common bird in the Dukhun ; gregarious ; frequenting 
open stony plains only. Characterized by the height at which 
it flies, the rapidity of its flight, and its peculiar and piercing 
note announcing its approach ere it can be well seen. It feeds 
on a quadrangular hard small seed, which Colonel Sykes has 
found in the stomach of only one other bird. 

Irides reddish brown. Sexes of the same size. The male has two 
of the tail-feathers linear and elongated, which h not the case with 
the female. Male, inclusive of tail, 14 x 2 a inches : tail 5 inches. 






155 

162. Pterocles quadricinctus, Temm., Gall. 3. 252. Painted Rock 

Pigeon of the Dukhun. 
Hare, and met with only in pairs, on open ground at the foot of 
hills, hides reddish brown. Sexes of the same size. Length, 
inclusive of tail, 1 34- inches : tail 3 inches. 

Genus Hemipodius. 

163. Hemipodius pugnax, Temm., PI. Col. 60. fig. 2. 

Common in the Dukhun, and called the Bustard Quail by Eu- 
ropeans. Its reputed pugnacious qualities are not known. 
Solitary or in pairs, and mostly found in Chillee fields {Cap- 
sicum annuum). hides light yellow. Length, inclusive of tail, 
7 X V inches: tail 1 ,v inch. Habits, tongue and internal or- 
ganization of Coturnix textiUs. M. Temminck describes the fe- 
male as differing in plumage from the male ; but in Colonel 
Sykes's specimens the sexes are exactly alike. 

164. Hemipodius Taigoou. Hern, supra castaneus, plumis stramineo 

marginatis, nigroque undulatim fasciatis ; tegminibus alarum 
stramineis nigro fasciatis ; rem'i gibus fuscis ; mento guldque 
albis ; pectore nigro alboquefasciato ,• ventre crissoque dilute 
ferrugineis. 

hides pallide flavse. Rostrum nigrescens. Longitudo cor- 
poris 4 T V una, cauda I-jV 
Closely resembles the female of Hem. pugnax as described by M. 
Temminck, but the bill is longer and more slender, and Colonel 
Sykes has specimens of both sexes. Sexes alike. 

165. Hemipodius Dussumier, Temm., PI. Col. Called the Button Quail 

by Europeans. 
Colonel Sykes never met with this bird otherwise than solitary : 
frequents thick grass or pulse fields, and sits so close as to ex- 
pose itself to be trod upon. Flight so abrupt and short, that 
ere the gun is well up to the shoulder, the bird is down again. 
hides straw-yellow. Length, inclusive of tail, 5-/V inches : tail 
1 T V inches. 

Fam. Struthionid<e } Vigors. — Genus Otis, Linn. Bustard. 

166. Otis nigriceps, Gould's Cent. Himal. Birds. 

This noble bird is so common in the Dukhun, that one gentleman 
has shot nearly a thousand. Gregarious. Egg, a perfect 
oval, brown olive, with obscure blotches of darker brown olive. 
Length 3-rV inches, diameter 2 T % inches. One only found in 
a hole in the earth on the open plain, and that considerably ad- 
vanced in the process of incubation, hides deep brown. Length, 
male, inclusive of tail, 56£ inches: tail 13 \ inches. Female \\\ 
inches, inclusive of tail of 10| inches. Male supplied with the 
remarkable gular pouch common to the Otis tarda. 

167. Otis fulva. Ot. supra cacaotico-brunnea, plumis Julvo mar- 

ginatis variegatisque ; tegminibus alarum, collo, pectoreque 
Jitlvis, punctis lineisve brunneis parti notatis ; ventre^ uropijgio, 
Jemorious, tegminibusque caud<% injerioribus Julvo -albis ; teg- 



156 

minibus alarum inferioribus lateribusque cacaotico-nigris ; 
caudd fulvd fasciis quatuor cacaotico-brunneis notatd ; mento 
gulaque albis; vertice brunneo, strigd medid longitudinali albd. 
Irides rufescenti-lutescentes, radiis a pupilla pallide lutes- 
centibus. Pedes flavescentes. Longitudo corporis^, 15 \ 
unc, caudce 3 T 4 o- : corporis*}, 17A> caudce 3yV. 

The wings are of unequal length in the sexes ; and the quills are 
singularly acuminated. 
Col. Sykes gives the following detailed description of the Otis fulva : 

Forehead, crown, back, scapulars, and first three quills rich cho- 
colate brown - } feathers of the back and scapulars triangular 
at the point, edged with fulvous, and barred in the centre and 
near the base with a broad bar of fulvous mottled with choco- 
late. Round the eyes, a streak down the centre of the 
crown, whole neck, breast, wing-coverts, and tail buff or 
fulvous ; the back neck closely speckled with minute dots of 
brown. On the wing-coverts a few scattered lines and specks 
of brown. Tail with 4? distant fuscous bars, the intermediate 
spaces beautifully barred with flexuose lines of fuscous. The 
fourth and following quills and secondaries marked like the 
tail. Two irregular fuscous streaks down the fore neck. Breast 
fulvous, with a few faint lines and spots of brown. Belly, vent, 
under tail -coverts, and thighs yellowish white. Under wing- 
coverts and sides of the body fine chocolate brown. Occa- 
sionally a feather is tipped with white on the wing-coverts. 
Upper mandible fuscous, lower yellowish. Chin and throat 
white extending up towards the ears. Sexes exactly alike in 
plumage. The down at the base of all the feathers pink. Pri- 
mary quills singularly acuminated, particularly in the male, 
terminating in a point as fine as that of a needle ; less so in the 
female, and the wings of the latter are from one to two inches 
longer than those of the male. This difference is constant. 

Col. Sykes stated that his description was' written from eight 
specimens lying before him, and that he had transmitted three 
similar to the India House. 

Some of Col. Sykes's sporting friends in India having expressed 
a belief that the. Otis 'fulva was the female of the black Floriken 
of the Dukhun, (a comparatively rare bird, the Otis fulva 
being common,) he was induced to pay particular attention to 
the organs of sex, and never found the testes and ova otherwise 
than fully developed. If therefore it be referable as an imma- 
ture bird to a known species, (Otis Bengalensis, Otis aurita, or 
Otis Indica,) it appears in the Dukhun in hundreds, with all 
the indications of puberty, at a time when the supposed pa- 
rents are rarely, if at all, to be met with. Col. Sykes's birds 
are identical with a specimen laid before the Society by Major 
Franklin on the 9th of August 1831, under the name of Otis 
Indica ; Major Franklin at the same time expressing doubts 
of it being the tohite-chinned Bustard of Dr. Latham. The 
description of the Otis Indica has only two features common 



157 

to the Otis Julva, u chin white," and " under parts dusky yel- 
lowish cream colour ;" as they differ in all other particulars, the 
birds cannot be identical; and a reference to a figure of the 
Otis Indica, which is only to be met with in J. H.Miller, con- 
firms the impression. Col. Sykes believes with Major Franklin 
that the present species has been usually mistaken for the fe- 
male of Otis aurita. — A correspondent in the Magazine of 
Natural History, No. 16, for November 1830, under the sig- 
nature of *' A Subscriber," page 517, confirms Col. Sykes's 
opinion, stating that the Churj or ockreous Floriken (small Bus- 
tard of India) is not the Otis Indica {white -chinned Bustard), 
nor the Otis Bengalensis, nor the black Floriken ( Otis aurita) 
or Leek of Hindostan. 
Col. Sykes stated the food of the Otis nigriceps and the Otis Julva 
to be almost exclusively grasshoppers; and he pointed out the 
absence of a gizzard (the stomach being simple), combined 
with the remarkable shortness of the intestinal canal, scarcely 
exceeding the length of the body, as distinguishing these birds 
from all others that had come under his observation. 

Order IV. GRALLATORES, III. 

Fam. Gruidce, Vigors. — Genus Grus, Pallas. Crane. 

168. Grus Antigone, Steph., 11. 531. Grus orientalis Indica, 

Briss., Orn. 5. 378. 7. Kullum of the Mahrattas. 
Appear in flocks of hundreds in Dukhun during the cold season. 

Fam. Ardeida, Leach. — Genus Ardea, Auct. 
Section A. Tarsi long. 

169. Ardea Egretta, Gmel., 1.629. Ardea Torr a, Buch. Franklin, 

Zool. Proceedings. La Grand Egrette, Buff., Ois. 7. 377. 

PI. Enl. 925. La7ge white Heron with yellow bill. 
Length, inclusive of tail, 35 to 36 inches : tail 5 A inches. 
Length of the European bird 4*2 inches. Irides bright yellow. 
Solitary. 

170. Ardea Garzetta, Linn., 1. 937. IJ Aigrette, Buff., Ois. 7. 372. 

PI. Enl. 901. Little Egret Heron. 
Length, inclusive of tail, 24 to 25 inches : tail 4 inches. Length 

of the European bird 24 inches. Irides light yellow. 
Gregarious. Toes, as in the European bird, yellowish green or 
apple green, exhibiting a curious contrast to the greenish black 
of the legs. 
171 Ardea Asha. Ard. supra ardosiacea, aorso brunnescente ; 
mento, guld, lined longitudinali jugulari, corpore subtiis, teg- 
minibusque caudce inferior ibus albissimis ; tegminibus alarum 
tertiariis albo anguste ynarginatis. < 

IriSes dilute flavae. Rostrum corneum. Tarsi virescenti- 

nigri. Longitudo corporis 20\ unc, caudaz 3|. 
Slate-coloured Heron. 
A very rare bird in Dukhun. Has a good deal the aspect of 



158 

Ard. Nova Hollandice, and several points of resemblance to 
Ard. gularis, Ard. jugularis, and the young of Ard. coerulea ; 
but differs from all. 

172. Ardea cinerea, Lath., Ind. Orn. 2. 691. 54. Le Heron huppe, 

Buff., Ois. 7. 342. PI. Enl. 787. 
Ir'ides bright light yellow. Length, inclusive of tail, 38 inches: 

tail 6 inches. 
Identical with European specimens. Solitary. 

173. Ardea nigrirostris, Gray, Zool. Misc. 20. Fig. Ind. Zool. Part 

12th. Large white Heron with black bill. 
Differing only in having a black bill from Ard. Egretta ; 
otherwise identical in size, form, colour, and internal or- 
ganization ; nevertheless as Col. Sykes has adult birds pre- 
serving the black bill, he considers Mr. Gray's specific di- 
stinction valid. Irides bright yellow. 

Section B. Tarsi short. 

174. Ardea Malaccensis, Gmel., 1. 643. Crabicr blanc et brun de 

Malacca, Buff., Ois. 7. 394. PI. Enl. 911. Buglah of the 
Mahrattas. 
Irides light bright yellow. Length, inclusive of tail, 19 inches : 
tail 3 to 34- inches. One male bird measured 21 inches. 
White capillary worms found on the mesentery. 

175. Ardea Caboga, Penn., Hindoos. 2. 158. Gibraltar Heron, 

Lath., var. A. Small pure white Heron, Batty bird of 

Europeans in Dukhun. 
Attend oxen while grazing, and pick insects from them. Gre« 
garious. Length, inclusive of tail, 194- to 21 inches: tail 34- 
inches. Irides bright yellow. A shade of yellow ochre on the 
forehead in some individuals. 

176. ArdeaGrayii. Ard. alba ; dorso atro-rubente ; capite, collo, 

pectore, scapularibusque sordide Jlavescenti-albidis ; occipitis 
plumis 3 — 5 longis, linearibus, albissimis. 
Irides nitide flavae. Rostrum ad apicem nigrum, ad basin 
flavescens. 7arsifuscescenti-carnei. Longitudo (cauda 
inclusa) I84-— 1 9f unc, caudce 3. 
Marone-bached Heron. 
The deep chestnut or marone feathers of the back are decom- 
posed, and extend nearly to the end of the tail. The imma- 
ture bird bears a very close resemblance to the Ard. Malac- 
censis. 

177. Ardea Javanica, Horsf., Linn. Trans. 13. 190. Indian green 

Heron of Dr. Latham, No. 74. 
Col.Sykes's specimens are identical with those from Java, and on 
comparing them with the descriptions of Ard. virescens, 111., 
and the plate of Buffon (PI. Enl. 908, Crabier de Cayenne), 
they differ in wanting the red stripes down the throat and neck, 
and in the tail being dark metallic green instead of black, and 
in smaller size. Dr. Horsfield's trivial name is therefore valid. 
Irides bright light yellow, surrounded by a very narrow red 
ring. Length, inclusive of tail, 16} inches: tail 2|. Sexes 



159 

alike in size and plumage. Solitary on the woody banks of 
small streams. 

178. Ardea cinnamomea, Gmel., 1. 643. Entire chestnut Heron. 
Identical with specimens in the British Museum and India 

House. Length, inclusive of tail, \5\ inches: tail 2\ inches. 
Irides bright yellow. 
Rare in Dukhun. Mostly solitary ; never gregarious. Remark- 
ably wary. 

Genus Botaurus, Briss. Bittern. 

179. Botaurus stellaris, Briss., Orn. 5. 444. Ardea stellaris, Linn., 

1. 239. 21. Le Butor, Buff., Ois. 7. 41 1. PI. Enl. 789. 

Common Bittern. 
Identical with the European bird. 
Rare in Dukhun. 

Genus Nycticorax, Steph. 

180. Nycticorax Europceus, Steph., 11. 609. Ardea Nycticorax, 

Linn., 1 . 235. 9. Le Bihoreau, Buff., Ois. 7. 435. PI. Enl. 

758. Night Heron. 
Irides broad, crimson. Length, inclusive of tail, 24 inches : tail 
4 T V inches. Length of the European bird about 22 inches. 
Irides and legs of the same colour as those of the Asiatic bird. 

Genus Phcenicopterus, Linn. Flamingo. 

181. Phcenicopterus ruber, Linn., 1. 230. Le Flammant, Buff, Ois. 

8. 475. PI. Enl. 63. Red Flamingo. Rajah Huns of the 
Hindoos. 
Irides light yellow. Length, inclusive of tail, 43-i- inches : tail 

6 inches. 
In the duodenum of a female were found two thick, remarkable 
white worms composed ofamiuli ; one 7 inches long, the other 
4 \ inches ; and filling up the intestinal canal, so that liquid 
food only could have passed ; nevertheless the bird appeared 
quite healthy. 

Genus Platalea, Linn. Spoonbill. 

182. Platalea leucorodia, Linn., 1. 231. 1. La Spatule, Buff., Ois. 

7. 448. PL Enl. 405. Crested white Spoonbill. 
Irides crimson. Length, inclusive of tail, l 6b\ inches: tail 5 J 

inches. 
Although a little larger in size, it is otherwise absolutely identical 

with the European bird even to the colour of the irides and 

legs. 

183. Platalea junior. The feathers with black shafts. 

Mr. Stephens describes these birds as rarely occurring inland. 
€ol. S.'s specimens were obtained 100 miles from the sea, and 
at an elevation of 2000 feet. 

Genus Ciconia, Ray. Stork. 

184. Ciconia leucocephala. Ardea leucocephala, Gmel., 1.642. 



160 

Lath., Ind. Orn. 2. 699. 7S. Le Heron Violet, Buff., Ois. 7. 

370. Heron de la cote de Coromandel, Buff., PI. Enl. 906. 

Violet Heron. Kandehsur or Koxaruw of the Mahrattas. 
It is singular that this well-marked bird should have been classed 
as a Heron for a long period, and remain as such at the pre- 
sent moment in Shaw. Length, inclusive of tail, 33 to 34| 
inches : tail 8 inches. 
Mostly seen on open stony plains or in ploughed fields. Food 
chiefly grasshoppers. Monogamous. Jrides scarlet, margined 
with a narrow circle of black and an exterior circle of yel- 
lowish. 

185. Ciconia Argala, Steph., vol. 11. p. 622. Ardea dubia, Gmel., 

1. 624-. Ardea Argala, Lath. 
Is met with in Dukhun ; but Col. Sykes has not a specimen. Called 
the Adjutant by Europeans, from its stiff soldier-like strut. 

Genus A?iastomns i 111. Courly. 

186. Anastomus Typus, Temm. An. Coromandelianus, Steph., 11. 

632. Ardea Coromandelica (l'adulte) et Ponticeriana (le 
jeune), Temm. Le bee ouvert des Indes, Sonn., Voy. 2. pi. 
in p. 219. Buff, Ois. 7.409. PI. Enl. 932. Cinereous Muscle- 
catcher. 
Irides bright yellow. Length, inclusive of tail, 32 to 33 inches : 

tail 6J to 6£ inches. 
Buftbn's figure is excellent. Lives on the animals of a new and 
large species of Unio. The stomach of this bird is not less re- 
markable than its bill : the last exhibiting a beautiful adapta- 
tion of means to their end ; the form of the mandibles enabling 
the bird to hold and open the bivalve shell of the Unio. So- 
litary. 
The proportional length of the intestinal canal exceeds that of 
any other bird in the order Grallatorcs, in one specimen being 
five times the length of the body, neck and bill inclusive. 

Genus Tantalus, Linn. 

187. Tantalus leucocephalus, Lath., Ind. Orn. 2. 706. Le Tantale 

de Ceylon, Cuv., Regne Anim. 1.481. White-headed Ibis. 
Irides yellow. Length, inclusive of tail, 40^ to 43 inches : tail 

64- inches. 
A large diaphanous spot on each side of the base of the upper 

mandible before the eyes does not appear to have been noticed 

in the description of the bird. 
The generic characters, if this bird be made the type, require 

modification. The stomachs of three birds were distended with 

fibrous vegetable matters in a comminuted state. A fourth 

had the same vegetable matters and the half of a carp 9 inches 

long. 

Genus Ibis, La Cep. Ibis. 

188. Ibis reUgiosa, Cuv., Regne Anim. 1.483. Sacred Ibis. V Ibis 

sacrc, Cuv., Recherches sur les Osscmens Fossiles, L 161. 



161 

Tantalus JEthiopicus. Ibis Macei, Cuv., Ann. Mus. J 1. 125. 
White Ibis with purple black secondary quill decomposed fea- 
thers, Ind. Orn. 2. 706. 
Col. Sykes carefully compared the descriptions and measurements 
of the larger Mummy Ibis of Cuvier ; and is induced to believe 
the present bird is the same. Col. Sykes puts into juxta- 
position the measurements of Cuvier's Mummy Ibis from Thebes 
and one of his own birds : 

Mummy Ibis. Dukhun Ibis. 
Inche3. Inches. 

Length of beak and head together. . . . 8*27 8*15 

Head 1-85 1-80 

Tibia 5-90 5-80 

Tarsus 4*0 1 3-80 

Middle toe 3-81 3-50 

Ulna 6-01 5-95 

Hand 4-92 480 

The individual of which the measurements are given has the two 
first quills tipped with violet, their shafts of the same colour, 
and four of the secondary quills are also violet and with their 
webs decomposed, according with Cuvier's description. The 
violet colour is not so deep as in the ^Ethiopian Ibis ; but as in 
all Col. Sykes's specimens (nine in number] the violet feathers 
are in progress of development, the colour would no doubt 
subsequently be darker. Cuvier mentions that the Mummy 
Ibis varied a little in size. Col. S. has birds larger and smaller 
than that of which the measurements are given. 

Appear in Dukhun in the cold weather only. Gregarious. 

Irides narrow, lake colour. Food water-crickets, crabs, beetles, 

shrimps. Length, inclusive of tail, 30 to 35-^ inches : tail 5 T 3 - 

to 5jV Bill and head to occiput 7 X V to 9 T V inches. Bill to 

the gape 6t% to 7 T V inches. 

189. Ibisignea. Tantalus igneus, Lath., Ind. Orn. 2. 708. 12. Ibis 

falcinellus, Temm., Man. d'Orn., 2nd Edit. 2. 596. 

Col. Sykes's birds, male and female, are identical with two Euro- 
pean specimens in the British Museum labelled Ibis ignea, and 
viewed as the immature birds of Ibis falcinellus. Col. Sykes 
however has seen so many of both in India, appearing in dif- 
ferent flocks at the same period of the year, and not having, 
as M. Temminck describes the birds before they are three years 
old, " partie inferieure du cou, poitrine, ventre, et cuisses d'un 
noircendre* ; haut du dos et scapulaires d'un cendre brun," but 
of a rich fuscous brown, with brilliant metallic reflections; 
differing also in the proportions of the internal organization ; 
and Dr. Latham moreover describes even the youngest birds 
of Ibis falcinellus as characterized by reddish brown. Hero- 
dotus speaks of the smaller Ibis as entirely black, a description 
inapplicable to the Ibis falcinellus , but applicable to the present 
species, which at a short distance appears entirely black. Col. 
Sykes is therefore induced to adopt the opinion of those writers 
who considered the bird distinct from Ibis falcinellus. Its 



162 

measurements correspond with those of the smaller species of 
Mummy Ibis given by Cuvier ; and it agrees in plumage (in- 
tense blackish brown with metallic reflections, without any 
mention of chestnut or marone, the livery of the Ibis ignea,) 
with the descriptions of the ancients ; it is therefore very pro- 
bable, as M. Temminck suggests, that it is the sacred species 
worshiped and embalmed by the Egyptians. 

Length (male), inclusive of tail, 25§ inches: tail 4^- inches. Fe- 
male 23^ inches : tail 4 inches. 

Black beetles, larva of water insects, and numerous univalve shells 
found in the stomachs of these birds. 

190. Ibis papillosa, Temm., PI. Col. 304. Black screaming Ibis. 

Indian variety of Bald Ibis, Lath., 9. 156. 

Soar high in the air in circles, uttering melancholy screams. 
Monogamous. Found in the stomach of several birds aquatic 
insects, multitudes of black beetles, Jotvaree seeds, Gryllotalpce , 
and vegetable matters. Col. Sykes's birds are much less bril- 
liant in plumage than the specimen described and figured by 
M. Temminck. 

Irides pale red. Length, inclusive of tail, 25 to 28 j inches; tail 
7^ inches. 

191. Ibis Jalcinellus, Temm., Man. d'Orn. 2nd Edit. 2. 599. Tantalus 

Jalcinellus, Linn., 1.241. Gmel., 1.648. he Courtis verd, 
Buff., Ois. 8. 29. Courly d'ltalie, Buff., PI. Enl. 819. Ma- 
rone Ibis. 
Sexes do not differ in plumage - } but the female is somewhat 

smaller than the male. 
Length, inclusive of tail, 26 to 26^ inches : tail 4^- inches. Mul- 
titudes of black beetles and grasshoppers, and univalve fresh- 
water shells, found in the stomach. An immature bird in pos- 
session of the Zoological Society, unlike the supposed imma- 
ture bird [Ibis ignea),\& characterized by the marone livery of 
the Ibis Jalcinellus. 

Fam. Scolopacidce, Vigors. — Genus Totanus, Bechst. Sandpiper. 

192. Totanus ochropus, Temm., Man. d'Orn. 420. Tringa ochropus, 

Linn., 1. 250. Green Sandpiper. 

Absolutely identical in plumage with a specimen from Hudson's 
Bay in the British Museum, and with English specimens. 

Irides fuscous brown. Length, inclusive of tail, 9j to 10 inches : 
tail '2- inches. 

For the most part solitary. The stomach approximates to a giz- 
zard. Sexes alike. Cry, Cheet, Cheet, Cheet. 

193. Totanus Glareola,! emm., Man. d'Orn. 2nd Edit. 2. 654. Tringa 

Glareola, Linn., 1. 250. Wood Sandpiper. 
Differs from one specimen of Tringa Glareola in the British Mu- 
seum in a defined white line over the eyes to the bill, more 
white on the throat and less brown speckled on the breast, 
and slightly longer bill ; but is identical in plumage with an- 
other specimen. 



163 

hides fuscous brown. Length, inclusive of tail, 9 to 9£ inches : 
tail &A- inches. Sexes alike. In April as delicate eating as 
the common Snipe. Cry, Chit, Chit, Chit j but the alarm cry is 
like the grating of a rusty hinge. 
194<. Totanus hypoleucos, Temm., Man. d'Orn. 424. Tringa hypo- 
leucos, Linn., 1. 250. Common Sandpiper. Tringa Guineti a, 
Brit. Mus. La petite Alouelte de Mer, Buff., PI. Enl. 850. 
lrides fuscous brown. Length, inclusive of tail, 8| to 9 inches : 

tail 2 T V inches. 
Cry, a sharp whistle like Wheet, Wheet, Wheet. Jerk the tail in 
a curious manner. Sexes alike. Generally solitary. 

Genus Limosa, Briss. Godxvit. 

195. Limosa Glottoides. Totanus Glottoides, Gould's Century of 

Himalayan Birds. 

Col. Sykes agrees with Mr. Gould in the propriety of separating 
this bird from the Totanus Glottis (Scolopax Glottis), or Green- 
shanks of Europe. 

lrides fuscous red brown. Length, inclusive of tail, 14 to 14| 
inches : tail 3 inches. 

Sexes do not differ in plumage or size. Cry in flight, a sharp, 
shrill Queek, Queek. Very wary birds. Commonly seen alone ; 
rarely three or four together. Minute fish, larvce of water 
insects, and univalve shells found in the stomach. 

196. Limosa Horsfieldii. IJm. supra brunnea, plumarum rha- 

chibus lineisque transversis angulatis nigris ; mento, corpore 
infra, uropygio, dorsi dimidio, caudd, marginibusque plu- 
marum superiorum a I bis ; remigibus fuscis rhachibus albis ; 
caudd lineis plurimis angulatis angustis nigris notatd. 
lrides intense rufo-brunneae. Rostrum pedesque (hi gracillimi) 

nigri. Longitudo corporis 8 — 8^- unc, caudcs 2|. 
This is a miniature likeness of the preceding, but quite distinct, 
although similar in habits, manners, flight, and cry j but with 
a permanent difference in size and some markings. It is com- 
paratively a rare bird. Col. Sykes had at first considered it a 
young bird of Tot. Glottoides, until an observation of some 
years convinced him of his mistake. So wary as to be rarely 
within reach of the gun. Female with the spots and markings 
fainter than in the male. Bill 1 .V inch long. 

Genus Gallinago, Ray. Snipe. 

197. Gallinago media, Ray. Scolopax Gallinago, Linn., 1. 244. 

Becassine, Buff, Ois. 7. 483. PI. Enl. 883. 
Appears only from November until March in Dukhnn. Same as 
the European bird, with trifling exceptions, resulting probably 
from age. lrides intense brown. Size of common Snipe. 
Found in the stomach, vegetable matter, minute univalve 
shells, earth-worms, larvce of water insects, and fine gravel. 
Sexes alike. 

198. Gallinago minima, Ray, Syn. 105. A. Scolopax Gallinula, 



164- 

Linn., 1. 244. 8. Becassine sourde, Temm., Man. d'Orn. 440. 
Jack Snipe. 
Appears and disappears with the preceding species. Identical 
with the European bird and precisely similar in its habits. 
Irides intense brown. Length, inclusive of tail, 8-^ inches : 
tail 2\ inches. Food the same as that of the common Snipe. 
Sexes alike. 

Genus Rhynchcea, Cuv. 

199. Rhynchcca picta, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. Rhynch. Capensis, 

Steph., 12. 65. Scolopax Capensis, Linn., 1. 246. 
Col. Sykes has specimens in such states of plumage as to corre- 
spond with the above species, shot on the same ground. Mi- 
gratory. Irides red brown. Length, inclusive of tail, 10 inches: 
tail If inches. Sexes alike. Feed like Snipes. 

Genus Pelidna, Cuv. Dunlin. 

200. Pelidna Temminckii, Steph., 12. 103. Tringa Temminckii, 

Leisl. Temm., Man. d'Orn. 401. Small Dunlin. 
Identical with the European bird. Irides dark brown. Length, 
inclusive of tail, 6 to 6| inches: tail 2 inches. Feed like Snipes. 
Gregarious. Excellent eating. 

Fam. Rallidce, Leach. — Genus Parra, Linn. Jacana. 

201. Parra Sinensis, Gmel., 1.709. Yellow back-necked Jacana. 

Fig. in Gould's Century of Birds. 
The immature bird is the Parra Luzoniensis. Dive remarkably 
well despite their long toes. Irides fuscous brown. Length, 
inclusive of tail, 18 to 19 inches: tail 9 to 10 inches. Found 
in the stomach of many birds vegetable matter, two species of 
univalve shells, bugs (Cimex annulatus), and fine gravel. Gre- 
garious, and common on the rivers in Dukhun. 

Genus GaUinula, Ray. Gallinule. 

202. GaUinula Javanica, Horsf., Linn. Trans. 13. 196. Poule Sul- 

tane de la Chine, ou Poule Sultane brune, PI. Enl. 896. Pan 
Komree of the Mahrattas. 
This is the Variety ft of the ' Index Ornithologicus.' Dr. Hors- 
field has judiciously separated it from the Gall, phcenicura. 
Col. Sykes's specimens differ from Dr. Horsfield's only in being 
a little larger. Irides fuscous red. Length, inclusive of tail, 
11^ to 12| inches : tail 2f to 3 inches. Larvce of water insects 
found in the stomach. Legs very long. 

Genus Rallus, Auct. Rail. 

203. Rallus Akool. Rail, corpore supra, lateribusque olivaceo' 

Jusco-brunneis'; alis cauddque Jiiscis ; gutture, pectore, ventre, 
uropygioque cinereo-brunneis ; tegminibus alarum caudceque 
inferioribus saturate brunneis ; mento albo. 
Rostrum virescenti-nigrum. Pedes carneo-brunnei. Lon- 
gitudo corporis 8 — 9 unc, caudce 2j. 



165 

The only spot of white on the bird is at the chin. Wings and 
tail short. This bird appears quite distinct from any described 
species of Rallus or Gallinula. The nearest approach to it is 
the Rail, niger ofGraelin from the Cape of Good Hope. Sexes 
alike. Frequents sedgy and marshy places amidst low bushes. 
Shuns observation. 

Genus Porphyrio K Briss. 

20f. Porphyrio smaragnotus, Temm., Man. d'Orn 2nd Edit. 2. 700. 

Fulica Porphyrio, Linn., 1. 258. Le Taleve de Madagascar, 

Buff., PI. Enl. 810. 
These very beautiful birds are found on most of the very large 
tanks or ponds, the surface of which is a good deal covered 
with the broad leaves of the Lotus, on which the birds walk. 
Vegetable matters only found in the stomach of several birds, 
particularly parts of the green capsules of Trapa bispinosa. 
Sexes alike. Irides blood red. Length, inclusive of tail, 18 
inches : tail 3^ inches. Stomach a true gizzard. 

Genus Fulica, Auct. Coot. 

205. Fulica atra, Linn., 1.257. Le Foulque, Buff., Ois. 8. 211. PI. 

Enl. 197. 
Differs only from Javanese specimens in being larger, and a shade 
lighter below. Much larger than the common Coot of Europe, 
but with the same coloured irides (crimson), and does not 
otherwise differ. Length, inclusive of tail, 18 to 19 inches : 
tail 2 inches. It has the habits of Podiceps, and with the giz- 
zard, long cceca, and general internal organization of a Duck, 
seems to belong to the order Natatores. Water weeds and coarse 
sand found in the stomach. 

Fam. CharadriadcCy Leach. — Genus Cursorius, Lath. Courser. 

206. Cursorius Asiaticus, Lath., Ind. Orn. 2. 751. 2. Cour-vite de 

Coromandel, Buff., Ois. 8. 129. PI. Enl. 892. 
Irides dark brown. Length, inclusive of tail, 10 inches: tail 2^ 
inches. Sexes alike. Numerous in Dukhun ; but only on the 
open stony and grass plains. This bird has the shortness of 
intestine of the Bustard (equal to the length of the body), with 
a stomach nearly similar; feeding in the same manner on in- 
sects and their larvce and with the same cursorial habits, and 
should therefore be placed near the Struthionidce, after Otis and 
Tetrao. 

Genus Vanellus, Briss. Laptoing. 

207. Vanellus Goensis, Steph., 11.514. Tringa Goensis, Lath., Ind. 

Orn. 2. 727. 7. Parra Goensis, Gmel., 1. 706. Vanneau 
armi de Goa, Buff., PI. Enl. 807. 
Irides fuscous crimson. Length, inclusive of tail, 14 inches: tail 
5 inches. Affect open plains and beds of rivers. Gregarious. 
Water insects, shells, and corn found in the stomach. A watch- 
ful and noisy bird at night ; uttering cries of Did he doo it, 
Did he doo it. Sexes alike. 
[No. XXIII.] 



166 

208. Vanellus bilobus. Charadrius bilobus, Gmel. 1. 691. he Plu- 

vierde la cote de Malabar, Buff., PI. Enl. 880. 
The bird has a black bill, yellowish at the base ; and not a yellow 
bill, as described in the * Index Ornithologicus.' There are one 
or two other minor discrepancies ; but no doubt it is the species 
figured by Buffon. Although it wants the hind toe, and is 
therefore, agreeably to generic characters, a Charadrius, its 
habits, figure, food, and almost its cry, are those of the prece- 
ding species. Col. Sykes has therefore classed it as a Vanellus. 
Irides yellowish. Length, inclusive of tail, 11 J to 12 inches: 
tail 3| inches. Gregarious. Found only on the open stony 
and grass plains. Like the Van. Goensis, a restless noisy bird 
at night, crying Deewit, Deewit. Sexes alike. 

Genus Charadrius, Auct. Plover. 

209. Charadrius pluvialis, Linn., 1.254*. 7. Le Pluvier dore, Buff., 

Ois. 8. 81. PI. Enl. 904. Golden Plover. 
Identical with Javanese specimens. Smaller than one North 
American specimen and two English specimens in the British 
Museum; but absolutely identical with other British specimens. 
A rare bird in Dukhun, and appearing only in the cold weather. 
Irides almost black. Length, inclusive of tail, 10 inches : tail 
2w inches. Gregarious. In the stomach were found beetles, 
land insects, and coarse sand. 

210. Charadrius Philippensis, Lath., Ind. Orn. 2.745. 11. Petit 

Pluvier a collier de Lucon, Sonn., Voy. Ind. 84. pi. 46. 
This little bird has the habits of Totanus ; frequents the shores 
of fresh water only j and in firing into a flock of Sandpipers it 
is frequently killed in company with them. Irides fuscous 
crimson. Length, inclusive of tail, 7 J inches ; tail 2,V inches. 
Gregarious. Sexes alike. Sonnerat, in his description, omits 
to mention that the margins of the eyelids are bright yellow ; 
instead of which he calls the irides yellow. 

Genus Himantopus, Ray. Longshanks. 

211. Himantopus melanopterus , Horsf., Linn. Trans. 13. 194. 

Charadrius Himantopus, Linn., 1 . 255. L'Echasse, Buff v Ois. 
8.114. PI. Enl. 878. 
There are slight discrepancies in the plumage between the birds 
of Java, India, and Europe; and in case of these being perma- 
nent, and not the result of nonage, specific differences might 
be established. Irides narrow, lake or crimson colour. Length, 
inclusive of tail, 16 inches ; tail 3| inches; to the end of the 
toes 22£ inches. Gregarious. Vegetable matters, larvce of 
water insects, and minute univalve shells found in the stomach. 
These birds are strangely polluted with visceral worms of the 
tape and capillary kinds. 

Genus (Edicnemus, Cuv. Thick-knee. 

212. (Edicnemus crepitans, Temm., Man. 322. Otis CEdicnemus, 

Lath., Ind. Orn. 2.661. 11. Charadrius CEdicnemus, Linn., 



167 

1 . 255. Le grand Pluvier, Buft*., PI. Enl. 919. Great- headed 

Thick-knee. 
There is no visible difference between the Dukhun and British 
species. Eyes of very great size. Irides very broad, of a 
greenish yellow. Length, inclusive of tail, 17 to 18 inches .$ 
tail 4f- inches. Gregarious. Frequents bushy wilds as well 
as grass plains. Not met with in woods. Land insects and 
seeds found in the stomach. Sexes do not differ in size or 
plumage. This bird rests on the first joint of the leg like the 
G alius giganteus. 

Order V. NATATORES, III. 
Fam. Anatidce, Leach.. — Genus Plectrcpterus , Leach. 

213. Plectropterus melanotos, Steph., 12. 8. Anas melanotos, Gmel., 

1. 503. VOie bronzee de Coromandel, Buff., PI. Enl. 937. 

Black and white Plectropterus. Nukta of the Mahrattas. 
The very large vertical compressed process on the upper man- 
dible; the white lower part of the back; cinereous rump; and 
rudimentary black mane down the back neck are not noticed 
in descriptions of this species. This noble and splendid bird 
is not common in the Dukhun. Female considerably less in 
size than the male, and with the metallic reflections much less 
brilliant ; destitute also of the comb or crest on the upper 
mandible. Seen in pairs. Horny process on the bend of the 
wing obtuse. Length, inclusive of tail, 30 to 34 inches ; tail 
5j to 6 inches. Seeds of water-grasses, and the remarkable 
quadrangular hard seeds met with in the stomach of the Pte~ 
rocles exustus found also in the stomach of the Plectropterus. 
Digastric muscle of the remarkable thickness of 1 ,V inch. 

Genus Anser, Briss. 

214. Anser Girra. Anas Girra, Gray, Indian Zool. Illust. No. 4. 

fig. 6. Girra Teal, Lath. Cotton Teal of Europeans in 
Dukhun, from the quantity of white in the plumage. 
Irides bright crimson. 

This handsome bird is one of the smallest of the Anatidce. 
Length, inclusive of tail, 12| to 14 inches; tail 3 to 3^ inches. 
Sexes exactly alike. Monogamous. Vegetable matter and 
gravel found in the stomach. These birds, when wounded, 
dive, and on returning to the surface show only the bill above 
water, keeping the body below at pleasure. 

Genus Tadorna, Leach. 

215. Tadorna rutila, Steph., 12. 71. Anas Casarca, Linn., App. 3. 

224. Shieldrake. Bruhmuny Duck of Europeans in Dukhun. 
Irides yellowish brown. Length, inclusive of tail, male 28 inches, 
female 25 to 26 inches ; tail 5| inches. For the most part of 
the year these birds are in pairs ; but on theNerbudda river in 
Guzerat, Colonel Sykes has seen them congregated in hun- 
dreds in April. Found in the stomachs of many birds, grass 
seeds and vegetable matters only. The female is destitute of 



168 

the black ring round the neck ornamenting the male. The in- 
testinal canal twice the proportional length of that of the Plec- 
tropterus. 

Genus Anas, Auct. 

216. Anas strepera, Linn., 1. 200. Ckipeau, Buff., PI. Enl. 958. 

Chestnut lesser wing- covert Duck. 
Males identical with specimens in the British Museum from Kent. 
No females for comparison. Length, inclusive of tail, male 
24 to 25 inches, female 22 inches ; tail 4 inches. Numerous 
in Dukhun. Gregarious. A tape-worm was found protruding 
through the coat of the intestine in one bird, without affecting 
its health or flesh. 

Genus Rhynchaspis, Leach, MSS. 

217. Rhynchaspis virescens, Leach, MSS. Anas clypeata, Linn., 1. 

200. Souchet,Buff., Ois.9.191. PI. Enl. 971,972. Black- 
headed Shoveler. 
Identical with British specimens of the common Shoveler; but 
differing from the description of that bird in Shaw. Irides 
yellowish brown. Length, inclusive of tail, 20 to 21 inches; 
tail 4 inches. Grass seeds, vegetable matters, pulse-like seeds, 
and gravel found in the stomach. Gregarious. The intestinal 
canal is more than seven times as long as the body, neck, and 
bill included ; and in this particular is not approached within 
nearly two-sevenths by any other bird of the order Natatores. 

Genus Mareca, Steph. Wigeon. 

218. Mareca pcecilorhyncha, Steph , 12. 134. Anas pcecilorhyncha, 

Gmel., 1 . 535. Spotted-billed Duck, Lath. 
Irides red fuscous brown. Length, inclusive of tail, 22 to 25 
inches; tail 4 to 4^ inches. Sexes alike in plumage. Grass 
seeds, vegetable matters, and small stones found in the gizzard. 
Colonel Sykes's birds identical with a specimen in the British 
Museum, from the Himalayan mountains. The spot at the 
end of the bill invariably yellow, but in books it is stated to be 
white. The digastric muscle thicker than the diameter of the 
cavity of the gizzard. Colonel Sykes does not consider this 
species a true Mareca. 

219. Mareca Jistularis , Steph., 12. 131. Anas Penelope, Linn., 1. 

202. Canard Siffleur, Buff, Ois. 9, 169. PI. Enl. 825. 
Wigeon. 
Irides red fuscous brown. Length, inclusive of tail, 19 to 20 
inches (males), 18 j to 19 inches (females) ; tail 3J to 3f inches. 
Gregarious. Absolutely identical with specimens from Devon- 
shire. Contents of the gizzard as in the preceding species. 

220. Mareca Awsuree. Mar.nigrescenti-brunnea; plumarum sca- 

pularium dorsique apicibus Jlavescenti-brunueis ; tegminibus 
alarum minoribus caudceque superioribus saturate castaneis ; 
vertice linedque cervicali Jiiscis ; capite, collo, pectoreque pal- 
lid^ Jlavescenti-brunneis , ventre uropygioque saturatioribus 



169 

Jerrugineis ; mento tegminibusque caudcs inferioribus sordide 

albis. 
Rostrum pedesque nigri. Longitudo (cauda inclusa) 18| — 20 

unc, cauda 2|. Whistling Teal. 
This bird, of which Colonel Sykes has many specimens, is iden- 
tical with a bird in the British Museum, from Africa j one in 
the Zoological Society, from Bengal j and one in the India 
House, from Java. In the whole of these, the lunules on the 
breast, neck, and upper part of the back, and the strong black 
short mane of the Anas arcuata are wanting. It is also larger 
than that bird, and Colonel Sykes is therefore led to believe 
this to be a distinct species, although strongly resembling it. 
Gregarious, and abundant in Dukhun. Sexes alike in plumage. 
These birds are characterized by a very peculiar whistle when 
disturbed, by a proportionate length of intestine one third 
shorter than that of any other species of the Anatidce, and by 
the inferior larynx being dilated into two oblong chambers, 
placed rather in front of, than lateral to the trachea. 

Genus Querquedula , Ray. Teal. 

221. Querquedula Circia, Steph., 12. 143. Anas Circia, Linn., 1.204. 

Sarcelle oVete, BufF., Ois. 9. 268. PI. Enl. 946. Gargany 

Teal. 
Length, inclusive of tail, 16| to 17 j inches; tail 3 to 3 T V inches. 
Female the smaller bird, and quite dissimilar in plumage. Iden- 
tical with British specimens. Gregarious. In addition to simi- 
lar contents of the gizzard in other species, rice in the husk 
was found. 

222. Querquedula Crecca, Steph., 12. 146. Anas Crecca, Linn., 1.204. 

Petite Sarcelle, Buff., Ois. 9. 265. PI. Enl. 947. Common 

Teal. 
Identical with male and female British specimens. Length, in- 
clusive of tail, 15| to 16 inches; tail 3 inches. Water-weed 
and gravel in the stomach. Colonel Sykes has in his possession 
specimens (male and female) resembling the female of Querq. 
Crecca; but in which the proportional length of the intestinal 
canal differs so much from that of Querq. Crecca ^330 to 1, 
and 5*57 to 1), that he is induced to believe they may belong 
to a distinct species. It will be observed that the proportional 
length of the intestine (5*57 to 1 ) closely approximates to that 
of a widely-different bird, the carrion-devouring Percnopterus. 

Genus Fuligula, Steph. Pochard. 

223. Fuligula rufina, Steph., 12. 188. Anas rufina, Pall. Le Ca- 

nard Siffleur huppe, Buff, Ois. 9. 282. PI. Enl. 928. Red- 
headed Pochard. 
Length, inclusive of tail, 25 inches ; tail 3J inches. Digastric 
muscle remarkably thick. Rare in Dukhun. Vegetable mat- 
ters and gravel in the stomach. 

22 1. Fuligula . Ash-brown Pochard with white speculum. 

This bird has a considerable resemblance to the female of Ful. ru- 



170 

fnciy as described by Mr. Stephens, but it has a black bill ; and 
Colonel Sykes is not able to meet with a specimen to institute 
a rigid comparison ; he therefore leaves the bird for future con- 
sideration. Length, inclusive of tail, 24< inches j tail 3^ inches. 
A coloured figure in Hunt's British Ornithology (Norwich) 
represents the female of Ful. rufina with a red bill, red legs, 
and reddish-brown plumage, which militate against its identity 
with the present bird. 

225. Fuligula cristata, Steph., 12. 190. Anas Fuligula, Linn., 1 . 207. 

Morillon, Buff., Ois. 9. 227. PI. Enl. 1001. Tufted Duck. 
Differs only in the more pronounced amethyst reflection of the 
back neck in the male from British specimens. Female iden- 
tical. Irides bright yellow. Length, inclusive of tail, 18 to 
19 inches; tail 2 T V to 2 T V inches. Female the smaller bird. 

Fam. Colymbidce, Leach. — Genus Podiceps, Lath. 

226. Podiceps Philippensis, Steph., 13. 16. Indian Grebe, Lath., 10. 

29. described from drawings of Sir John Anstruther. he 
Castagneux des Philippines, Buff., Ois. 8. 246. PI. Enl. 94-5. 
Buffon's plate is excellent. 
Irides broad, of an ochry yellow; they dilate and contract. Length, 
from the bill to the rump, 9J to 9J inches; tail none. Common 
in Dukhun, where their unceasing habit of diving occasions 
their being called Divers by Europeans, although quite distinct 
from the genus Colymbus. From their remarkable quickness 
of eye, Colonel Sykes has known a dozen unsuccessful shots 
fired at the same individual, which constantly disappeared un- 
der water ere the shot reached him. Gregarious. Stomach 
simple, resembling that of Herons, and wholly unlike that of 
Ducks. Found in the stomach larvce of water insects and 
shrimps, aliments common to the Heron tribe, and not found 
by Colonel Sykes in the gizzard of Ducks. 

Fam. Pelecanidce, Leach. Genus Phalacrocorax, Briss. Cormorant. 

227. Phalacrocorax Javanicus, Steph., 13. 90. Carbo Javanica, 

Horsf., Linn. Trans. 13. 197. Figured in Illust. Ind. Zool., 
part 10. fig. 9. Shag of Europeans in Dukhun. 
Absolutely identical with Dr. Horsfield's specimens from Java. 
Differs from Pelecanus Africanus {Phal. Ajricanus), with which 
it has been confounded, in the scapulars and wing coverts being 
reddish-fuscous-brown instead of blue-gray, and being mar- 
gined and tipped with lighter brown instead of black ; in the 
first three quill-feathers being black instead of pale brown ; in 
the secondaries not being so long as the quills ; tail graduated 
instead of cuneiform j in the front of the neck being reddish 
and fuscous instead of black and white ; finally, in the belly 
being rusty black instead of white varied with dusky. There 
can be no question, therefore, of the propriety of its being 
considered a distinct species by Dr. Horsfield. Colonel Sykes 
has seen hundreds of them, and notes these differences with 
several specimens lying before him. Irides remarkably nar- 



171 

row, crimson. Length, inclusive of tail, 22 to 23 inches $ tail 
6 inches. Sexes alike. The only spot of white on the bird is 
at the chin. Very numerous in Dukhun, appearing in the 
rivers in flocks of hundreds. Fish (some 3 inches long) and 
prawns found in the stomach of many birds j also capillary 
worms. Colonel Sykes remarks, that the generic character, 
"Face and throat naked" is inapplicable to this species. 

Genus Plotus, Linn. Darter. 

228. Plotus melanogaster, Gmel. 1 . 580. Anhinga noir du Senegal, 

Buff, Ois. 8.453. PI. Enl. 960 & 107. Black -billed Darter, 

called the Snake-bird in Dukhun, 
Irides bright yellow. Length, inclusive of tail, 37^ inches; tail 
9| inches. Solitary. Rare in Dukhun, but frequently met 
with below the Ghauts. This bird has the singular faculty of 
being enabled to swim with the whole of its body under water, 
the long neck and head alone being visible, looking like a snake. 
Colonel Sykes's limits do not permit him to enlarge on the 
very peculiar formation of the stomach, more resembling that 
of a ruminant than a bird. Seven small carp and much deep- 
green vegetable fibre were found in the stomach of a female. 

Fam. LaridcE, Leach. — Genus Sterna, Linn. Tern. 

229. Sterna acuticauda, Gray, Illust. Ind. Zool., part 6. fig. 3. Small 

yellow -billed Tern. Sterna melanogaster, Temm ., PI . Col. 434 ? 
Irides reddish deep brown. Length, inclusive of tail, 13£ to 14| 
inches ; tail 6 J to 7 inches, very forked and acute ; the lateral 
feathers being subulate. Fish found in the stomach. Although 
the wings are so long, the flight is slow and with a good deal 
of flapping. Take their prey while on the wing by darting ob- 
liquely upon it. Do not dip under water, nor dart perpen- 
dicularly, like Alcedo rudis. This elegant and slender species 
Colonel Sykes shot 160 miles inland, and at an elevation of 
1800 feet above the sea. Gregarious. Common in Dukhun. 

230. Sterna similis, Gray, Illust. Ind. Zool., part 6. plate 8. fig. 2, 

Tern with a fuscous lake-coloured bill. 
Length, inclusive of tail, 1 1 j to 12 inches j tail 3 T V to 3 x v inches ; 
slightly forked, and without the lateral, elongated, and subulate 
feathers of Sterna acuticauda. Fish only found in the stomach. 
Gregarious. Habits and locality of the last species. Colonel 
Sykes states it as curious, that all his specimens, seven in num- 
ber, of Sterna acuticauda and Sterna similis proved to be fe- 
males. Common in Dukhun. 

231. Sterna Seen a. Sterna supra cinerea ; fronte, vertice, cervi- 

ceque saturate nitide atris ; corpore infra albo, hypochondriis 

parum cinereo tinctis ; rectricibus later alibus albis. 

Irides saturate rufescenti-brunneae. Rostrum forte, flavum. 

Pedes rubri. Longitudo (cauda inclusa) 17 — 17£ unc, 

caudcv 8 — S£, rictus 2-fo. 

This species differs from Sterna qffinis of Ruppell, tab. 14. p. 23, 

in its smaller size, and having red instead of black legs; in the 



172 

white not being so brilliant, and in a stronger bill. Ruppell's 
Sterna velox appears to correspond in size with it. In the 
numerous species in the British Museum there is not one with 
which it can be identified. Proportionably to the shortness of 
the legs the claws are long, much arched, slender and sharp, 
and turn outwards. Hind claw never touches the ground. 
Same locality and habits as the preceding species, although 
rare in Dukhun. In the stomach and oesophagus of one bird 
were found the extraordinary number of thirteen Cyprini, one 
of them 2§ inches long. Tail very much forked ; iateral tail- 
feathers subulate, white, 8 inches long. Wings very narrow 
and long, reaching nearly to the end of the tail. 

Genus Viralva, Leach. 

232. Viralva Anglica, Steph., 13. 174. Sterna Anglica, Mont., 
Orn. Diet. Sterna aranea, Wils., Amer. Orn. 8. 143. pi. 72. 
fig. 6? Marsh Tern, Lath. Gull -billed Virahe. 
Colonel Sykes's specimens correspond exactly with specimens of 
this rare British bird in the British Museum, both in their win- 
ter and summer plumage. Irides deep red brown. Length, 
inclusive of tail, 14J to 16J inches j tail 4^ to 5} inches. Sexes 
alike in plumage, but the female somewhat smaller than the 
male. Numerous fish found in the stomach of many birds. 
With the aspect, length of wing, lazy flight, and habits of the 
Tern, this bird has a bill approximating to that of the Gull, 
not quite identical with the bill of the Viralve. 
Colonel Sykes states, that the domestic Duck (Anas Boschas)h ex- 
tensively bred by the Portuguese in Western India, and that it 
is subject to a kind of apoplexy, which carries it off in a few 
minutes, although previously in apparent health. He has 
known a trader lose a flock of more than thirty in the course 
of one day; and he has himself had ten ducks struck simulta- 
neously, stagger about for a short time as if drunk, run round 
in circles, fall on their backs, and die. He has not been able 
to discover any morbid appearances in the brain. In no in- 
stance, in the stomachs of the Anatidtz, were animal matters 
met with ; the contents consisted of grains, seeds, vegetables, 
and gravel. 
Colonel Sykes, in closing his Catalogue of the birds of Dukhun, 
mentioned that the details he had given resulted from personal 
observation of the specimens, in a living or recent state. With 
few exceptions, the whole were shot by himself; and, to guard 
against false impressions, he accumulated several individuals of the 
same species and of both sexes, and was rarely confined to a soli- 
tary bird. 



173 



October 253, 1832. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Sykes in the Chair. 

The exhibition was resumed of the collection of Shells formed by 
Mr. Cuming on the western coast of South America, and among 
the islands of the Southern Pacific Ocean. The new species were 
accompanied, as on the previous occasions, by descriptions from 
the pens of Mr. Broderip and Mr. G. B. Sowerby. 

Genus Cancellaria. 

Cancellaria uniplicata. Cane, testd oblongd, utrinque acu- 
minata, fused ; anfractibus 5—6 decussatis, prope suturam cre- 
nulatis, et postice unicarinatis, carina granosd; aperturd ob- 
longd in canalem antice product a ; labio externo intus denticu- 
lato, margine crenulatd ; columella uniplicata : long. 75, lat: 
0-35 poll 

Hab. in America Meridionali prope Panamam. 

This is the only species known to Mr. Sowerby with a single fold 
on the columella : two specimens were dredged in sand at a depth 
often fathoms, near Panama, by Mr. Cuming — G. B. S. 

Genus Ovulum. 

Ovulum rufum. Ov. testd oblongd, postice acuminata, rufd; 
labio externo incrassato, pallidiore ; aperturd angustd, antice 
latiore ; columella intus lined longitudinali depressd, pliedque 
subspirali: long. 0*50, lat. 0*1 5 poll. 

Var. testa tota pallida. 

Hab. ad Columbiam Occidentalem. 

A few specimens were dredged in sandy mud at a depth of seven 
fathoms in the Bay of Caraccas. — G. B. S. 

Ovulum Avena. Ov. testd oblongd, rufd, extremitatibus subacu- 
minatis ; dorso subgibboso, transversim tenuissime striato ; labio 
externo incrassato, pallidiore ; aperturd angustd, antice latiore , 
postice emarginatd; columella postice uniplicata; long. 0*55, 
lat. 0'22 poll. 

Hab. in America Centrali. (Conchagua.) 

This species varies much in the intensity of its colouring. — 
G. B. S. 

Ovulum inflexum. Ov. testd oblongd subcylindricd, hevi, pal- 
lida, postice subrostratd, inflexd ; aperturd antice subeffusd ; 
labio externo incrassato, columellari intus carinato ; cotumelld 
postice uniplicata: long. 0*70, lat. 025 poll. 

Hab. in America Centrali. (Gulf of Dulce.) 

A single specimen only was found ; Mr. Sowerby possesses two 
others, which were in G. Humphrey's collection. — G. B. S. 

XXIV.J Zool.Soc. Proceedings of the Comm. of Science. 



174 

Ovulum jequale. Ov. testd oblongd, subcylindricd, rufd ; labio 
externo incrassato ; extremitatibus obtusiusculis ; aperlurd latius- 
culd, utraque extremitate cequali ; columelld carind internd di- 
stinctd: long. 0'45, lat. 0*18 poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam. — G. B. S. 

Genus Murex. 

Murex rubescens. Mur. testd subrhomboided, trifariam vari- 
cosd, varicibus subfrondescentibus, tuberculo interstitiali magno, 
transvershn sulcatd et striata; canali mediocri subrectd, rosed; 
varicibus tuberculis Jrondibusque nigricantibus : long. }■%-, lat. •£ 
poll. 

Hab. ad insulam Taheiten. 

Found on the coral reefs. — W. J. E. 

Murex Pinniger. Mur. testd Jusiformi, sordide purpureo- 
albidd, transversim substriatd, tripinnatd, pinnis elevatis, laci- 
niatis , tuberculo interstitiali majusculo ; aperturd ovali ; canali 
tubulari : long. 2 circ, lat. 1^ {pinnis inclusis) poll. 

Hab.m America Meridionali. (Xipixapi.) 

Found in sandy*mud at the depth of eight fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Murex recurvirostris. Mur. testd ventricosd, trifariam spi- 
nosd, spinis brevibus magnis, interstitiis 3- vel ^-seriatim tuber- 
miosis, tuberculis parvis subasperis, subcancellatd, sordide alba 
transversim castaneo lineatd ; canali longd recurvd, basin versus 
spinosd; operculo rugoso : long. 3, lat. 1-g- poll. 

Obs. testa junior tantum non inermis. 

Hab. in America Centrali. (Gulf of Nicoiyo.) 

Found in sandy mud at the depth of nine fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Murex tetragonus. Mur. testd pyramidali, albidd, quadri- 
Jariam varicosd, transversim costatd, subcancellatd ; apertura 
violaced, prominente ; labii limbo unduloso-crenulato ; canali 
brevi, recurvd : long. If, lat. -g- poll. 

Hab.? 

Mus. Sowerby. 

This specimen, the only one I ever saw, is very much water- 
worn, but the leading characters of the species are uninjured. — 
W. J. B. 

Murex Maurus. Mur. testd rkomboided, ponderosd, quadr'u 

Jariam varicosd, tuberculo interstitiali unduloso, transversim 

creberrime granuloso-striatd et sulcatd, rosed, sulcis striisque 

nigricantibus ; labri intus crenulati limbo denticulato, roseo ; 

apertura alba: long. 1\, lat. 1 -§- poll. 

Hab. ad insulam Annaan in Oceano Pacifico. 

Found on the reefs. 

The rosy ground colour of this species is almost entirely ob- 
scured by the blackish granulose elevated transverse ridges and 
lines.— W. J. B. 

Murex erosus. Mur. testd Jusiformi, quinquefariam varicosd, 
transversim sulcatd, sulcis approximatis, crenulatis ; canali brevi 
subrecurvd : long. -&» lat. -,v poll. 



175 

Hab. ad Panamam. 

Found under stones. — W. J. B. 

Murex exiguus. Mur. testd quinquefariam frondosd, frondibus 
brevissimis, planiusculis, transversim altissime sulcatd, sordide 
albd; spird brevi; canali mediocri, recurvd: long. -§-, lat. ■£• poll. 

Hab. ad Salango. 

Found on a sandy bottom at the depth of ten fathoms. — W.J. B. 

Murex humilis. Mur. testd ovatofusiformi, albido-castaned, 
quinque- vel sex-fariam varicosd, varicibus submuricatis, trans- 
versim sulcatd et striatd; operculo rugoso : long. 1-fr, lat. -g- poll. 

Hab. ad portum Sanctee Elenae. 

Found in sandy mud at the depth of seven fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Murex pumilus. Mur. testd rhomboided, quinquefariam sub- 
frondosd, frondibus brevibus, planiusculis, subrecurvis, a latere 
crenulatis, nigro fused albo subfasciatd; canali mediocri, sub- 
recurvd ; labri limbo crenulato : long. -£-, lat. T V poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos. 

Found under stones. — W. J. B. 

Murex lugubris. Mur. testa subovatd, transversim costaid, 
subatropurpured, sexfariam frondosd, frondibus brevibus recurvis 
fascia que basali albidis ; canalis medio clauso: long. l£, lat. -g- 
poll. 

Hab. in America Centrali. (Puerto Portrero.) 

Found in the coral rocks. — W. J. B. 

Murex Princeps. Mur. testd subrhomboided, ventricosd, sex- 
fariam frondosd, frondibus longioribus laciniatis, transversim 
substriatd, albd rufo-purpureofasciatd ; operculo crasso, parvo : 
long. 54, lat. 3|- poll. 

Hab. in America Centrali. (Puerto Portrero.) 

Found in coral reefs. — W. J. B. 

Murex Carduus. Mur. testd ovato-acutd, sexfariam varicoso- 
spinosd, transversim sulcatd et striata, albd fasciis rufo-cas- 
taneis: long. 1-rV, lat. ^ poll. 

Hab. in oceano juxta Pacosmayo Peruvia?. 

From a coral reef twelve miles from the land, at the depth of 
twenty-five fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Murex Nucleus. Mur. testa subrhomboided, septemfariam sub- 
varicosd, transversim rugoso-sulcatd, sulcis creberrimis, sordide 
albd; canali brevissimd subrecurvd: long. J-, lat. ^%-poll. 

Hab. ad Insulas Gallapagos. 

Found in fine coral sand at the depth of eight fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Murex Vibex. Mur. testd turritd, septemfariam varicosd, vari- 
cibus subnodosis, transversim sulcata, subluted; aperturd albd, 
interne sulcatd ; labri limbo crenulato ; canali brevissimd ; epi- 
dermide fused, rugosd : long. 1-fr, lat. 1 poll. 

Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam et ad Panamam. 

This shell appears to be intermediate between Murex and Turbi- 



176 

nella. It has the varices of the former, and the plaits on the colu- 
mella which distinguish the latter. 

Found in sandy mud, from six to twelve fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Murex incisus. Mur. testa ovatd, septenifariam varicosd, vari- 
cibus rotundatis elevatis, transversim creberrime carinatd et 
striata, carinis striisque crenulatis ; albidd, carinis subcastaneis : 
long. I4-, lat. -£ poll. 

Hab. ad portum Sanctae Elenae. 

Found on a rocky bottom at the depth of eight fathoms. — 
W. J. B. 

Murex vittatus. Mur. testd ovato-acutd, septenifariam vari- 
coso-spinosd, spinis brevibus, transversim sulcata, albd, nigro 
fasciatd : long, -g-, lat. T V poll. 

Hab. ad Guayaquil. (Isle of Muerte Bay.) 

From sandy mud at the depth of eleven fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Murex oxyacantha. Mur. testd pyriformi, transversim striatd 3 
septenifariam spinosd, spi?iis canaliculatis, albd, epidermide fused ; 
spird brevi ; canali longiusculd, subrecurvd ; long. 2^, lat. 2^ 
(spinis inclusis) poll. 

Hab. in America Centrali. (Real Lleijos.) 

Found in sandy mud at the depth of eight fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Murex nitidus. Mur. testd subrhomboided, octqfariam spinoso- 
varicosd, transversim striata; anfractu basalt ventricoso, albo 
vittis lineatis nigro-castaneis Sfasciato, et spinis magnis, canali- 
culatis, sublaciniatis coronato ; spird brevi ; canali mediocri, 
spinosd, ad apicem nigricante ; aperturd albd ; labro intus den- 
ticulato: long. I4-, lat. -| (spinprum corond inclusd) poll. 

Hab. in America Centrali. (Real Lleijos.) 

This pretty shell was found in the cleft of a rock. No other in- 
dividual was obtained, and it is believed to be unique. — W. J. B. 
- Murex horridus. Mur. testd subrhomboided, novem- ad decem- 
fariam varicosd, sulcis striisque interstitialibus transversis ere- 
berrimis, aspero-rugosis, sordide albidd ; aperturd glabra, albd : 
long, l^, lat. 4- poll. 

Hab. ad Sanctam Elenam et ad Panamam. 

Found in sandy mud at the depth of from eight to twelve fa- 
thoms.— W. J. B. 

Murex crispus. Mur. testd subovatd, multifariam frondosd, 
frondibus brevibus, striatis, crispis, transversim costatd, albd, 
costis frondibusque albido-brunneis ; anfractibus superne com- 
planatis : long. 2-^, lat. 1 -§■ poll. 

Hab. in pelago juxta Peruviana. 

Taken from a coral reef twelve miles from Pacosmayo, in twenty- 
five fathoms water. — W. J. B. 

Murex squamosus. Mur. testd sordide albidd, ovato -pyriformi, 
ventricosd, multifariam varicosd, (varicibus rotundatis,) striis 
transversis elevatis squamosis asperd ; anfractibus angulatis ; co- 
lumelld Icevi; labri limbo intus substriato ; canali valde apertd, 
brevi, subrecurvd: long. !-§-, lat. 1 poll. 



177 

Hab. ad Peruvians (Payta.) 

The transverse scaly stria are so arranged as to present three 
and sometimes four smaller interstitial ones between the more 
elevated. The scales on the stria are suberect, and very numerous 
and minute. The abrupt descent from the angle to the suture 
gives the whorls, more especially the last, a coronated appearance. 
Found in sandy mud, at the depth of six fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Murex Margariticola. Mur. testa ovato-acutd, multifariam 
subvaricosdy aspero-rugosa, nigricante ; aperturd albido-purpured, 
columelld crenulatd, labro intus dentato ; canali apertd, subre- 
curvd: long. l£, lat. W poll. 

Hab. in Oceano Pacifico, (Lord Hood's Island,) Meleagrince mar- 
garitiferce adhaerens. — W. J. B. 

Murex Lappa. Mur. testd subrhomboided, alba, noduiis acutis t 
spinulisque horridd, anfractu basali spinis longioribus coronatd ; 
labro crenulato intus alte striato, striis distantibus ; umbilico 
magno ; spird product d : long. I4-, lat. ^ poll. 

Hab, ad Sanctam Elenam. 

Found on a rocky bed at the depth of twelve fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Genus Typhis, De Montfort. 

De Montfort, after referring to Murex piwgens,Brander , as the 
type of this genus, adds : " La coquille qui nous sert de type pour 
l'etablissement de ce genre n'est encore bien connue qu'a l'etat 
fossile ; quoique Bruguiere dise tres-positivement que son analogue 
marin existoit a Londres dans le cabinet du Docteur Hunter, fait 
que malheureusement nous ne pouvons point verifier, mais que 
cependant nous devons adopter d'apres les profondes connoissances 
et la perspicacite qui distinguerent si eminemment ce conchylio- 
logue francois. 1 ' In the Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles the 
statement of Bruguiere is noticed ; but M. Blainville observes, that 
he was not fortunate enough to find the shell.- I have examined the 
Hunterian Collection in London, with the assistance of Mr. Clift 
and Mr. Owen, with no better success. It may, perhaps, have been 
in the cabinet of Dr. William Hunter, now at Glasgow ; but on 
consulting Captain Laskey's * General Account of the Hunterian 
Museum' there, I find no mention of the shell. Be this as it may, 
I am now enabled to lay before the Zoological Society five recent 
species of Typhis ; having been led to the inquiry by finding two 
species in Mr. Cuming's collection, and having been supplied with 
one from this Society's Museum, and with two by the liberality of 
Mr. James Sowerby and Mr. George Sowerby.— W. J. B. 

Typhis Cumingii. Typhis testd subpyriformi, subventricosd, qua- 
drifariam varicosd, spinosd y varicibus spiram versus in spinam 
cavam desinentibus, longitudinaliter substriatd ; aperturd in- 
tegrd, ovatd ; labri Umbo exlerno subspinoso ; canali longissimd f 
graciUimd, subrecurvd; long, hfci lat. T 5 T poll. 

Mus. Cuming. 

Hab. ad Caraccas. 



178 

A single specimen was found by Mr. Cuming in sandy mud at 
the depth of seven fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Typhis coronatus. Typhis testd pyriformi, albidd, subventri- 
cosd, quinquefariam varicosd, varicibus magnis, rotundatis, in 
spinam subtilem subincurvam spirant versus desinentibus, trans- 
versim substriatd, striis subremotis ; canali elongatd: long. 1, 
lat. \poll. 
Hab. ad Colombiam Occidentalem. (Salango.) 
Mus. Cuming. 

The short, sharp, incurved spine which forms the termination of 
each varix overhangs that part of the spire which is immediately 
opposite to it. The suture of the spire between each varix is deeply 
excavated into a succession of little pits or wells. Found by Mr. 
Cuming in sandy mud at the depth of six fathoms. — W. J. B. 
Tjtphis Belcheri. Typhis testd subovatd, albidd, ventricosd, 
transversim substriatd, tubulis recurvis, quinquefariam vanicosdy 
varicibus laminatis sublaciniatis in Jrondem crispam spiram ver- 
sus desinentibus ; canali elongatd, subrecurvd, gracili ; long, 1 9 T > 
lat. \poll. 
Hab. ad Africam Occidentalem. (Cape Blanco.) 
Mus. Zool. Soc. 

Found by Captain Belcher, R N., whose name this species, which 
approaches nearly to Typhis frondosus (J. Sowerby), bears. Typhis 
frondosus is a Grignon fossil. — W. J. B. 

Typhis Sowerbii. Typhis testd subovatd, albidd, quadri- vel 
quinque-fariam varicosd, varicibus laminatis subfrondentibus ; 
tubulis subrectis; canali brevi, subrecurvd, gracili : long. £, lat. -^ 
poll. 
Hab. in Mari Mediterraneo. 
Mus. Jac. Sowerby, Georg. Sowerby. 

Named after Mr. James Sowerby, who kindly placed at my dis- 
posal his fine collection of fossil species, and who also furnished 
me with the most perfect individual which I have seen of Typhis 
Sowerbii.—W. J. B. 

Typhis pinnatus. Typhis testd albd,Jusifurmi,trifariampin- 
natd y transversim striata, striis Jrequentibus, inter stitiis punctatis ; 
labri limbo crenulato : long, f , lat. -| poll. 
Hab. 

Mus. Jac. Sowerby. 

Obs. The sides of the canal in the specimen are broken, but the 
canal does not appear to have been entire close to the aperture, 
though the sides of it approximate there very nearly. — W. J. B. 

The fossil analogues of this genus have been hitherto found in the 
London clay, calcaire grossier, and subapennine beds. — W. J. B. 

Genus Ranella. 

Ranella ventricosa. Ran. testd ovato-acutd ventricosissimd, tu- 
berculatd, transversim striatd, subgranosd, albidd, fasciis angustis 
castaneis ; aperturd albd, crenatd: long. 3 1, lat. 1\ poll. 

Hab. ad Peruviana. (Bay of Callao.) 



179 

Obs. Tubercula seriatim disposita, elevata, magna, subacuta, ut 
plurimum serie unica in quoque anfractu, ultimo excepto. 

Found in sandy mud from seven to ten fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Ranella nitida. Ran. testa subrhomboided, valde depressd, trans- 
versim tuberculato-striatd, (tuberculis subacutis), nigro-purpuredj 
inter dum albo fasciatd, varicibus latis, pinnatis, laciniatis, albis ; 
columella Icev'i ; labri limbo intics denticulato ; canali subelongatd: 
long, 1, lat. %poll. 

Hab. ad Columbiam Occidentalem. (Bay of Caraccas.) 

Found under stones in the bay. — W. J. B. 

Ranella mukiciformis. Ran. testa subpyriformi, fused, fultd 
vel sordide albd, transversim striatd (striis subremotis), varicibus 
pinnatis, latiusculis, albidis, interstitialiter tuberculatd vel sub- 
foliatd; columella lavi ; labri limbo intics denticulato; canali 
elongatd, subrecurvd: long. 1-J-, lat. £ poll. 

Hab. ad Columbiam Occidentalem. (Bay of Montija.) 

This species, which approaches very closely to Murex, was found in 
loose gravel at the depth of seven fathoms. — W. J. B. 

Ranella affinis. Ran. iestd pyramidally depressd, ponderosd, 
striis transversis frequentibus tuberculato-granosis, albido-rubente 
maculis fasciisque castaneis ; columelld valde rugosd; labri ere- 
nulati, subfimbriati limbo intus dentato : long. 2-J-, lat. \% poll. 
Hab. in Oceano Pacifico. (Annaa.) 

This differs from Ran. granifera of Lamarck in having a much 
more ponderous shell, with its varices much thicker and wider in pro- 
portion, and the border of the outer lip much wider. It is also much 
more depressed and broader in proportion to its length. 
Found on the reef. — W. J. B. 

Ranella c^elata. Ran. testa pyramidali, subponderosd, caslaned, 

costis striisque transversis granoso-momliformibus, nigricantibus ; 

aperturd rugoso-granosd, fulvd, dentibus rugisque albidis ; labri 

limbo fimbriato, lato,fusco, albo radiato; long. 1£, lat. \\poll. 

Hab. ad Panamam. 

This handsome species reminds the observer of some of the antique 
carved ornaments in oak and chestnut. The apex of the spire is ge- 
nerally eroded. 

Found under stones. — W. J. B. 

Ranella tuberculata. Ran. testa pyramidali, seriatim tubercu- 
latd, transversim striatd y subfulvd albo fasciatd, tuberculis sub- 
cequalibus nigricantibus; aperturd albidd ; columelld subrugcrd ; 
labri limbo intus dentato, dentibus subremotis : long. 1-$, Id. 1 
poll. 

Hab. in Oceano Pacifico. (Taheite.) 

Only one individual of this pretty species was found, and that was 
on the reef.— W. J. B. 

Mr. Owen exhibited a preparation of the mammary gland of 
Echidna Hystrix, Cuv. j and read the following Notes : — 

" It is well known that the idea of constituting a new class for the 



180 

reception of the Monotr etna tons Quadrupeds of New Holland, and of 
separating them altogether from the Mammalia, arose chiefly from 
the supposition of the total absence of a mammary apparatus in them. 
This circumstance was at the same time regarded as a st